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DOI101007/S0017000423288ORIGINALARTICLEINTJADVMANUFTECHNOL20062861–66FANGJUNGSHIOUCHAOCHANGACHENWENTULIAUTOMATEDSURFACEFINISHINGOFPLASTICINJECTIONMOLDSTEELWITHSPHERICALGRINDINGANDBALLBURNISHINGPROCESSESRECEIVED30MARCH2004/ACCEPTED5JULY2004/PUBLISHEDONLINE30MARCH2005SPRINGERVERLAGLONDONLIMITED2005ABSTRACTTHISSTUDYINVESTIGATESTHEPOSSIBILITIESOFAUTOMATEDSPHERICALGRINDINGANDBALLBURNISHINGSURFACEFINISHINGPROCESSESINAFREEFORMSURFACEPLASTICINJECTIONMOLDSTEELPDS5ONACNCMACHININGCENTERTHEDESIGNANDMANUFACTUREOFAGRINDINGTOOLHOLDERHASBEENACCOMPLISHEDINTHISSTUDYTHEOPTIMALSURFACEGRINDINGPARAMETERSWEREDETERMINEDUSINGTAGUCHI’SORTHOGONALARRAYMETHODFORPLASTICINJECTIONMOLDINGSTEELPDS5ONAMACHININGCENTERTHEOPTIMALSURFACEGRINDINGPARAMETERSFORTHEPLASTICINJECTIONMOLDSTEELPDS5WERETHECOMBINATIONOFANABRASIVEMATERIALOFPAAL2O3,AGRINDINGSPEEDOF18000RPM,AGRINDINGDEPTHOF20M,ANDAFEEDOF50MM/MINTHESURFACEROUGHNESSRAOFTHESPECIMENCANBEIMPROVEDFROMABOUT160MTO035MBYUSINGTHEOPTIMALPARAMETERSFORSURFACEGRINDINGSURFACEROUGHNESSRACANBEFURTHERIMPROVEDFROMABOUT0343MTO006MBYUSINGTHEBALLBURNISHINGPROCESSWITHTHEOPTIMALBURNISHINGPARAMETERSAPPLYINGTHEOPTIMALSURFACEGRINDINGANDBURNISHINGPARAMETERSSEQUENTIALLYTOAFINEMILLEDFREEFORMSURFACEMOLDINSERT,THESURFACEROUGHNESSRAOFFREEFORMSURFACEREGIONONTHETESTEDPARTCANBEIMPROVEDFROMABOUT215MTO007MKEYWORDSAUTOMATEDSURFACEFINISHINGBALLBURNISHINGPROCESSGRINDINGPROCESSSURFACEROUGHNESSTAGUCHI’SMETHOD1INTRODUCTIONPLASTICSAREIMPORTANTENGINEERINGMATERIALSDUETOTHEIRSPECIFICCHARACTERISTICS,SUCHASCORROSIONRESISTANCE,RESISTANCETOCHEMICALS,LOWDENSITY,ANDEASEOFMANUFACTURE,ANDHAVEINCREASINGLYFJSHIOUA117CCACHENWTLIDEPARTMENTOFMECHANICALENGINEERING,NATIONALTAIWANUNIVERSITYOFSCIENCEANDTECHNOLOGY,NO43,SECTION4,KEELUNGROAD,106TAIPEI,TAIWANROCEMAILSHIOUMAILNTUSTEDUTWTEL886227376543FAX886227376460REPLACEDMETALLICCOMPONENTSININDUSTRIALAPPLICATIONSINJECTIONMOLDINGISONEOFTHEIMPORTANTFORMINGPROCESSESFORPLASTICPRODUCTSTHESURFACEFINISHQUALITYOFTHEPLASTICINJECTIONMOLDISANESSENTIALREQUIREMENTDUETOITSDIRECTEFFECTSONTHEAPPEARANCEOFTHEPLASTICPRODUCTFINISHINGPROCESSESSUCHASGRINDING,POLISHINGANDLAPPINGARECOMMONLYUSEDTOIMPROVETHESURFACEFINISHTHEMOUNTEDGRINDINGTOOLSWHEELSHAVEBEENWIDELYUSEDINCONVENTIONALMOLDANDDIEFINISHINGINDUSTRIESTHEGEOMETRICMODELOFMOUNTEDGRINDINGTOOLSFORAUTOMATEDSURFACEFINISHINGPROCESSESWASINTRODUCEDIN1AFINISHINGPROCESSMODELOFSPHERICALGRINDINGTOOLSFORAUTOMATEDSURFACEFINISHINGSYSTEMSWASDEVELOPEDIN2GRINDINGSPEED,DEPTHOFCUT,FEEDRATE,ANDWHEELPROPERTIESSUCHASABRASIVEMATERIALANDABRASIVEGRAINSIZE,ARETHEDOMINANTPARAMETERSFORTHESPHERICALGRINDINGPROCESS,ASSHOWNINFIG1THEOPTIMALSPHERICALGRINDINGPARAMETERSFORTHEINJECTIONMOLDSTEELHAVENOTYETBEENINVESTIGATEDBASEDINTHELITERATUREINRECENTYEARS,SOMERESEARCHHASBEENCARRIEDOUTINDETERMININGTHEOPTIMALPARAMETERSOFTHEBALLBURNISHINGPROCESSFIG2FORINSTANCE,ITHASBEENFOUNDTHATPLASTICDEFORMATIONONTHEWORKPIECESURFACECANBEREDUCEDBYUSINGATUNGSTENCARBIDEBALLORAROLLER,THUSIMPROVINGTHESURFACEROUGHNESS,SURFACEHARDNESS,ANDFATIGUERESISTANCE3–6THEBURNISHINGPROCESSISACCOMPLISHEDBYMACHININGCENTERS3,4ANDLATHES5,6THEMAINBURNISHINGPARAMETERSHAVINGSIGNIFICANTEFFECTSONTHESURFACEROUGHNESSAREBALLORROLLERMATERIAL,BURNISHINGFORCE,FEEDRATE,BURNISHINGSPEED,LUBRICATION,ANDNUMBEROFBURNISHINGPASSES,AMONGOTHERS3THEOPTIMALSURFACEBURNISHINGPARAMETERSFORTHEPLASTICINJECTIONMOLDSTEELPDS5WEREACOMBINATIONOFGREASELUBRICANT,THETUNGSTENCARBIDEBALL,ABURNISHINGSPEEDOF200MM/MIN,ABURNISHINGFORCEOF300N,ANDAFEEDOF40M7THEDEPTHOFPENETRATIONOFTHEBURNISHEDSURFACEUSINGTHEOPTIMALBALLBURNISHINGPARAMETERSWASABOUT25MICRONSTHEIMPROVEMENTOFTHESURFACEROUGHNESSTHROUGHBURNISHINGPROCESSGENERALLYRANGEDBETWEEN40AND903–7THEAIMOFTHISSTUDYWASTODEVELOPSPHERICALGRINDINGANDBALLBURNISHINGSURFACEFINISHPROCESSESOFAFREEFORMSURFACE62PLASTICINJECTIONMOLDONAMACHININGCENTERTHEFLOWCHARTOFAUTOMATEDSURFACEFINISHUSINGSPHERICALGRINDINGANDBALLBURNISHINGPROCESSESISSHOWNINFIG3WEBEGANBYDESIGNINGANDMANUFACTURINGTHESPHERICALGRINDINGTOOLANDITSALIGNMENTDEVICEFORUSEONAMACHININGCENTERTHEOPTIMALSURFACESPHERICALGRINDINGPARAMETERSWEREDETERMINEDBYUTILIZINGATAGUCHI’SORTHOGONALARRAYMETHODFOURFACTORSANDTHREECORRESPONDINGLEVELSWERETHENCHOSENFORTHETAGUCHI’SL18MATRIXEXPERIMENTTHEOPTIMALMOUNTEDSPHERICALGRINDINGPARAMETERSFORSURFACEGRINDINGWERETHENAPPLIEDTOTHESURFACEFINISHOFAFREEFORMSURFACECARRIERTOIMPROVETHESURFACEROUGHNESS,THEGROUNDSURFACEWASFURTHERBURNISHED,USINGTHEOPTIMALBALLBURNISHINGPARAMETERSFIG1SCHEMATICDIAGRAMOFTHESPHERICALGRINDINGPROCESSFIG2SCHEMATICDIAGRAMOFTHEBALLBURNISHINGPROCESSFIG3FLOWCHARTOFAUTOMATEDSURFACEFINISHUSINGSPHERICALGRINDINGANDBALLBURNISHINGPROCESSES2DESIGNOFTHESPHERICALGRINDINGTOOLANDITSALIGNMENTDEVICETOCARRYOUTTHEPOSSIBLESPHERICALGRINDINGPROCESSOFAFREEFORMSURFACE,THECENTEROFTHEBALLGRINDERSHOULDCOINCIDEWITHTHEZAXISOFTHEMACHININGCENTERTHEMOUNTEDSPHERICALGRINDINGTOOLANDITSADJUSTMENTDEVICEWASDESIGNED,ASSHOWNINFIG4THEELECTRICGRINDERWASMOUNTEDINATOOLHOLDERWITHTWOADJUSTABLEPIVOTSCREWSTHECENTEROFTHEGRINDERBALLWASWELLALIGNEDWITHTHEHELPOFTHECONICGROOVEOFTHEALIGNMENTCOMPONENTSHAVINGALIGNEDTHEGRINDERBALL,TWOADJUSTABLEPIVOTSCREWSWERETIGHTENED;AFTERWHICH,THEALIGNMENTCOMPONENTSCOULDBEREMOVEDTHEDEVIATIONBETWEENTHECENTERCOORDINATESOFTHEBALLGRINDERANDTHATOFTHESHANKWASABOUT5M,WHICHWASMEASUREDBYACNCCOORDINATEMEASURINGMACHINETHEFORCEINDUCEDBYTHEVIBRATIONOFTHEMACHINEBEDISABSORBEDBYAHELICALSPRINGTHEMANUFACTUREDSPHERICALGRINDINGTOOLANDBALLBURNISHINGTOOLWEREMOUNTED,ASSHOWNINFIG5THESPINDLEWASLOCKEDFORBOTHTHESPHERICALGRINDINGPROCESSANDTHEBALLBURNISHINGPROCESSBYASPINDLELOCKINGMECHANISM63FIG4SCHEMATICILLUSTRATIONOFTHESPHERICALGRINDINGTOOLANDITSADJUSTMENTDEVICE3PLANNINGOFTHEMATRIXEXPERIMENT31CONFIGURATIONOFTAGUCHI’SORTHOGONALARRAYTHEEFFECTSOFSEVERALPARAMETERSCANBEDETERMINEDEFFICIENTLYBYCONDUCTINGMATRIXEXPERIMENTSUSINGTAGUCHI’SORTHOGONALARRAY8TOMATCHTHEAFOREMENTIONEDSPHERICALGRINDINGPARAMETERS,THEABRASIVEMATERIALOFTHEGRINDERBALLWITHTHEDIAMETEROF10MM,THEFEEDRATE,THEDEPTHOFGRINDING,ANDTHEREVOLUTIONOFTHEELECTRICGRINDERWERESELECTEDASTHEFOUREXPERIMENTALFACTORSPARAMETERSANDDESIGNATEDASFACTORATODSEETABLE1INTHISRESEARCHTHREELEVELSSETTINGSFOREACHFACTORWERECONFIGUREDTOCOVERTHERANGEOFINTEREST,ANDWEREIDENTIFIG5APHOTOOFTHESPHERICALGRINDINGTOOLBPHOTOOFTHEBALLBURNISHINGTOOLTABLE1THEEXPERIMENTALFACTORSANDTHEIRLEVELSFACTORLEVEL123AABRASIVEMATERIALSICAL2O3,WAAL2O3,PABFEEDMM/MIN50100200CDEPTHOFGRINDINGM205080DREVOLUTIONRPM120001800024000FIEDBYTHEDIGITS1,2,AND3THREETYPESOFABRASIVEMATERIALS,NAMELYSILICONCARBIDESIC,WHITEALUMINUMOXIDEAL2O3,WA,ANDPINKALUMINUMOXIDEAL2O3,PA,WERESELECTEDANDSTUDIEDTHREENUMERICALVALUESOFEACHFACTORWEREDETERMINEDBASEDONTHEPRESTUDYRESULTSTHEL18ORTHOGONALARRAYWASSELECTEDTOCONDUCTTHEMATRIXEXPERIMENTFORFOUR3LEVELFACTORSOFTHESPHERICALGRINDINGPROCESS32DEFINITIONOFTHEDATAANALYSISENGINEERINGDESIGNPROBLEMSCANBEDIVIDEDINTOSMALLERTHEBETTERTYPES,NOMINALTHEBESTTYPES,LARGERTHEBETTERTYPES,SIGNEDTARGETTYPES,AMONGOTHERS8THESIGNALTONOISES/NRATIOISUSEDASTHEOBJECTIVEFUNCTIONFOROPTIMIZINGAPRODUCTORPROCESSDESIGNTHESURFACEROUGHNESSVALUEOFTHEGROUNDSURFACEVIAANADEQUATECOMBINATIONOFGRINDINGPARAMETERSSHOULDBESMALLERTHANTHATOFTHEORIGINALSURFACECONSEQUENTLY,THESPHERICALGRINDINGPROCESSISANEXAMPLEOFASMALLERTHEBETTERTYPEPROBLEMTHES/NRATIO,Η,ISDEFINEDBYTHEFOLLOWINGEQUATION8Η−10LOG10MEANSQUAREQUALITYCHARACTERISTIC−10LOG10BRACKETLEFTBIGG1NNSUMMATIONDISPLAYI1Y2IBRACKETRIGHTBIGG1WHEREYIOBSERVATIONSOFTHEQUALITYCHARACTERISTICUNDERDIFFERENTNOISECONDITIONSNNUMBEROFEXPERIMENTAFTERTHES/NRATIOFROMTHEEXPERIMENTALDATAOFEACHL18ORTHOGONALARRAYISCALCULATED,THEMAINEFFECTOFEACHFACTORWASDETERMINEDBYUSINGANANALYSISOFVARIANCEANOVATECHNIQUEANDANFRATIOTEST8THEOPTIMIZATIONSTRATEGYOFTHE64SMALLERTHEBETTERPROBLEMISTOMAXIMIZEΗ,ASDEFINEDBYEQ1LEVELSTHATMAXIMIZEΗWILLBESELECTEDFORTHEFACTORSTHATHAVEASIGNIFICANTEFFECTONΗTHEOPTIMALCONDITIONSFORSPHERICALGRINDINGCANTHENBEDETERMINED4EXPERIMENTALWORKANDRESULTSTHEMATERIALUSEDINTHISSTUDYWASPDS5TOOLSTEELEQUIVALENTTOAISIP209,WHICHISCOMMONLYUSEDFORTHEMOLDSOFLARGEPLASTICINJECTIONPRODUCTSINTHEFIELDOFAUTOMOBILECOMPONENTSANDDOMESTICAPPLIANCESTHEHARDNESSOFTHISMATERIALISABOUTHRC33HS469ONESPECIFICADVANTAGEOFTHISMATERIALISTHATAFTERMACHINING,THEMOLDCANBEDIRECTLYUSEDFORFURTHERFINISHINGPROCESSESWITHOUTHEATTREATMENTDUETOITSSPECIALPRETREATMENTTHESPECIMENSWEREDESIGNEDANDMANUFACTUREDSOTHATTHEYCOULDBEMOUNTEDONADYNAMOMETERTOMEASURETHEREACTIONFORCETHEPDS5SPECIMENWASROUGHLYMACHINEDANDTHENMOUNTEDONTHEDYNAMOMETERTOCARRYOUTTHEFINEMILLINGONATHREEAXISMACHININGCENTERMADEBYYANGIRONCOMPANYTYPEMV3A,EQUIPPEDWITHAFUNUCCOMPANYNCCONTROLLERTYPE0M10THEPREMACHINEDSURFACEROUGHNESSWASMEASURED,USINGHOMMELWERKET4000EQUIPMENT,TOBEABOUT16MFIGURE6SHOWSTHEEXPERIMENTALSETUPOFTHESPHERICALGRINDINGPROCESSAMP10TOUCHTRIGGERPROBEMADEBYTHERENISHAWCOMPANYWASALSOINTEGRATEDWITHTHEMACHININGCENTERTOOLMAGAZINETOMEASUREANDDETERMINETHECOORDINATEDORIGINOFTHESPECIMENTOBEGROUNDTHENCCODESNEEDEDFORTHEBALLBURNISHINGPATHWEREGENERATEDBYPOWERMILLCAMSOFTWARETHESECODESCANBETRANSMITTEDTOTHECNCCONTROLLEROFTHEMACHININGCENTERVIARS232SERIALINTERFACETABLE2SUMMARIZESTHEMEASUREDGROUNDSURFACEROUGHNESSVALUERAANDTHECALCULATEDS/NRATIOOFEACHL18ORTHOGONALARRAYUSINGEQ1,AFTERHAVINGEXECUTEDTHE18MATRIXEXPERIMENTSTHEAVERAGES/NRATIOFOREACHLEVELOFTHEFOURFACTORSCANBEOBTAINED,ASLISTEDINTABLE3,BYTAKINGTHENUMERICALVALUESPROVIDEDINTABLE2THEAVERAGES/NRATIOFOREACHLEVELOFTHEFOURFACTORSISSHOWNGRAPHICALLYINFIG7FIG6EXPERIMENTALSETUPTODETERMINETHEOPTIMALSPHERICALGRINDINGPARAMETERSTABLE2GROUNDSURFACEROUGHNESSOFPDS5SPECIMENEXPINNERARRAYMEASUREDSURFACERESPONSENOCONTROLFACTORSROUGHNESSVALUERAABCDY1Y2Y3S/NRATIOMEANMMMΗDBYM1111103503503591190350212220370360388634037031333041044040759704174212306306506438760640522310730770782380076062312045042039752004207313203403103298010323832130270250281147102679332103203203298970320101122035039040839003801112330410500436968044712131104003904278830403132113033034031971203271422210480500476312048315233205706105348680570163131059055054503005601732120360360358954035718332305705305352930543TABLE3AVERAGES/NRATIOSBYFACTORLEVELSDBFACTORABCDLEVEL18099765591106770LEVEL25778745370678028LEVEL38408717661077486EFFECT2630047930031258
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