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Mechanicalengineeringdesign1.ThemeaningofdesignTodesignistoformulateaplanforthesatisfactionofhumanneed.inthebeginningtheparticularneedtothesatisfiedmaybequitewelldefined.Herearetwoexamplesofwelldefinedneeds.1.Howcanweobtainlargequantitiesofpowercleanly,safely,andeconomicallywithoutusingfossilfuelsandwithoutdamagingthesurfaceoftheearth2.Thisgearshaftisgivingtroubletherehavebeeneightfailuresinthelastsixweeks.Dosomethingaboutit.Ontheotherhandtheparticularneedtobesatisfiedmaybesonebulousandilldefinedthataconsiderableamountofthoughtandeffortisnecessaryinordertostateitclearlyasaproblemrequiringasolution.Herearetwoexamples.1.Lotsofpeoplearekilledinairplaneaccidents.2.Inbigcitiestherearetoomanyautomobilesonthestreetsandhighways.Thissecondtypeofdesignsituationischaracterizedbythefactthatneithertheneednortheproblemtobesolvedhasbeenidentified.Note,too,thatthesituationmaycontainmanyproblems.Wecanclassifydesigntoo.Forinstance1.Clothingdesign7.Bridgedesign2.Interiordesign8.Computeraideddesign3.Highwaydesign9.Heatingsystemdesign4.Landscapedesign10.Machinedesign5.Buildingdesign11.Engineeringdesign6.Shipdesign12.ProcessdesignInfactthereareanendlessnumber,sincewecanclassifydesignaccordingtotheparticulararticleorproductoraccordingtotheprofessionalfield.Incontrasttoscientificormathematicalproblems,designproblemshavenouniqueanswersitisabsurd,forexample,torequestthecorrectanswertoadesignproblem,becausethereisnone.Infactagoodanswertodaymaywellturnouttobeapooranswertomorrow,ifthereisagrowthofknowledgeduringtheperiodorifthereareotherstructureorsocietalchanges.Almosteveryoneisinvolvedwithdesigninonewayoranother,evenindailyliving,becauseproblemsareposedandsituationsarisewhichmustbesolved.Considerthedesignofafamilyvacation.Theremaybesevendifferentplacestogo,allthedifferentdistancesfromhome.Thecostsoftransportationaredifferentforeach,andsomeoftheoptionsrequireovernightstopsontheway.Thechildrenwouldliketogotoalakeorseashoreresort.Thewifewouldprefertogotoalargecitywithdepartmentstoreshopping,theatres,andnightclubs.Thehusbandprefersaresortwithagolfcourse.Whentheseneedsanddesiresarerelatedtotimeandmoney,varioussolutionsmaybefound.Ofthesetheremayormaynotbeoneormoreoptimalsolutions.Butthesolutionchosenwillincludethetravelroute,thestops,themodeoftransportation,andthenamesandlocationsofresorts,motels,campingsites,orotherawayfromhomefacilities.Itishardtoseethatthereisreallyaratherlargegroupofinterrelatedcomplexfactorsinvolvedinarrivingatoneofthesolutionstothevacationdesignproblem.Adesignisalwayssubjecttocertainproblemsolvingconstraints.Forexample,twooftheconstraintsonthevacationdesignproblemarethetimeandmoneyavailableforthevacation.Note,too,thattherearealsoconstraintsonthesolution,inthecaseabovesomeofthoseconstraintsarethedesireandneedsofeachofthefamilymembers.Finally,thedesignsolutionfoundmightwellbeoptimal.Inthiscaseanoptimalsolutionisobtainedwheneachandeveryfamilymembercansaythatheorshehadagoodtime.Adesignproblemisnotahypotheticalproblematall.Designhasanauthenticpurposethecreationofanendresultbytakingdefiniteactingorthecreationofsomethinghavingphysicalreality.Inengineeringtheworddesignconveysdifferentmeaningtodifferentpersons.Somethinkofadesignerasonewhoemploysthedrawingboardtodraftthedetailsofagear,clutch,orothermachinemember.Othersthinkofdesignasthecreationofacomplexsystem,suchasacommunicationsnetwork.Insomeareasofengineeringtheworddesignhasbeenreplacedbyothertermssuchassystemsengineeringorapplieddecisiontheory.Butnomatterwhatwordsareusedtodescribethedesignfunction,inengineeringitisstilltheprocessinwhichscientifictheprinciplesandthetoolsofengineeringmathematics,computers,graphics,andEnglishareusedtoproduceaplanwhich,whencarriedout,willsatisfyahumanneed.2.ThephasesofdesignThetotaldesignprocessisofinteresttous,howdoesitbeginDoestheengineersimplysitdownathisorherdeskwithablanksheetofpaperandjotdownsomeideasWhathappensnextWhatfactorsinfluenceorcontrolthedecisions,whichhavetobemadeFinally,howdoesthisdesignprocessendThecompleteprocess,fromstarttofinish,isoftenoutlinedasinFigure.Theprocessbeginswitharecognitionofaneedandadecisiontodosomethingaboutit,aftermanyiterations,theprocessendswiththepresentationoftheplansforsatisfyingtheneed,weshouldexaminethesestepsinthedesignprocessindetail.3.MechanicalengineeringdesignMechanicaldesignmeansthedesignofthingsandsystemofamechanicalnaturemachines,products,structures,devices,andinstruments.Forthemostpart,mechanicaldesignutilizesmathematics,thematerialssciences,andtheengineeringmechanicalscience.Mechanicalengineeringdesignincludesallmechanicaldesign,butitisabroaderstudybecauseitincludesallthedisciplinesofmechanicalengineering,suchasthethermalfluidssciences,too.Asidefromthefundamentalsciencesthatarerequired,thefirststudiesinmechanicalengineeringdesignareinmechanicaldesign,andhencethisistheapproachtakeninthisbook.4.DesignProcessandStagesMechanicaldesigniseithertoformulateallengineeringplanforthesatisfactionforthespecifiedneedortosolveanengineeringproblem.Itisvastfieldofengineeringtechnologywhichnotonlyconcernsitselfwiththeoriginalconceptionoftheproductintermsofitssize,shapeandconstructiondetails,butallconsidersthevariousfactorsinvolvedinthemanufacture,marketinganduseofproduct.Mechanicaldesigninvolvesarangeofdisciplinesinmaterials,mechanics,heat,flow,control,electronicsandproduction.Mechanicaldesignshouldbeconsideredtobeanopportunitytouseinnovativetalentstoenvisionadesignofaproduct,toanalyzethesystemandthenmakesoundjudgmentsonhowtheproductistobemanufactured.Itisimportanttounderstandthefundamentalsofengineeringratherthanmemorizemerefactsandequations.Therearenofactsorequationswhichalonecanbeusedtoprovideallthecorrectdecisionsrequiredtoproduceagooddesign.Ontheotherhand,anycalculationsmustbedonewiththeutmostcareandprecision.Forexample,ifadecimalpointismisplaced,anotherwiseacceptabledesignmaynotfunction.Mechanicaldesignmaybesimpleorenormouslycomplex,easyordifficult,mathematicalornonmathematical,itmayinvolveatrivialproblemoroneofgreatimportance.Gooddesignistheorderlyandinterestingarrangementofallideatoprovidecertainresultsandeffects.Awelldesignedproductisfunctional,efficient,anddependable.Suchaproductislessexpensivethanasimilarpoorlydesignedproductthatdoesnotfunctionproperlyandmustconstantlyberepaired.Peoplewhoperformthevariousfunctionsofmechanicaldesignaretypicallycalleddesigners,ordesignengineers.Mechanicaldesignisbasicallyacreativeactivity.However,inadditiontobeinginnovative,adesignengineermustalsohaveasolidbackgroundintheareasofmechanicaldrawing,kinematics,dynamics,materialsengineering,manufacturingprocesses.Thedesignermustfirstcarefullydefinetheproblem,usinganengineeringapproach,toensurethatanyproposedsolutionwillsolvetherightproblem.Itisimportantthatthedesignerbeginbyidentifyingexactlyhowheorshewillrecognizeasatisfactoryalternative,andhowtodistinguishbetweentwosatisfactoryalternativesinordertoidentifythebetter.Soindustrialdesignersmusthavecreativeimagination,knowledgeofengineering,productiontechniques,tools,machines,andmaterialstodesignanewproductformanufacture,ortoimproveanexistingproduct.Inthemodernindustrializedworld,thewealthandlivingstandardsofanationarecloselylinkedwiththeircapabilitiesdesignandmanufacturingengineeringproducts.Itcanbeclaimedthattheadvancementofmechanicaldesignandmanufacturingcanremarkablypromotetheoveralllevelofacountrysindustrialization.Manycountriesareplayingmoreandmorevitalroleintheglobalmanufacturingindustry.Toacceleratesuchanindustrializingprocess,highlyskilleddesignengineershavingextensiveknowledgeandexpertiseareneeded.5.MechanicaldesignprocessProductdesignrequiresmuchresearchanddevelopment.Manyconceptofanideamustbestudied,tried,refined,andtheneitherusedordiscarded.Althoughthecontentofeachengineeringproblemisunique,thedesignersfollowthesimilarprocesstosolvetheproblems.Thecompleteprocessisoftenoutlinedasinfigures.Thedesignprocessusuallybeginswithaspecificationofasolution.Wesometimesalludetoadesigncycle,buttheprocessmaycontainadesigncycleplusdesignimplementation,whichinvolvesactualproductionbaseduponthedesign.Thedesigncyclecaninvolvetheoriginalthoughts,sketches,andknowledgethatinthespecificationstageproduceengineeringdrawings.Computeraiddesignisnowemployedtoimplementacycleinwhichvariousdesignsordesignideasmaybetestedorsimulated.6.ContentsofMechanicalDesignMechanicaldesignisanimportanttechnologicalbasiccourseinmechanicalengineeringeducation.Itsobjectiveistoprovidetheconcepts,procedures,data,anddecisionanalysistechniquesnecessarytodesignmachineelementscommonlyfoundinmechanicaldevicesandsystemstodevelopengineeringstudentscompetenceofmechanicaldesignthatistheprimaryconcernofmachinerymanufacturingandthekeytomanufacturinggoodproducts.Mechanicaldesigncoversthefollowingcontents1.Providesanintroductiontothedesignprocess,problemformulation,safetyfactors.2.Reviewsthematerialpropertiesandstaticanddynamicloadinganalysis,includingbeam,vibrationandimpactloading.3.Reviewsthefundamentalsofstressanddefectionanalysis.4.Introducesstaticfailuretheoriesandfracturemechanicsanalysisforstaticloads.5.Introducesfatiguefailuretheorywiththeemphasisonstresslifeapproachestohighcyclefatiguedesign,whichiscommonlyusedinthedesignofrotationmachinery.6.Discussesthoroughlythephenomenaofwearmechanisms,surfacecontactstress,andsurfacefatigue.7.Investigatesshaftdesignusingthefatigueanalysistechniques.8.Discussesfluidfilmandrollingelementbearingtheoryandapplication.9.Givesathoroughintroductiontothekinematics,designandstressanalysisofspurgears,andasimpleintroductiontohelical,bevel,andwormgearing.10.Discussesspringdesignincludinghelicalcompression,extension,andtorsionsprings.11.Dealswithscrewsandfastenersincludingpowerscrewandpreloadfasteners.12.Introducesthedesignandspecificationofdiskanddrumclutchesandbrakes.
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