47-How to Make a Multiprocessor Computer That Correctly Executes Multiprocess Programs.pdf47-How to Make a Multiprocessor Computer That Correctly Executes Multiprocess Programs.pdf

收藏 分享

资源预览需要最新版本的Flash Player支持。
您尚未安装或版本过低,建议您

IEEETRANSACTIONSONCOMPUTERS,VOLC28,NO9,SEPTEMBER1979REFERENCES1CBLACK,CESUNDBERG,ANDWKSWALKER,DEVELOPMENTOFASPACEBORNEMEMORYWITHASINGLEERRORANDERASURECORRECTIONSCHEME,INCONFREC,1977FAULTTOLERANTCOMPUTINGSYMP,FTCS7,JUNE1977,PP50552CBLACKETAL,HIGHLYRELIABLESEMICONDUCTORMEMORYFORTHEONBOARDCOMPUTER,FINALREPESTECCONTR2528/75/HP,BRITISHAIRCRAFTCORP,BRISTOL,ENGLAND3RWLUCKY,JSALZ,ANDEJWELDON,JR,PRINCIPLESOFDATACOMMUNICATIONNEWYORKMCGRAWHILL,19684WWPETERSONANDEJWELDON,JR,ERRORCORRECTINGCODES,2NDEDCAMBRIDGE,MAMITPRESS,19725MYHSIAO,ACLASSOFOPTIMALMINIMUMODDWEIGHTCOLUMNSEC/DEDCODES,IBMJRESDEVELOP,PP395401,JULY19706GLONGO,ALGEBRAICCODINGANDCOMBINATORICSATUTORIALSURVEY,NATOADVANCEDSTUDYINSTITUTE,DARLINGTON,ENGLAND,AUG820,1977,CONFREC,SIJTHOFFNOORDHOFF,1978,SERIESE,NO25,PP1511697ERBERLEKAMP,ALGEBRAICCODINGTHEORYNEWYORKMCGRAWHILL,19688RPCAPECE,MEMORYRICHMINISGETAGGRESSIVE,ELECTRONICS,PP6970,AUG18,19779HJHELGERTANDRDSTINAFF,MINIMUMDISTANCEBOUNDSFORBINARYLINEARCODES,IEEETRANSINFORMATIONTHEORY,VOLIT19,PP344356,MAY197310CESUNDBERG,SOMETRANSPARENTSHORTENEDCODESFORSEMICONDUCTORMEMORIES,TELECOMMUNICATIONTHEORY,UNIVOFLUND,LUND,SWEDEN,TECHREPTR91,SEPT197711ERASURESANDERRORSDECODINGFORSEMICONDUCTORMEMORIES,IEEETRANSCOMPUT,VOLC27,PP696705,AUG197812WCCARTERANDCEMCCARTHY,IMPLEMENTATIONOFANEXPERIMENTALFAULTTOLERANTMEMORYSYSTEM,IEEETRANSCOMPUT,VOLC25,PP557568,JUNE1976OFEACHINDIVIDUALPROCESSORDOESNOTGUARANTEETHATTHEMULTIPROCESSORCOMPUTERISSEQUENTIALLYCONSISTENTINTHISBRIEFNOTE,WEDESCRIBEAMETHODOFINTERCONNECTINGSEQUENTIALPROCESSORSWITHMEMORYMODULESTHATINSURESTHESEQUENTIALCONSISTENCYOFTHERESULTINGMULTIPROCESSORWEASSUMETHATTHECOMPUTERCONSISTSOFACOLLECTIONOFPROCESSORSANDMEMORYMODULES,ANDTHATTHEPROCESSORSCOMMUNICATEWITHONEANOTHERONLYTHROUGHTHEMEMORYMODULESANYSPECIALCOMMUNICATIONREGISTERSMAYBEREGARDEDASSEPARATEMEMORYMODULESTHEONLYPROCESSOROPERATIONSTHATCONCERNUSARETHEOPERATIONSOFSENDINGFETCHANDSTOREREQUESTSTOMEMORYMODULESWEASSUMETHATEACHPROCESSORISSUESASEQUENCEOFSUCHREQUESTSITMUSTSOMETIMESWAITFORREQUESTSTOBEEXECUTED,BUTTHATDOESNOTCONCERNUSWEILLUSTRATETHEPROBLEMBYCONSIDERINGASIMPLETWOPROCESSMUTUALEXCLUSIONPROTOCOLEACHPROCESSCONTAINSACRITICALSECTION,ANDTHEPURPOSEOFTHEPROTOCOLISTOINSURETHATONLYONEPROCESSMAYBEEXECUTINGITSCRITICALSECTIONATANYTIMETHEPROTOCOLISASFOLLOWSPROCESS1IFB0THENCRITICALSECTION;ELSEFIHOWTOMAKEAMULTIPROCESSORCOMPUTERTHATCORRECTLYEXECUTESMULTIPROCESSPROGRANMLESLIELAMPORTABSTRACTMANYLARGESEQUENTIALCOMPUTERSEXECUTEOPERATIONSINADIFFERENTORDERTHANISSPECIFIEDBYTHEPROGRAMACORRECTEXECUTIONISACHIEVEDIFTHERESULTSPRODUCEDARETHESAMEASWOULDBEPRODUCEDBYEXECUTINGTHEPROGRAMSTEPSINORDERFORAMULTIPROCESSORCOMPUTER,SUCHACORRECTEXECUTIONBYEACHPROCESSORDOESNOTGUARANTEETHECORRECTEXECUTIONOFTHEENTIREPROGRAMADDITIONALCONDITIONSAREGIVENWHICHDOGUARANTEETHATACOMPUTERCORRECTLYEXECUTESMULTIPROCESSPROGRAMSINDEXTERMSCOMPUTERDESIGN,CONCURRENTCOMPUTING,HARDWARECORRECTNESS,MULTIPROCESSING,PARALLELPROCESSINGAHIGHSPEEDPROCESSORMAYEXECUTEOPERATIONSINADIFFERENTORDERTHANISSPECIFIEDBYTHEPROGRAMTHECORRECTNESSOFTHEEXECUTIONISGUARANTEEDIFTHEPROCESSORSATISFIESTHEFOLLOWINGCONDITIONTHERESULTOFANEXECUTIONISTHESAMEASIFTHEOPERATIONSHADBEENEXECUTEDINTHEORDERSPECIFIEDBYTHEPROGRAMAPROCESSORSATISFYINGTHISCONDITIONWILLBECALLEDSEQUENTIALCONSIDERACOMPUTERCOMPOSEDOFSEVERALSUCHPROCESSORSACCESSINGACOMMONMEMORYTHECUSTOMARYAPPROACHTODESIGNINGANDPROVINGTHECORRECTNESSOFMULTIPROCESSALGORITHMS13FORSUCHACOMPUTERASSUMESTHATTHEFOLLOWINGCONDITIONISSATISFIEDTHERESULTOFANYEXECUTIONISTHESAMEASIFTHEOPERATIONSOFALLTHEPROCESSORSWEREEXECUTEDINSOMESEQUENTIALORDER,ANDTHEOPERATIONSOFEACHINDIVIDUALPROCESSORAPPEARINTHISSEQUENCEINTHEORDERSPECIFIEDBYITSPROGRAMAMULTIPROCESSORSATISFYINGTHISCONDITIONWILLBECALLEDSEQUENTIALLYCONSISTENTTHESEQUENTIALITYMANUSCRIPTRECEIVEDSEPTEMBER28,1977;REVISEDMAY8,1979THEAUTHORISWITHTHECOMPUTERSCIENCELABORATORY,SRIINTERNATIONAL,MERLSPARK,CA94025PROCESS2B1;IFA0THENCRITICALSECTION;B0ELSEFITHEELSECLAUSESCONTAINSOMEMECHANISMFORGUARANTEEINGEVENTUALACCESSTOTHECRITICALSECTION,BUTTHATISIRRELEVANTTOTHEDISCUSSIONITISEASYTOPROVETHATTHISPROTOCOLGUARANTEESMUTUALLYEXCLUSIVEACCESSTOTHECRITICALSECTIONSDEVISINGAPROOFPROVIDESANICEEXERCISEINUSINGTHEASSERTIONALTECHNIQUESOF2AND3,ANDISLEFTTOTHEREADERHENCE,WHENTHISTWOPROCESSPROGRAMISEXECUTEDBYASEQUENTIALLYCONSISTENTMULTIPROCESSORCOMPUTER,THETWOPROCESSORSCANNOTBOTHBEEXECUTINGTHEIRCRITICALSECTIONSATTHESAMETIMEWEFIRSTOBSERVETHATASEQUENTIALPROCESSORCOULDEXECUTETHEB1ANDFETCHBOPERATIONSOFPROCESS1INEITHERORDERWHENPROCESSLSPROGRAMISCONSIDEREDBYITSELF,ITDOESNOTMATTERINWHICHORDERTHESETWOOPERATIONSAREPERFORMEDHOWEVER,ITISEASYTOSEETHATEXECUTINGTHEFETCHBOPERATIONFIRSTCANLEADTOANERRORBOTHPROCESSESCOULDTHENEXECUTETHEIRCRITICALSECTIONSATTHESAMETIMETHISIMMEDIATELYSUGGESTSOURFIRSTREQUIREMENTFORAMULTIPROCESSORCOMPUTERREQUIREMENTRLEACHPROCESSORISSUESMEMORYREQUESTSINTHEORDERSPECIFIEDBYITSPROGRAMSATISFYINGREQUIREMENTRIISCOMPLICATEDBYTHEFACTTHATSTORINGAVALUEISPOSSIBLEONLYAFTERTHEVALUEHASBEENCOMPUTEDAPROCESSORWILLOFTENBEREADYTOISSUEAMEMORYFETCHREQUESTBEFOREITKNOWSTHEVALUETOBESTOREDBYAPRECEDINGSTOREREQUESTTOMINIMIZEWAITING,THEPROCESSORCANISSUETHESTOREREQUESTTOTHEMEMORYMODULEWITHOUTSPECIFYINGTHEVALUETOBESTOREDOFCOURSE,THESTOREREQUESTCANNOTACTUALLYBEEXECUTEDBYTHEMEMORYMODULE,UNTILITRECEIVESTHEVALUETOBESTORED00189340/79/090006900075C1979IEEE690IEEETRANSACTIONSONCOMPUTERS,VOLC28,NO9,SEPTEMBER1979REQUIREMENTRIISNOTSUFFICIENTTOGUARANTEECORRECTEXECUTIONTOSEETHIS,SUPPOSETHATEACHMEMORYMODULEHASSEVERALPORTS,ANDEACHPORTSERVICESONEPROCESSORORI/OCHANNELLETTHEVALUESOFAANDBBESTOREDINSEPARATEMEMORYMODULES,ANDCONSIDERTHEFOLLOWINGSEQUENCEOFEVENTS1PROCESSOR1SENDSTHEA1REQUESTTOITSPORTINMEMORYMODULE1THEMODULEISCURRENTLYBUSYEXECUTINGANOPERATIONFORSOMEOTHERPROCESSORORI/OCHANNEL2PROCESSOR1SENDSTHEFETCHBREQUESTTOITSPORTINMEMORYMODULE2THEMODULEISFREE,ANDEXECUTIONISBEGUN3PROCESSOR2SENDSITSB1REQUESTTOMEMORYMODULE2THISREQUESTWILLBEEXECUTEDAFTERPROCESSORLSFETCHBREQUESTISCOMPLETED4PROCESSOR2SENDSITSFETCHAREQUESTTOITSPORTINMEMORYMODULE1THEMODULEISSTILLBUSYTHEREARENOWTWOOPERATIONSWAITINGTOBEPERFORMEDBYMEMORYMODULE1IFPROCESSOR2SFETCHAOPERATIONISPERFORMEDFIRST,THENBOTHPROCESSESCANENTERTHEIRCRITICALSECTIONSATTHESAMETIME,ANDTHEPROTOCOLFAILSTHISCOULDHAPPENIFTHEMEMORYMODULEUSESAROUNDROBINSCHEDULINGDISCIPLINEINSERVICINGITSPORTSINTHISSITUATION,ANERROROCCURSONLYIFTHETWOREQUESTSTOMEMORYMODULE1ARENOTEXECUTEDINTHESAMEORDERINWHICHTHEYWERERECEIVEDTHISSUGGESTSTHEFOLLOWINGREQUIREMENTREQUIREMENTR2MEMORYREQUESTSFROMALLPROCESSORSISSUEDTOANINDIVIDUALMEMORYMODULEARESERVICEDFROMASINGLEFIFOQUEUEISSUINGAMEMORYREQUESTCONSISTSOFENTERINGTHEREQUESTONTHISQUEUECONDITIONRIIMPLIESTHATAPROCESSORMAYNOTISSUEANYFURTHERMEMORYREQUESTSUNTILAFTERITSCURRENTREQUESTHASBEENENTEREDONTHEQUEUEHENCE,ITMUSTWAITIFTHEQUEUEISFULLIFTWOORMOREPROCESSORSARETRYINGTOENTERREQUESTSINTHEQUEUEATTHESAMETIME,THENITDOESNOTMATTERINWHICHORDERTHEYARESERVICEDNOTEIFAFETCHREQUESTSTHECONTENTSOFAMEMORYLOCATIONFORWHICHTHEREISALREADYAWRITEREQUESTONTHEQUEUE,THENTHEFETCHNEEDNOTBEENTEREDONTHEQUEUEITMAYSIMPLYRETURNTHEVALUEFROMTHELASTSUCHWRITEREQUESTONTHEQUEUEOREQUIREMENTSRIANDR2INSURETHATIFTHEINDIVIDUALPROCESSORSARESEQUENTIAL,THENTHEENTIREMULTIPROCESSORCOMPUTERISSEQUENTIALLYCONSISTENTTODEMONSTRATETHIS,ONEFIRSTINTRODUCESARELATIONONMEMORYREQUESTSASFOLLOWSDEFINEABIFANDONLYIF1AANDBAREISSUEDBYTHESAMEPROCESSORANDAISISSUEDBEFOREB,OR2AANDBAREISSUEDTOTHESAMEMEMORYMODULE,ANDAISENTEREDINTHEQUEUEBEFOREBANDISTHUSEXECUTEDBEFOREBITISEASYTOSEETHATRIANDR2IMPLYTHATISAPARTIALORDERINGONTHESETOFMEMORYREQUESTSUSINGTHESEQUENTIALITYOFEACHPROCESSOR,ONECANTHENPROVETHEFOLLOWINGRESULTEACHFETCHANDSTOREOPERATIONFETCHESORSTORESTHESAMEVALUEASIFALLTHEOPERATIONSWEREEXECUTEDSEQUENTIALLYINANYORDERSUCHTHATABIMPLIESTHATAISEXECUTEDBEFOREBTHISINTURNPROVESTHESEQUENTIALCONSISTENCYOFTHEMULTIPROCESSORCOMPUTERREQUIREMENTR2STATESTHATAMEMORYMODULESREQUESTQUEUEMUSTBESERVICEDINAFIFOORDERTHISIMPLIESTHATTHEMEMORYMODULEMUSTREMAINIDLEIFTHEREQUESTATTHEHEADOFITSQUEUEISASTOREREQUESTFORWHICHTHEVALUETOBESTOREDHASNOTYETBEENRECEIVEDCONDITIONR2CANBEWEAKENEDTOALLOWTHEMEMORYMODULETOSERVICEOTHERREQUESTSINTHISSITUATIONWENEEDONLYREQUIRETHATALLREQUESTSTOTHESAMEMEMORYCELLBESERVICEDINTHEORDERTHATTHEYAPPEARINTHEQUEUEREQUESTSTODIFFERENTMEMORYCELLSMAYBESERVICEDOUTOFORDERSEQUENTIALCONSISTENCYISPRESERVEDBECAUSESUCHASERVICEPOLICYISLOGICALLYEQUIVALENTTOCONSIDERINGEACHMEMORYCELLTOBEASEPARATEMEMORYMODULEWITHITSOWNREQUESTQUEUETHEFACTTHATTHESEMODULESMAYSHARESOMEHARDWAREAFFECTSTHERATEATWHICHTHEYSERVICEREQUESTSANDTHECAPACITYOFTHEIRQUEUES,BUTITDOESNOTAFFECTTHELOGICALPROPERTYOFSEQUENTIALCONSISTENCYTHEREQUIREMENTSNEEDEDTOGUARANTEESEQUENTIALCONSISTENCYRULEOUTSOMETECHNIQUESWHICHCANBEUSEDTOSPEEDUPINDIVIDUALSEQUENTIALPROCESSORSFORSOMEAPPLICATIONS,ACHIEVINGSEQUENTIALCONSISTENCYMAYNOTBEWORTHTHEPRICEOFSLOWINGDOWNTHEPROCESSORSINTHISCASE,ONEMUSTBEAWARETHATCONVENTIONALMETHODSFORDESIGNINGMULTIPROCESSALGORITHMSCANNOTBERELIEDUPONTOPRODUCECORRECTLYEXECUTINGPROGRAMSPROTOCOLSFORSYNCHRONIZINGTHEPROCESSORSMUSTBEDESIGNEDATTHELOWESTLEVELOFTHEMACHINEINSTRUCTIONCODE,ANDVERIFYINGTHEIRCORRECTNESSBECOMESAMONUMENTALTASKREFERENCES1EWDIJKSTRA,HIERARCHICALORDERINGOFSEQUENTIALPROCESSES,ACTAINFORMATICA,VOL1,PP115138,19712LLAMPORT,PROVINGTHECORRECTNESSOFMULTIPROCESSPROGRAMS,IEEETRANSSOFTWAREENG,VOLSE3,PP125143,MAR19773SOWICKIANDDGRIES,VERIFYINGPROPERTIESOFPARALLELPROGRAMSANAXIOMATICAPPROACH,COMMUNASSOCCOMPUTMACH,VOL19,PP279285,MAY1976COMMENTSONANAPPROACHTOHIGHLYINTEGRATEDCOMPUTERMAINTAINEDCELLULARARRAYSVISHWANIDAGRAWALABSTRACTTHEABOVEPAPERDESCRIBESMACHINESCONSTRUCTEDONFAULTYLOGICARRAYSTHESEMACHINESUSESOMEORALLOFTHEGOODCELLSTHATFORMACONNECTIVECLUSTERITISPOINTEDOUTHERETHATWHENTHEFAULTYCELLSARERANDOMLYDISTRIBUTEDOVERTHEARRAY,THEPROPAGATIONOFAFREELYEXPANDINGSIGNAL,WHICHMUSTAVOIDTHEFAULTYCELLS,ISAPERCOLATIONPROCESSTHEPERCOLATIONPROCESSDETERMINESTHELIMITTOTHESIZEOFAMACHINEEMBEDDEDINAFAULTYARRAYSOMEUSEFULCHARACTERISTICSOFTHISPROCESSAREDISCUSSEDINDEXTERMSCELLULARARRAYS,FAULTSINLOGICARRAYS,PERCOLATIONPROCESS,PROGRAMMABLELOGIC,RANDOMPROCESSESMANNING,INARECENTPAPER,HASDESCRIBEDTHEEMBEDDEDMACHINESWHICHARECONFIGUREDINALOG
编号:201401051948356820    类型:共享资源    大小:465.94KB    格式:PDF    上传时间:2014-01-05
  
5
关 键 词:
工业、机械、能源、设计、建模、模具、工学
  人人文库网所有资源均是用户自行上传分享,仅供网友学习交流,未经上传用户书面授权,请勿作他用。
关于本文
本文标题:47-How to Make a Multiprocessor Computer That Correctly Executes Multiprocess Programs.pdf
链接地址:http://www.renrendoc.com/p-256820.html

当前资源信息

4.0
 
(2人评价)
浏览:34次
baixue100上传于2014-01-05

官方联系方式

客服手机:17625900360   
2:不支持迅雷下载,请使用浏览器下载   
3:不支持QQ浏览器下载,请用其他浏览器   
4:下载后的文档和图纸-无水印   
5:文档经过压缩,下载后原文更清晰   

精品推荐

相关阅读

人人文库
关于我们 - 网站声明 - 网站地图 - 资源地图 - 友情链接 - 网站客服客服 - 联系我们

网站客服QQ:2846424093    人人文库上传用户QQ群:460291265   

[email protected] 2016-2018  renrendoc.com 网站版权所有   南天在线技术支持

经营许可证编号:苏ICP备12009002号-5