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语言文化论文-Cultural Background Knowledge and English Teaching.doc语言文化论文-Cultural Background Knowledge and English Teaching.doc -- 2 元

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语言文化论文CulturalBackgroundKnowledgeandEnglishTeachingOutlineI.ProblemsarousedbydifferentculturalbackgroundsA.SomedifficultiesincommunicationcausedbydifferentculturalbackgroundsB.BriefillustrationofrelationshipbetweenlanguageandcultureC.ProblemsinEnglishteachingandteachingmaterialcausedbyneglectofculturalbackgroundknowledgeII.ImportanceofculturalbackgroundknowledgeinlanguageteachingA.NecessityofculturalbackgroundknowledgeinauralcomprehensionB.NecessityofculturalbackgroundknowledgeinoralEnglishC.Necessityofculturalbackgroundknowledgeinreading1.FromtherespectofallusionsasillustrationaOldallusionsfromhistory,religionandliteraturebNewallusions2.FromtherespectofidiomsasillustrationD.Necessityofculturalbackgroundknowledgeinwritingandtranslation1.Intranslation2.InwritingaDifferencesinChineseandEnglishwritingstylesbNecessityofknowingthesedifferencesIII.HowtocarryouttheteachingofculturalbackgroundknowledgeA.SelectingproperteachingmaterialB.EncouragingwidereadingC.PayingattentiontoproperwordingintheclassroomD.UsingnativeEnglishvideotapesandfilmsE.EncouragingcommunicationwithnativespeakersofEnglishF.HoldinglecturesaboutcultureIV.ConclusionItisnecessaryforteacherstopassonculturalbackgroundknowledgetostudents.OnceanAmericanwasvisitingthehomeofaChinese.Asthevisitorsawthehostswife,hesaid,Yourwifeisverybeautiful.ThehostsmiledandsaidWhereWherewhichcausedtheAmericanssurprise,butstillheansweredEyes,hair,noseananswerthatthehostfoundabitpuzzling.Thesurprisingwascausedbydifferentcultures.WhereWheremeaning哪里哪里inChineseisakindofhumblesaying.ButtheAmericanunderstooditasWhichpartsofthebodyarebeautifulSo,thereasonforbothsidesmisunderstandingswasdifferencesincustomsandhabits.Eachwasexpressingandunderstandingwhattheothersaidaccordingtohisorherculture.Eventslikethesearefairlycommonwhenpeopleofdifferentlanguagesandculturescommunicate.Becauseofculturaldifferences,misunderstandingsmayarise,althoughthelanguageusedincommunicationmaybefaultless.Thesamewordsorexpressionsmaynotmeanthesamethingtodifferentpeoples.Becauseofculturaldifferences,aseriousquestionmaycauseamusementorlaughteraharmlessstatementmaycausedispleasureoranger.Becauseofculturaldifferences,jokesbyaforeignspeakermaybereceivedwithblankfacesandstonysilence.Yetthesamestoriesinthespeakersowncountrywouldleaveaudiencesholdingtheirsideswithlaughter.Languageisapartofcultureandplaysaveryimportantroleinit.Ontheonehand,withoutlanguage,culturewouldnotbepossible.Ontheotherhand,languageisinfluencedandshapedbycultureitreflectsculture.Inthebroadestsense,languageisthesymbolicrepresentationofapeople,anditcomprisestheirhistoricalandculturalbackgroundsaswellastheirapproachtolifeandtheirwaysoflivingandthinking.Languageandcultureinteractandunderstandingofonerequiresunderstandingoftheother.Culturesdifferfromoneanother.Eachcultureisunique.Learningaforeignlanguagewellmeansmorethanmerelymasteringthepronunciation,grammar,wordsandidioms.Itmeanslearningalsotoseetheworldasnativespeakersofthatlanguageseeit,learningthewaysinwhichtheirlanguagereflectstheideas,customs,andbehavioroftheirsociety,learningtounderstandtheirlanguageofthemind.Learningalanguage,infact,isinseparablefromlearningitsculture.However,ithasbeengivennotenoughcaretoinourteachingforalongtime.Althoughmanystudentshaveacquiredfourskillslistening,speaking,readingandwritingaccordingtothedemandofourtraditionalsyllabus,theyoftenmakemistakesinapplicationoflanguagetoreallife,becauseourteachingandteachingmaterialsattachimportancetolanguageformsbutignorethesocialmeaningsoflanguageformsandlanguageapplicationinreality.Wecanseethefollowingdialoguesinmanytextbooks1.AWhatsyournameBMynameisLiHong.AHowoldareyouBImtwenty.AWheredoyoucomefromBIcomefromNanjing.2.AWhereareyougoingBImgoingtothelibrary.3.AAreyouwritingalettertoyourparentsBYes,Iam.AHowoftendoyouwritetoyourparentsBAboutonceaweek.AlltheabovedialoguesareroughlythecombinationofChinesethinkingandEnglishform.Althoughsuchformsarecorrect,theyarenotappropriate.Exceptforhospitals,immigrationofficesandsuchplaces,itsunimaginableforsomeonetoaskastringofquestionslikeWhatsyournameHowoldareyouWheredoyoucomefromThenaturalreactionofEnglishspeakingpeopletothegreetingslikeWhereareyougoingwouldmostlylikelybeWhydoyouaskorItsnoneofyourbusiness.QuestionslikeAreyouwritingtoyourparentswouldbethoughtointrudeononesprivacy.Ourteachingmaterialseldompaysattentiontodifferencesbetweencultures,soourstudentsareusuallyignorantofthefactorofcultureandtheycanonlymechanicallycopywhattheyhavelearned.Soinlanguageteaching,weshouldnotonlypassonknowledgeoflanguageandtrainlearnerscompetenceofutilizinglanguage,butalsoenhanceteachingofrelativeculturalbackgroundknowledge.Inteachingofauralcomprehension,wefindmanystudentscomplainthatmuchtimehasbeenusedinlistening,butlittleachievementhasbeenacquired.Inordertoimprovecompetenceoflisteningcomprehension,somestudentsspeciallybuytaperecordersforlisteningandspendquiteafewhourseverydayonit,butoncetheymeetnewmaterials,still,theyfailtounderstand.WhatisthereasonOntheonehand,maybesomestudentsEnglishisverypoorandtheyhaventgraspedenoughvocabularies,cleargrammarorcorrectpronunciation,ormaybethematerialisratherdifficult,etc.Ontheotherhand,animportantreasonisthattheyareunfamiliarwithculturalbackgroundoftheUSAandEngland.Auralcomprehension,whichiscloselyrelatedtotheknowledgeofAmericanandBritishculture,politicsandeconomy,infact,isanexaminationofonescomprehensivecompetencewhichincludesonesEnglishlevel,rangeofknowledge,competenceofanalysisandimaginativepower.Maybewehavethisexperiencewhenwearelisteningtosomethingfamiliartous,nomatterwhatisconcerned,usuallyweareeasytounderstand.Eveniftherearesomenewwordsinthematerial,weareabletoguesstheirmeaningsaccordingtoitscontext.However,whenweencountersomeunfamiliarmaterialorsomethingcloselyrelatedtoculturalbackground,wemayfeelratherdifficult.Evenifthematerialiseasy,weonlyknowtheliteralmeaning,butcantunderstandtheconnotation,becausewelackknowledgeofculturalbackground.HereisasentencefromareportThepathtoNovemberisuphillalltheway.Novemberliterallymeanstheeleventhmonthofyear.ButherereferstothePresidentialelectiontobeheldinNovember.Anotherexampleisred–letterdayswhichisasimplephraseandiseasytohear,meaningholidayssuchasChristmasandotherspecialdays.Butstudentsareoftenunabletounderstandthemwithoutteachersexplanation.BelowaretwojokesoftentalkedaboutbyAmericans1.AWhereareyoufromBIllaskher.AlaskaAWhydoyouaskher2.AWhereareyoufromBHowareyou.HawaiiAmaythinkBhasgivenanirrelevantanswer.ButifAknewsomethingaboutgeographicalknowledgeoftheUSA,andthenamesoftwostatesoftheUSAAlaskaandHawaii,hewouldnotregardAlaskaasIllaskher,orHawaiiasHowareyou.Inviewofthis,theintroductionofculturalbackgroundisnecessaryintheteachingofEnglishlistening.Likewise,speakingisnotmerelyconcernedwithpronunciationandintonation.StudentscanonlyimprovetheiroralEnglishandreachtheaimofcommunicationbymeansofenormousreading,masteringrichlanguagematerialandacquaintanceofwesternculture.Therefore,inoraltraining,teachersshouldlaystressonfactualityoflanguageandadoptsomematerialapproachingtodailylife,suchasdailydialogueswithtape,magazines,newspapersandreportetc.,becausethematerialisfromreallife,andithelpsstudentstobewellacquaintedwithstandardpronunciationandintonation,tospeakEnglishappropriatetotheoccasion,tounderstandwesternwayoflifeandcustomsetc.Otherwise,misunderstandinganddispleasureareinevitablyaroused.Letslookatsomeexamples.ManyfixedEnglishwaysofexpressioncannotbechangedrandomly.Forexample,theanswertoHowdoyoudoisHowdoyoudoWhenaskingprice,peopleusuallysay,Howmuch,pleaseinsteadofHowmuchdoyouchargemeOrHowmuchdoIoweyouWhenpayingbill,Waiter,billplease.InsteadofExcuseme,sir.Werefinishedeating.Howmuchisit,pleaseWhenaskingtheotheronesnameonthetelephone,Whosspeaking,pleaseorWhoisit,pleaseinsteadofWhoareyouWhereareyouWhatsyoursurnameorWhatisyourunitInEnglish,therearesomanyeuphemismsthatsometimesitshardtoknowtheotheronesactualmood.Soweshouldpayattentiontoouranswer.Forexample,whenoneaskHowdoyoulikethefilmandtheotheranswerIthinkitsveryinteresting,itshowshedoesntlikeitverymuchinsteadoftheliteralmeaningveryinteresting.WhenoneasksWhatdoyouthinkofmynewcoatandtheotheranswersIthinkthepocketisverynice,italsoshowshisdislike.InAmericaandEngland,usuallypeopledontsayunpleasantwordstoonesface,theyalwayssaypleasantwordstothefullorevadedirectanswering,sayingIdontknow.Forexample,whenoneasks,Doyoulikeourteacher,youmayanswerWell,Idontknowhimverywell.Sometimesoutofhispoliteness,whenmeetingunfamiliarpeople,hemayconcealhistruefeelings.Forexample,AaskedBHowareyouAlthoughBhadgotabadcold,hisanswerwasFine,thankyou,butnotNotverywell,I
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