语言文化论文-反语的幽默属性和语用功能.doc语言文化论文-反语的幽默属性和语用功能.doc

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语言文化论文反语的幽默属性和语用功能ABSTRACTVERBALIRONY,ASAWIDELYUSEDFIGUREOFSPEECH,HASRECEIVEDCONSIDERABLEATTENTIONFROMCOGNITIVEPSYCHOLOGISTSANDLINGUISTSTHETRADITIONALSTUDYOFVERBALIRONYFROMRHETORICALANDAESTHETICALAPPROACHESHASBEENSHIFTEDTOCURRENTCOGNITIVEANDPRAGMATICINVESTIGATIONINTHISPAPER,FOCUSWILLBELAIDUPONTHEHUMORFEATUREOFVERBALIRONYFROMTHEPERSPECTIVEOFPRAGMATICSFIRST,THROUGHTHECOMPARISONOFDIFFERENTKINDSOFDEFINITIONSOFIRONY,AGENERALIDEAABOUTWHATISIRONYISESTABLISHEDTHEN,THISPAPEREXAMINESTHECOOPERATIVEPRINCIPLECPFORSHORTOFAMERICANLINGUISTGRICEWHICHPUTFORWARDSTHATIRONYACTSASAVIOLATIONOFCPLASTBUTNOTTHELEAST,WITHTHEHELPOFTHECOMPARISONOFTHEPRAGMATICFUNCTIONSOFENGLISHIRONYANDCHINESEIRONY,THEHUMORFEATUREOFVERBALIRONYCANBEWELLDISPLAYEDINENGLISH,IRONYCOULDBEUSEDTOSTATEONE’SNEGATIVEATTITUDETOSOMETHINGITCOULDBEUSEDASAMEANSTOSATIRIZE,ANAPPROACHTOPOLITENESS,ANAPPROACHTOHUMORCHINESEIRONYCANBECLASSIFIEDINTOFIVETYPESFROMTHEPERSPECTIVEOFPRAGMATICFUNCTIONSASFOLLOWSIRONYFORCOMMENDATIONANDDEROGATION,IRONYFORSATIRE,IRONYFORFUN,IRONYFORAFFECTIONANDIRONYFOREMPHASISTHEPRAGMATICFUNCTIONSOFIRONYINBOTHLANGUAGESARESIMILARKEYWORDSVERBALIRONY;PRAGMATICFUNCTION;HUMOR;ENGLISHANDCHINESEIRONIES【摘要】反语作为一种普遍使用的修辞格,引起了认知心理学家和语言学家的关注。反语研究的角度从传统的修辞学和美学转向了认知心理学和语用学的探究。本文首先从定义和分类上,对反语进行认知层面上的归纳总结。其次,基于语用学角度分析了反语与合作原则和礼貌原则的联系。反语违反合作原则主要体现在对质量准则的违反上。反语作为一种间接言语,成为礼貌的一种手段。反语原则独立于礼貌原则之外,是对礼貌原则的一大补充。此外,反语是言语幽默的一种表现形式。英汉反语的语用功能大致相似,但也存在不少差异。文中对此异同进行归纳总结,从而得知,反语的幽默属性是其基本属性,在其语用功能中也得到了很好的体现。【关键词】反语;语用功能;幽默;英汉反语1INTRODUCTIONIRONYISACOMMONLINGUISTICPHENOMENONINVERBALCOMMUNICATIONRECENTYEARSHAVESEENAMUSHROOMGROWTHOFDISTINCTLYANGLEDTHEORIZATIONSINTHISORIENTATION,WHICHNEVERTHELESSEXHIBITSTRONGCOMPLEMENTARITYTRADITIONALLY,IRONYISTREATEDASAFIGUREOFSPEECHWHOSEINTENDEDMEANINGISTHEOPPOSITEOFTHATEXPRESSEDBYTHEWORDSUTTEREDTHESTUDYOFIRONYINTHISWAYBELONGSTOTHATOFRHETORICAMERICANLINGUISTGRICETAKESIRONYASONEOFTHOSEFIGURESOFSPEECHTHATFLOUTSTHECOOPERATIVEPRINCIPLECPFORSHORT,ESPECIALLYTHEMAXIMOFQUALITYIRONYINTERPRETEDUNDERTHISPRAGMATICMODELCONVEYSTHECONTRADICTIONOFWHATISLITERALLYSAIDLINGUISTSSPERBERANDWILSONTREATIRONYASANECHOICMENTIONWHILELINGUISTCUDDONSTATESTHAT“ATITSSIMPLEST,VERBALIRONYINVOLVESSAYINGWHATONEDOESN’TMEAN”1INTHISPAPER,FOCUSWILLBELAIDUPONTHEHUMORFEATUREOFVERBALIRONYFROMTHEPERSPECTIVEOFPRAGMATICSFIRST,THROUGHTHECOMPARISONOFDIFFERENTKINDSOFDEFINITIONSOFIRONY,AGENERALIDEAABOUTWHATISIRONYISESTABLISHEDSECONDLY,THISPAPEREXAMINESGRICEANCOOPERATIVEPRINCIPLEWHICHPUTFORWARDSTHATIRONYACTSASAVIOLATIONOFCPTHIRDLY,WITHTHEHELPOFLEECH’SIDEAOFIRONY,THEPRAGMATICFUNCTIONOFIRONYCOULDBEBETTERDISPLAYEDFINALLY,THELASTPOINTISABOUTTHEPRAGMATICFUNCTIONSOFBOTHENGLISHIRONYANDCHINESEIRONYINAWORD,IRONYISONEWAYTOPRODUCEHUMORINVERBALCOMMUNICATION2WHATISIRONYITISDIFFICULTTODEFINETHEWORDOF“IRONY”WHICHCOULDBEUNDERSTOODINVARIOUSWAYSTHEEXPANSIONOFITSRESEARCHAREAMAYBETHEDIRECTCAUSEOFTHEDIVERSITYOFTHEDEFINITIONOFIRONYTHEFOLLOWINGARESOMEDEFINITIONSOFIRONYFROMDICTIONARIES21DICTIONARYDEFINITIONSOFIRONY1EXPRESSIONOFONE’SMEANINGBYSAYINGTHEDIRECTOPPOSITEOFONE’STHOUGHTSINORDERTOBEEMPHATIC,AMUSING,SARCASTIC,ETC2OXFORDADVANCEDLEARNER’SENGLISHCHINESEDICTIONARY2USEOFWORDSWHICHARECLEARLYOPPOSITETOONE’SMEANING,USUALLYEITHERINORDERTOBEAMUSINGORTOSHOWANNOYANCEEGBYSAYING‘WHATCHARMINGBEHAVIOUR’WHENSOMEONEHASBEENRUDE3LONGMANDICTIONARYOFENGLISHLANGUAGECULTUREENGLISHCHINESE3IRONYISALITERARYTECHNIQUETHATACHIEVESTHEEFFECTOFSAYINGONETHINGANDMEANINGANOTHERTHROUGHTHEUSEOFHUMORORMILDSARCASM4WEBSTER’SNEWWORLDENCYCLOPEDIA4THEUSEOFWORDSTOEXPRESSSOMETHINGOTHERTHANANDESPECIALLYTHEOPPOSITEOFTHELITERALMEANING5WEBSTERENGLISHDICTIONARY5IRONYISAFIGUREOFSPEECHTHATACHIEVESEMPHASISBYSAYINGTHEOPPOSITEOFWHATISMEANT,THEINTENDEDMEANINGOFTHEWORDSBEINGTHEOPPOSITEOFTHEIRUSUALSENSETHISFORMOFIRONYISCALLEDVERBALIRONY,ANDDIFFERSFROMTHESTYLISTICDEVICEOFDRAMATICIRONY6ENGLISHRHETORICALOPTIONS6DEFINITIONOFIRONYFROMGROLIERINTERNATIONALDICTIONARYAANEXPRESSIONORUTTERANCEMARKEDBYSUCHADELIBERATECONTRASTBETWEENAPPARENTANDINTENDEDMEANING,FORHUMOROUSORRHETORICALEFFECTBINCONGRUITYBETWEENWHATMIGHTBEEXPECTEDANDWHATOCCURS7THEABOVEDEFINITIONS,ALTHOUGHEXPLAINEDBYDIFFERENTEXPERTSFROMDIFFERENTANGLES,ROUGHLYDISPLAYTHENATUREOFIRONYFROMBOTHTHEFORMANDFUNCTIONAMONGTHESEDEFINITIONS,THEBASICMEANINGOFIRONYCOULDBEFOUNDAS“SAYINGONETHINGBUTMEANINGANOTHER”THEBESTDESCRIPTIONOFIRONY,SAY,THEGROLIERINTERNATIONALDICTIONARY,TAKESBOTHTHEFORMANDFUNCTIONOFIRONYINTOCONSIDERATIONANDGIVESUSABETTERPICTUREHOWEVER,ALLOFTHESEDEFINITIONSHAVESOMESHORTCOMINGSFIRST,NONEOFTHEMPROVIDESANEFFECTIVEWAYTOIDENTIFYIRONYFROMNONIRONYSECOND,THEYBASICALLYREGARDIRONYASATROPEORAFIGUREOFSPEECHWHOSELITERALANDCONNOTATIVEMEANINGSAREMUTUALLYOPPOSEDTOEACHOTHERTHISTRADITIONALUNDERSTANDINGHASBEENUNDERCHALLENGESBYMODERNRESEARCH22CLASSIFICATIONOFIRONYTHECLASSIFICATIONOFIRONYISPRESENTEDINDIFFERENTWAYSBYTHOSEWHOWORKONITBOOTHIDENTIFIESQUITEANUMBEROFTYPESTRAGICIRONY,COMICIRONY,STABLEIRONY,UNSTABLEIRONY,DRAMATICIRONY,SITUATIONALIRONY,VERBALIRONY,RHETORICALIRONYSOONANDSOFORTHKREUZANDROBERTSDISTINGUISHFOURTYPESOFIRONYSOCRATICIRONY,DRAMATICIRON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