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新闻传播学论文-China’s Journalism Education- A Localization Perspective.doc新闻传播学论文-China’s Journalism Education- A Localization Perspective.doc -- 2 元

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新闻传播学论文ChinasJournalismEducationALocalizationPerspectiveAbstractDespitealonghistoryofjournalism,Chinastarteditsmodernuniversityeducationinjournalismonlyinthe1920sandundertheheavyinfluenceofAmericanjournalismeducationsystem.However,inthe70oddyearsofdevelopmentsincethen,Chinahasalwaysseenitsjournalismeducationmodifiedandadaptedtothedifferentneedsinitsdifferentdevelopmentperiods,aconsistentprocessoflocalizationinitscurriculumandteachingmethodsaswellasitstargets.Thepaperwillfirstdiscusstheprocessoflocalizationinthe50yearsdevelopmentofjournalismeducationinChinaintermsofeducationalpurposesandchangesofcurriculum.BasedontheasurveyofthefivejournalismprogramsinShanghai,thepaperwillthenturntodiscussionofthediversityanddevelopmentofthejournalismeducationinShanghaiasshowcase,particularlysincethe1980swhenChinawitnesseddramaticsocialchangesandrapideconomicgrowth.ThepaperwillalsoexploretheproblemsofthejournalismeducationinChinaduringitsprocessoflocalizationsincethe1980s.1.IntroductionChinasjournalismhistorycouldbetracedbacktoDiBao,akindofnewsbulletinintheimperialcourtoftheTangDynasty618907FangZhang,1998,p.11.However,thejournalismeducationinthemodernsensedidnotstartinChinasuniversitiesuntilthe1920swhenAmericanjournalismeducationexertedadirectandgreatinfluenceontheformativestageoftheChinesejournalism.Infact,theoveralljournalismeducationalsysteminChinawasmodeledaftertheAmericansystemDing,1997,p70,.However,inthe50oddyearsofdevelopmentsincethen,ChinahasalwaysseenitsjournalismeducationmodifiedandadaptedtothedifferentneedsinthedifferentdevelopmentperiodsinthemodernhistoryofChina,aconsistentprocessoflocalizationinitscurriculumandteachingmethodsaswellasitstargets.TheprocessoflocalizationforthejournalismeducationinChinaobviouslyspedupintheearly1980swhenChinasreformandopenpolicystimulatedgreatsocialchangesandrapideconomicgrowth,aperiodinwhichthejournalismeducationinChinaexpandedgreatlyandbecamemorevariedanddiversifiedthaneverinhistory,tomeettheincreasingdemandsofmedia.Thenumberofjournalismprogramsincreasedalmostfivetimessincetheearly1980sandstudentenrollmentofjournalismprogramsrosebyanaverage25percenteachyearforallthejournalismprogramsGuo,1996,p.80,.Inthispaper,thewriterwillfirstdiscusstheprocessoflocalizationinthe50oddyearsdevelopmentofjournalismeducationinChinaintermsofitseducationalpurposesandchangesofcurricula.BasedonasurveyofthefivejournalismprogramsinShanghai,thewriterwillthendiscussthevariationsanddiversityofthejournalismeducationinShanghai,particularlysincethe1980swhenChinawitnesseddramaticsocialchanges,earmarkedbytheeconomicgrowthaswellashowthefivejournalismprogramshavesuitedtheneedsofthesocietyasawholeintheperiod.Finally,thewriterwillalsoexploretheproblemsofthejournalismeducationinChinaduringitsprocessoflocalizationsincethe1980s.2.TheConceptofLocalizationChinesenizedIntodaysChina,theconceptoflocalizationisveryoftenbeingappliedtoresearchonmasscommunicationinChina,aprocessofhowtheresearchofmasscommunications,originatedfromtheWest,cancoherentlybeintegratedwithlocalcharacteristicsinChina,acountrywithfivethousandyearsofhistoryandrichculturalandphilosophicalheritagesandalsoonewhichwaslaggedbehindinthemoderntimesandneedstorevitalizeitsbrilliantpastbylearningfromtheWest,ratherthansimplymodelingaftertheWestShao,1998Toadegree,theconceptoflocalizationreferstotheChinesenizedprocessofhowsomethingforeignorimportedisabsorbedintotheChinesecultureandsociety,andtothebestofChina,ratherthanasimplemodelingprocessoftheWest.AsthejournalismeducationinChinastartedwithheavyinfluencefromtheAmericanjournalismeducationsystem,theprocessoflocalizationforthejournalismeducationinChinarefersto,inthispaper,atheprocessofhowtheAmericanmodelofjournalismeducationorlatertheSovietmodelHaoXu,1997,p.37isbesttailoredtotheChinesepracticesandsociety,regardlessofthefactthatitisgoodornotsogood.3.FiveStagesofJournalismEducationinChinaProfessorDINGGanlin,afamousjournalismhistoryexpertfromFudanUniversity,hascategorizedthe70oddyearsofjournalismeducationdevelopmentChinaintofivestagesFirstStage1920sto1940s,SecondStage1950s,ThirdStageearlyandmiddle1960s,FourthStagetenyearsduringtheCulturalRevolutionandFifthStagesince1978topresentDing,1997,pp.7071.ThewriterholdsthattheprocessoflocalizationexistedinalmostallthefivestagesofthejournalismeducationinChina.AlthoughthejournalismeducationwasinitiatedwithheavyinfluencefromtheAmericansystem,thereisnodoubtthatthejournalismprogramshadalwaysbeendesignedtomeetthepracticalneedsoftheChinesesociety,tobeexact,themediadevelopment.Afterlistingthefivestages,ProfessorDINGconcludedthatexceptforthechaotictenyearCulturalRevolutionstage,eachstagehadclearandeffectivetargetsandcurriculumsystemsforitsjournalismeducation,whichbasicallymetthesocialneedsintherelevantstageofsocialdevelopmentandthatthejournalismgraduateshadprovedthemselvestobequalifiedenoughineachstageDing,1997,p.71.Duringthefirststage,ChinasfirstregularjournalismdepartmentwasestablishedatSt.JohnsUniversity,amissionaryschoolinShanghai.ThisisfollowedbyjournalismdepartmentsandprogramsinYenchingUniversityin1924andFudanUniversityin1929,andseveralothersinthe1930sand1940sHaoXu,1997/Zhou,1992.AlltheseearlyjournalismdepartmentsandprogramsborrowedfromtheAmericaneducationalsystem.Forinstance,theJournalismDepartmentatFudanUniversitywasbasedonthesystemoftheJournalismCollegeofMissouriUniversity,withafouryearprogramwhichhad34journalisticcoursesandrequiredatotalof89credits.Asisknown,thisisthewarringperiodinthehistoryofChina,inwhichnewspapersweresetupbydifferentpoliticalsectorsofthesocietyandneededalotofjournalistsandmanagementstaff.Asaresult,thetargetofajournalismprogramwassetastrainingoftheeditingandmanagingpersonnelforChinesenewspapers.TotailortheprogramstotheChinesesocietyinthiswarringperiodwhen,courseslikeMilitaryEducation,Geography,NewspaperOrganizationandManagementandChineseLanguagewereaddedtotheprogramasselectivecoursesDing,P.70,1997.Meanwhile,theCommunistsunderMaoZedongalsostartedtrainingtheircadresforjournalisticpurposesintheirareasundercontrolHaoXu,1997.AndthefocusofthiskindofjournalistictrainingwasonpoliticalcoursesandcoursesthatdealtwithcurrentaffairsandpoliciesDing,1997,p.70,.ThiswasofspecialimportancetoaperiodwhentheCommunistPartyfoughtwiththeJapaneseandlaterontheNationalistParty.ThesecondstagesawtheestablishmentofthePeoplesRepublicofChinaandalsothebeginningofatenserelationshipbetweenChinaandtheUnitedStatesandawarmupbetweenChinaandtheSovietUnion.ThetargetofthejournalismeducationinChinawasmodifiedtotrainingofnewswritingpersonnelwithsolidpoliticalfoundationandpotential.Thisreflectedthesinglepurposeofthemediaatthetime,whichwassooncoupledwithastrongsenseofpoliticalorientationDing,1997,p.70Asaresult,thejournalismprogramsinChinaweresoonreorganized,withMarxistLeninisttheoriesaddedtothecurriculumandtheSovietmodelreplacedtheAmericanmodelinthecurriculumdesignandteachingmethods,whichemphasizedservicetotheworkingclassandbasicpoliticalknowledgeandtheoreticalpoliticallearningHaoXu,1997.ThecourseslikebusinessmanagementandadvertisingwerereplacedbythecourseslikeNewspapersMassWork.Journalismstudentsweretoldthatjournalism,inLeninswords,shouldconsciouslytreatitselfaspartoftheparty,consciouslyobeythepartyandidentifywiththePartyspoliticalstandHaoXu,1997,p3.ItshouldbenotedthatthereasonwhythesocalledSovietModelbecamepopularinthisstageofChinaisbecauseitwasmorerelevantoreasiertobelocalizedtotheChinesesocietyatthethattimeduetothesimilaritiesinideologyandpoliticalsystem.InthethirdstageafterChinabrokeupwiththeSovietUnion,Chinabecamemorerealisticandselfdependent.Thetargetofthejournalismeducationwasshiftedonthethetrainingofjournalisticteachingandresearchpersonnel.Thecurriculumofjournalismeducationfavoredthecoursesontheoriesandculturesandhistoryknowledge,whichdeviatedfromtheSovietModelandsuitedtheChinesebetterDing,1997..However,thisdidnotlastverylong.Thenormaljournalismeducationwassooninterruptedinthemid1960stheforthstagewhenthechaotictenyearCulturalRevolutionstarted.Allthestudentsandteacherswererequiredtogotothecountryside.Althoughnewstudentswhohadbeenworkers,farmersorsoldierswerestillenrolled,theynolongerunderwentthenormaljournalismeducationbutwereevaluatedwiththeirpoliticalattituderatherthanacademicperformancesDing,1997,/HaoXu,1997.Inthesetwostages,thejournalismeducationinChinaexperiencedgreatupsanddownsandwassurelycharacterizedbythechaoticperiodoftimeinChina.FormostChinese,theymayfeelabitawkwardtoregarditasakindoflocalizationprocess,butitissurelytruethatjournalismeducationatthistimewasmodifiedandadaptedtosuchawaythatitsatisfiedthepoliticalneedsofthisspecialperiodinthehistoryofChina,forbetterorforworse.Inthefifthstage,thereformandopenpolicystartedintheearly1980broughtaboutthedramaticsocialchangesandrapideconomicgrowth,unprecedentedinthehistoryofChina.Thechangesalsostimulatedthemediadevelopment,particularlyTVindustry.ThenumberofTVstationsin1986wasalmostsixtimesthatin1983.Meanwhile,theriseofTVsetownershipper100householdsfrom1983to1986alsotriggeredtheexpansionoftheTVaudiencesizeGuo,1996,p.81.Besides,therelativecompetitiveoperationsofthemediaalsoledtotheincreaseofpagesofnewspapersandlivelinessofreportingstyle.Inthepast20years,almosteverynewspaperinChinahastripledtheirnumberofpages,whichdoubledtheiramountofnewsreportsGuo,1996,p.81.Inanefforttoattractmoreadvertisers,mediainChinaalsoemployedmorelivelyreportingstylessuchasphoneinhotlines,talkshows,fieldreporting,criticismreportsnegative,largerpicturesandseparatedpagesforfinance,sportsandentertainment.Therapidmediadevelopmentshavelefttheindustryingreatdemandofmoreprofessionalandqualifiedjournalistsandeditors,whoaresupposedtocomefromthetraditionaljournalismeducation.Besides,themediasemphasisonexternalreporting,radioandTV,management,advertisingandpublicrelationsnotonlyresultedinagreaterdemandoftraditionalreportersandeditorsbutalsorequiredamorediversifiedandspecialtrainingfromtheirnewrecruitmentDing,1997,p.71.Inthisstage,theprocessoflocalizationhasbeenintensifiedtoanunprecedentedlevel,inthatjournalismeducationinChinahasbeentailoredtomeetthegrowingdemandofthemediaindustryinthecountryandinapracticalway.Thejournalismprogramsincreasedfromtheoriginal14programsin1982to57in1996andthestudentenrollmentalsogrewfrom726in1980GreenbergLau,1989to6,186in1997HaoXu,1997,p40,.Despitetheexpansionofjournalismprogramsandincreaseofjournalismstudentenrollment,journalismeducationinChinahasalsobecomemorediversifiedormorelocalizedinitsownsequences.Inanefforttocarryouteffectivecommunicationtotheoutsideworld,Chinastarteditsinternationaljournalismeducationinfiveuniversitiesin1983,thatbasicallyintegratesjournalistictrainingwithEnglishlearningandaimstotrainforChinesemediareportersandeditorswhoarequalifiedenough
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