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语言文化论文-反语的幽默属性和语用功能.doc语言文化论文-反语的幽默属性和语用功能.doc -- 2 元

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语言文化论文反语的幽默属性和语用功能AbstractVerbalirony,asawidelyusedfigureofspeech,hasreceivedconsiderableattentionfromcognitivepsychologistsandlinguists.Thetraditionalstudyofverbalironyfromrhetoricalandaestheticalapproacheshasbeenshiftedtocurrentcognitiveandpragmaticinvestigation.Inthispaper,focuswillbelaiduponthehumorfeatureofverbalironyfromtheperspectiveofpragmatics.First,throughthecomparisonofdifferentkindsofdefinitionsofirony,ageneralideaaboutwhatisironyisestablished.Then,thispaperexaminestheCooperativePrincipleCPforshortofAmericanlinguistGricewhichputforwardsthatironyactsasaviolationofCP.Lastbutnottheleast,withthehelpofthecomparisonofthepragmaticfunctionsofEnglishironyandChineseirony,thehumorfeatureofverbalironycanbewelldisplayed.InEnglish,ironycouldbeusedtostateonesnegativeattitudetosomething.Itcouldbeusedasameanstosatirize,anapproachtopoliteness,anapproachtohumor.Chineseironycanbeclassifiedintofivetypesfromtheperspectiveofpragmaticfunctionsasfollowsironyforcommendationandderogation,ironyforsatire,ironyforfun,ironyforaffectionandironyforemphasis.Thepragmaticfunctionsofironyinbothlanguagesaresimilar.KeyWordsverbalironypragmaticfunctionhumorEnglishandChineseironies【摘要】反语作为一种普遍使用的修辞格,引起了认知心理学家和语言学家的关注。反语研究的角度从传统的修辞学和美学转向了认知心理学和语用学的探究。本文首先从定义和分类上,对反语进行认知层面上的归纳总结。其次,基于语用学角度分析了反语与合作原则和礼貌原则的联系。反语违反合作原则主要体现在对质量准则的违反上。反语作为一种间接言语,成为礼貌的一种手段。反语原则独立于礼貌原则之外,是对礼貌原则的一大补充。此外,反语是言语幽默的一种表现形式。英汉反语的语用功能大致相似,但也存在不少差异。文中对此异同进行归纳总结,从而得知,反语的幽默属性是其基本属性,在其语用功能中也得到了很好的体现。【关键词】反语语用功能幽默英汉反语1.IntroductionIronyisacommonlinguisticphenomenoninverbalcommunication.Recentyearshaveseenamushroomgrowthofdistinctlyangledtheorizationsinthisorientation,whichneverthelessexhibitstrongcomplementarity.Traditionally,ironyistreatedasafigureofspeechwhoseintendedmeaningistheoppositeofthatexpressedbythewordsuttered.Thestudyofironyinthiswaybelongstothatofrhetoric.AmericanlinguistGricetakesironyasoneofthosefiguresofspeechthatfloutstheCooperativePrincipleCPforshort,especiallytheMaximofQuality.Ironyinterpretedunderthispragmaticmodelconveysthecontradictionofwhatisliterallysaid.LinguistsSperberandWilsontreatironyasanechoicmentionwhilelinguistCuddonstatesthatAtitssimplest,verbalironyinvolvessayingwhatonedoesntmean.1Inthispaper,focuswillbelaiduponthehumorfeatureofverbalironyfromtheperspectiveofpragmatics.First,throughthecomparisonofdifferentkindsofdefinitionsofirony,ageneralideaaboutwhatisironyisestablished.Secondly,thispaperexaminesGriceanCooperativePrinciplewhichputforwardsthatironyactsasaviolationofCP.Thirdly,withthehelpofLeechsideaofirony,thepragmaticfunctionofironycouldbebetterdisplayed.Finally,thelastpointisaboutthepragmaticfunctionsofbothEnglishironyandChineseirony.Inaword,ironyisonewaytoproducehumorinverbalcommunication.2.WhatisironyItisdifficulttodefinethewordofironywhichcouldbeunderstoodinvariousways.Theexpansionofitsresearchareamaybethedirectcauseofthediversityofthedefinitionofirony.Thefollowingaresomedefinitionsofironyfromdictionaries.2.1Dictionarydefinitionsofirony1Expressionofonesmeaningbysayingthedirectoppositeofonesthoughtsinordertobeemphatic,amusing,sarcastic,etc.2OxfordAdvancedLearnersEnglishChineseDictionary2Useofwordswhichareclearlyoppositetoonesmeaning,usuallyeitherinordertobeamusingortoshowannoyancee.g.bysayingWhatcharmingbehaviourwhensomeonehasbeenrude.3LongmanDictionaryofEnglishLanguageCultureEnglishChinese3Ironyisaliterarytechniquethatachievestheeffectofsayingonethingandmeaninganotherthroughtheuseofhumorormildsarcasm.4WebstersNewWorldEncyclopedia4Theuseofwordstoexpresssomethingotherthanandespeciallytheoppositeoftheliteralmeaning.5WebsterEnglishDictionary5Ironyisafigureofspeechthatachievesemphasisbysayingtheoppositeofwhatismeant,theintendedmeaningofthewordsbeingtheoppositeoftheirusualsense.Thisformofironyiscalledverbalirony,anddiffersfromthestylisticdeviceofdramaticirony.6EnglishRhetoricalOptions6DefinitionofironyfromGrolierInternationalDictionarya.Anexpressionorutterancemarkedbysuchadeliberatecontrastbetweenapparentandintendedmeaning,forhumorousorrhetoricaleffect.b.Incongruitybetweenwhatmightbeexpectedandwhatoccurs.7Theabovedefinitions,althoughexplainedbydifferentexpertsfromdifferentangles,roughlydisplaythenatureofironyfromboththeformandfunction.Amongthesedefinitions,thebasicmeaningofironycouldbefoundassayingonethingbutmeaninganother.Thebestdescriptionofirony,say,theGrolierInternationalDictionary,takesboththeformandfunctionofironyintoconsiderationandgivesusabetterpicture.However,allofthesedefinitionshavesomeshortcomings.First,noneofthemprovidesaneffectivewaytoidentifyironyfromnonirony.Second,theybasicallyregardironyasatropeorafigureofspeechwhoseliteralandconnotativemeaningsaremutuallyopposedtoeachother.Thistraditionalunderstandinghasbeenunderchallengesbymodernresearch.2.2ClassificationofironyTheclassificationofironyispresentedindifferentwaysbythosewhoworkonit.Boothidentifiesquiteanumberoftypestragicirony,comicirony,stableirony,unstableirony,dramaticirony,situationalirony,verbalirony,rhetoricalironysoonandsoforth.KreuzandRobertsdistinguishfourtypesofironySocraticirony,dramaticirony,ironyoffateandverbalirony.8Ingeneral,ironyinvolvesacontradictionbetweenappearanceandreality.Ironyresultswherethereisadifferenceinpointofviewbetweenacharacterandthenarratororreader.Traditionally,therearefourmajortypesofironyverbal,dramatic,situationalandcomic.2.2.1VerbalironyVerbalironyreferstospokenwordsonly.Verbalironyoccurswhenacharactersaysonething,butsuggestsorintendstheopposite.Thecontrastisbetweenwhatthespeakersaysandwhatheactuallymeans.Forexample,inJuliusCaesar,MarkAntonyrepeatsthewordsandBrutusisanhonorablemaninthefamousFriends,Romans,Countrymenspeech.9MarkAntonysmeaning,however,isthatBrutusiscompletelydishonorablebecauseBrutus,Caesarsbestfriend,joinedtheotherconspiratorsandplungedaknifeintoCaesarschest.Inthispaper,thediscussionislaiduponthistypeofirony,verbalirony.2.2.2DramaticironyDramaticironyinvolvesmorethanjustspokenwords.Dramaticironyoccurswhenthemeaningintendedbyacharacterswordsoractionsisoppositeofthetruesituation.Thecontrastisbetweenwhatthecharactersays,thinks,ordoesandthetruesituation.Further,thecharactercannotseeorunderstandthecontrast,buttheaudienceorreadercan.Forexample,inOthello,dramaticironyoccurswhenOthelloreferstoIagoashonestIago.10UnknowntoOthello,IagoisavillainwhodeceiveshimintothinkingthatDesdemonaOthelloswifehasbeenunfaithful.Forthis,Othellounjustlykillshiswife,believingthewholetimeinIagoshonesty.ThedifferenceinexamplesforverbalanddramaticironyAntonycallsBrutushonorableandknowsheisnothonorable,whileOthellocallsIagohonestanddoesnotknowofIagosdeceit.2.2.3SituationalironySituationalironydefieslogicalcause/effectrelationshipsandjustifiableexpectations.Forexample,ifagreedymillionaireweretobuyalotteryticketandwinadditionalmillions,theironywouldbesituationalbecausesuchacircumstancecannotbeexplainedlogically.Suchacircumstanceseemsunfair.Thissenseofbeingunfairorunfortunateisatrademarkofsituationalirony.Becausepeoplecannotexplaintheunfairness,itcausesthemtoquestionwhetherornotthewordmakessense.2.2.4ComicironyorIronyoffateSomeironygoesbeyondbeingunfairandismorallytragic.SuchironyisoftensoseverethatitcausespeopletoquestionGodandseetheuniverseashostile.Forexample,ifanhonest,hardworking,andgenerouspersonbuysalotteryticketandwinstenmilliondollars,onlytodieinanautocrashtwodayslater,theironywouldreachtragicproportions.Whensituationalironyreachesthisscale,itisoftencalledcomicironyorironyoffate.Suchironytypicallysuggeststhatpeoplearepawnstomaliciousforces.3.IronyandtheCooperativePrinciple3.1TheCooperativePrincipleAmericanphilosopherH.P.Gricemadeanattempttoexplainthecourseofnaturalconversation,inwhichimpliedmessagesarefrequentlyinvolved.Hisideaisthatinmakingconversation,theparticipantsmustfirstofallbewillingtocooperateotherwise,itwouldnotbepossibleforthemtocarryonthetalk.ThisgeneralprincipleiscalledtheCooperativePrinciple,abbreviatedasCP.ItgoesasfollowsMakeyourconversationalcontributionsuchasrequiredatthestageatwhichitoccursbytheacceptedpurposeordirectionofthetalkexchangeinwhichyouareengaged.Theprinciplebreaksdownintoparticularmaximsthatsummarizeparticularassumptionsaboutconversation.DifferentpragamaticistsproposedifferentnumbersofthesemaximsbutasoriginallyproposedbyGrice,thePrinciplecontainedfoursetsofmaximsThemaximsofquantitya.Makeyourcontributionasinformativeasisrequiredforthecurrentpurposesoftheexchangeb.Donotmakeyourcontributionmoreinformativethanisrequired.ThemaximsofqualityTrytomakeyourcontributiononethatistruea.Donotsaywhatyoubelievetobefalse.b.Donotsaythatforwhichyoulackadequateevidence.ThemaximofrelationBerelevant.ThemaximsofmannerBeperspicuousa.Avoidobscurityofexpression.b.Avoidambiguity.c.Bebriefavoidunnecessaryprolixity.d.Beorderly.113.2IronyasviolationofCPGriceclassifiesironyasanexampleofimplicatureandshowshowonecanaccountforironyasacaseoffloutingtheCooperativePrinciplebyviolatingthemaximofquality.Examples1Thisdiligentstudentseldomreadsmorethananhourpermonth.12Theintendedmeaningofthespeakeristhisisalazystudent.However,heusesanoppositeoflazydiligent.Diligentishereusedtoproducesarcasm.2ASorry,Mary.Icannotgiveyoualiftafterwork.Ihavetomeetafriendattheairport.BThankyouverymuch.Itsverykindofyou.13Inthisconversation,BdoesnotreallypraiseA.HeusesItsverykindofyou.toshowhisdissatisfactioninfact.3AJohnsayshetopsusallatfootball.BIlikehischeek.14WhenBsaid,Ilikehischeek.,heinfringedthequalitymaximtotellalie.ItiseasilyinferredfromthecontextthatBusestheoppositewordliketomeanhistrulydislike.4RoseandDavidmetanelegantwomanonthestreet.Theyappreciatedherfineactionuntilshesuddenlyspittedphlegmtothefloor.UnderthissituationcomesthediscourseasfollowsRoseSheisreallylovely,isntsheDavidShesureis.15Rosetendedtouselovelytolaughattheelegantwomanspooractionhere.Theseinstancesareviolationsofthemaximoftruthbysayingsomethinghe/shedoesnotreallybelieve.Intheseironyacts,indirectnessseemslikeashieldwhichmasksagenuineintentconsideredriskybythespeakers.Theironicalutterancesnotonlyconveymessagesbutalsoconcealwhatthespeakersreallybearinmind.ThespeakersviolatetheCooperativePrincipleconsciouslytoexpresstheirrealmeaninginindirectway.Ironyhelpstomaketheutterancemuchmorehumor.4.IronyandthePolitenessPrinciple4.1ThePolitenessPrincipleLeechthinksthatGricesCooperativePrincipleinitselfcannotexplainwhypeopleemployindirectnesswhileconveyingwhattheymean.Inaddition,differentsocietiesmayoperatemaximsindifferentways.TheremustbesomeapparentexceptionsinactualcommunicationthatCooperativePrinciplecannotexplain.ThereforeLeechproposestosupplementGricesCooperativePrinciplewiththePolitenessPrinciplePPforshort.ThestrategiesaresummarizedbelowTacta.Minimizecosttoother.b.Maximizebenefittoother.Generositya.Minimizebenefittoself.b.Maximizecosttoself.Approbationa.Minimizedispraiseofother.b.Maximizepraiseofother.Modestya.Minimizepraiseofself.b.Maximizedispraiseofself.Agreementa.Minimizedisagreementbetweenselfandother.b.Maximizeagreementbetweenselfandother.Sympathya.Minimizeantipathybetweenselfandother.b.Maximizesympathybetweenselfandother.16Altogether,themaximsaresaidtosavetheCooperativePrinciple,theyexplainwhathappensinthecasewhenitisbreached.ExampleForrestIonlycaughtfive.BoatSalesmanAcouplemoreandyoucanhaveyourselfacocktail.17ThisisadialogueinthemovieForrestGump.AlthoughBubbatellsForresteverythingaboutshrimping,butForreststillfindsthatshrimpingistough.Oneday,heonlycatchesfiveafterawholedayhardworking.TheboatsalesmanjustmakesajoketoForrestinordertocheerhimup.Meanwhile,healsotellsForrestafactthatForrestcatchestoolittle.ItisaninstanceofpolitenessaccordingtothePolitenessPrinciple.4.2TheIronyPrincipleAccordingtoLeech,ironyisasecondorderprinciplethatbuildsonorexploitsthePolitenessPrinciple.TheIronyPrincipleIPforshortmaybestatedinageneralformasfollowsIfyoumustcauseoffence,atleastdosoinawaywhichdoesntovertlyconflictwiththePolitenessPrinciple,butallowsthehearertoarriveattheoffensivepointofyourremarkindirectly,bywayofimplicature.18IronycanhappenifthespeakerovervaluesthePolitenessPrinciplebyblatantlybreakingamaximoftheCooperativePrincipleinordertoupholdthePolitenessPrinciple.ForexampleAGeoffhasjustborrowedyourcar.BWell,IlikeTHAT19AccordingtotheIronyPrinciple,wecaninterpretthisironicalutterancethiswaywhatBsaysispolitetoGeoffandisclearlynottrue.ThereforewhatBreallymeansisimpolitetoGeoffandtrue.LeechbelievesthattheIPcanmakeaspeakerimpolitewhileseemingtobepolite.Inbeingpolite,aspeakerisoftenfacedwithaclashbetweentheCPandthePP.ThespeakerhastochoosehowfartotradeofftheCPagainstthePP.Inbeingironic,aspeakerexploitsthePPinordertouphold,ataremotelevel,theCP.TheIronyPrincipleservesthepurposeofavoidingdirectcriticismthroughbeingantisocial,beinginsincerelypolite.ThisprincipleexplainswhysomeoftheGriceanmaximsarebreached.205.Ironyandverbalhumor5.1VerbalHumorFromthesurfacemeaningofthephraseverbalhumor,wecaneasilygetitsmeaningverbalhumoristhehumorthatisorganizedthroughverbalform.Verbalhumoristhehumorthatiscreatedorexpressedthroughlanguagewiththeassistanceofsituationalcontextoccasionally.Verbalhumorcanbeproducedbykindsoffigureofspeech,say,personification,exaggeration,ironyandsoon.5.2VerbalironyasanapproachtoverbalhumorVerbalironyreferstospokenwordsonly.Itoccurswhenacharactersaysonething,butsuggestsorintendstheopposite.Itisanapproachtohumor.Asanexpressionofwisdom,ironyisfrequentlyusedbythegreatminds,say,writersorphilosophers.ExampleBernardShawsAnxietyTheexceedinglyfascinatingandcharmingAmericanwomandancerDuncanoncegotoffacrack(说俏皮话)toBernardShawSir,givenIamincombinationwith(与结合)you,andthatwehaveachildwhohasbothmylooksandyourwisdomandability.Itshouldbecrackerjack(杰出的).Thecommonplacelooking(相貌平平),IrishwriterBernardShawcrackedback(回嘴)Incasethechildonlyhasmylooksbutyourwisdomandability,thatwouldbecrackbrained(发疯的).21Inthisstory,BernardShawsAnxiety,whatBernardShawsaidisaccordingtothesentenceofthewomandancerDuncan.Sotheysharedtheunderstandingincommonandthehumorwasineffect.ExampleHatandHeadHansChristianAndersen,aDanishnurserytalewriter,wasborninahumblefamily.Heoftenworeatornhateveninthewinter.Aplayboylookeddownupon(看不起)himandsaidunconscionably(肆无忌惮)
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