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大连交通大学2008届本科生毕业设计(论文)外文翻译DevelopmentofthecompositeflexsplineforacycloidtypeharmonicdriveusingnetshapemanufacturingmethodTheflexsplineforaharmonicdrivemustbeflexibleintheradialdirectionfortheelasticdeformation,butmustbestiffinthetorsionaldirectionforaccuratetransmissionofrotationalmotion.Sincetheserequirementscannotbesatisfiedsimultaneouslywithconventionalmetalssuchassteeloraluminium,inthisworkthecarbonfiberepoxycompositematerialwasemployedfortheflexsplinematerialinordertoincreasethetorsionalstiffnessbytailoringthestackingsequenceandtoimprovethemanufacturingproductivitybymouldingratherthanmachining.Thetoothedcompositeflexsplinewasmanufacturedwiththeelastomericcascadetoolingthatiscomposedofthesteeltoothdie,thesiliconrubbermandrelandtheconeshapedsteelcore.Also,thesteelflexsplinewiththesamedimensionsofthecompositeflexsplinewasmanufacturedbyCNCwirecuttingmethod.Thestaticanddynamicperformancesofthecompositeflexsplineandthesteelflexsplinewereexperimentallytested.Fromthetestresults,itwasfoundthatthedevelopedcompositeflexsplinehadbetterflexibilityintheradialdirectionandhighdampingcapacityatthefundamentalnaturalfrequency.INTRODUCTIONTheharmonicdriveisaspecialgeardrivespeedreductionsystemwhoseoperationprincipleisbasedontheelasticdeformationratherthantherigidbodymotionofgeneralgearingsystem.Ithasmanyadvantages,suchashighspeedreductionratio,highrotationalaccuracy,hightorquetransferperweight,highefficiency,littlebacklashandverycompactsize.Therefore,theharmonicdriveiswidelyacceptedinindustrialrobotsandprecisionmechanisms.Thethreebasiccomponentsoftheharmonicdrivearethecircularspline,flexsplineandellipticalwavegeneratorasshowninFig.1.Thecircularsplinewhichhasusuallytwoorfourmoreteeththantheflexsplineoperatesinrigidbodymotion.Theflexsplineisusuallydesignedasathinwalledcuptypeshape.Theflexsplineiscomposedoftooth,tubeandbosssectionsasshowninFig.2.Figure3showstheprincipleofmotionoftheharmonicdrive.Astheballbearingmountedontheellipticalwavegeneratordeformstheflexspline大连交通大学2008届本科生毕业设计(论文)外文翻译asshowninFig.3,theteethoftheflexsplineonthemajoraxisoftheellipticalwavegeneratorengagetheteethofthecircularsplineandtheteethoftheflexsplineontheminoraxisdisengagetheteethofthecircularspline.Iftherigidcircularsplineisfixed,theclockwiserotatingofthewavegeneratorproducesthecounterclockwiserotationoftheflexspline.Ifthecircularsplinehas102teethandtheflexsplinehas100teeth,asingleclockwiserevolutionofthewavegeneratormakestheflexsplinerotatecounterclockwisethroughananglecomparabletotwoteeth.Inthiscase,therotationalvelocityratiois501.Theflexsplineoftheharmonicdrivethatisthekeyelementforthetorquetransmissionhasthecontradictorydualrolethatmustbeflexibleintheradialdirectionbutmustbestiffinthetorsionaldirectiontoaccuratelytransmitrotationalmotion.Theconventionalflexsplinethatismadeofisotropicmaterialssuchassteeloraluminiumcannotsatisfyperfectlythecontradictorydualrole.Also,themotionoftheharmonicdriveisnotperfectlysmoothbuthasaripplewhichhasthesamefrequencyasthewavegenerator.4Theripplecanproducenoiseandvibrationduringoperation.However,iftheflexsplineismanufacturedusingthecarbonfiberepoxycompositematerial,manydrawbacksoftheharmonicdrivecanbeeliminated,becausethecarbonfiberepoxycompositematerialhashighspecificstiffness,highspecificstrengthandhighmaterialdampingcapacity.Therefore,inthiswork,theflexsplinewasdesignedandmanufacturedwiththehighstrengthcarbonfiberepoxymaterial.Thetorsionalstiffnesswasincreasedwithoutincreasingtheradialstiffnessbytailoringthestackingsequenceandselectionofthefiberorientation.TheinitialstudyonthedevelopmentofthecompositeflexsplinewithcarbonfiberepoxycompositematerialsfortheharmonicdrivewascarriedoutbyOh6andJeong.7Theymanufacturedthecompositeflexsplinebyadhesivelyjoiningtheseparatelymanufacturedpartssuchastheboss,tubeandtoothsections.Sincethepreviousmanufacturingmethodsrequiredseverallaborintensiveoperations,inthiswork,anewnetshapemanufacturingmethodforthecompositeflexsplinewasdevelopedtoincreasemanufacturingproductivity.Inthismethod,allthesectionsoftheflexsplineweremadewithcarbonfiberepoxycompositematerialexceptthebosssection.Sincetheinvolutetoothprofilethatisusedintheconventionalsteelflexsplinehasasmallcurvatureatthededendum,thestressconcentrationattherootoftheteethislargewhentheflexsplineisellipticallydeformed,whichshortensthelifeofthe大连交通大学2008届本科生毕业设计(论文)外文翻译flexspline.。However,thecycloidtoothprofilehaslessstressconcentrationattherootsectionofthetoothbecausethecurvatureislargerthantheinvolutecurve.Thedisadvantageofthecycloidtoothisthedifficultyofmachining.However,iftheteetharemolded,themanufacturingdifficultyofthecycloidandinvoluteteethwillbethesame.Therefore,inthiswork,anepitrochoidtypecycloidcmve,8whichwasusuallyemployedforthetoothprofileoftheconventionalcycloiddrive,wasmodifiedandadaptedforthecycloidtypeharmonicdrivetoimprovethestrengthoftheharmonicdrive.Also,thenewcircularsplinethatwasmatedwiththeepitrochoidtypecycloidteethoftheflexsplinewasmanufacturedwiththecarbonfibercompositematerialandsteelpins.Forthemanufacturingmethodofthetoothedflexspline,anelastomericcascadetoolingthatiscomposedofthesteeltoothdie,thesiliconrubberdieandtheconeshapedsteelcorewasused.ThetoothprofileofthesteeldiewasmanufacturedbyaCNCwirecuttingmachine.Also,thesteelflexsplinewiththesamedimensionsofthecompositeflexsplinewasmadebyCNCwirecuttingmachinetocomparetheperformances.Finallythestaticanddynamictestswereperformedtocomparethemechanicalpropertiesofthedevelopedcompositeflexsplines.DESIGNOFTHECYCLOIDTYPEHARMONICDRIVEThecycloiddrivewhoseoperationalprincipleissimilartothatoftheharmonicdriveoperatesintherigidbodymotion.Thecycloiddriveiscomposedoftherigidinternalgearwhichhasmanypins,therigidplanetarygearwhichhastheepitrochoidtoothprofileandtheballbearingmountedontherigidringasshowninFig.4.Therigidringisusuallyassembledintheeccentricinputshaft.Whentheinternalgearisfixed,theeccentricrotationoftherigidringaroundtheinputshaftproducesamotionoftheplanetarygear.Sincethepintypetoothprofileisusedintheinternalgearandtheepitrochoidtoothprofilewhichismadefromsinusoidalfunctionsisusedintheplanetarygearoftheconventionalcycloiddrive,inthiswork,thepintypetoothprofilewasusedinthetoothprofileofthecircularsplineandtheepitrochoidtoothprofilewasusedinthetoothprofileoftheflexspline.Thebehaviorofthedesignedtoothprofilewascheckedthroughthecomputersimulationtoavoidthetoothinterferenceduringmotion.Figure5showstheconfigurationofthedevelopedcircularsplineandtheflexsplineofthecycloidtypeharmonicdrive.Table1showsthedimensionsofthedevelopedcycloidtypeharmonicdrive.大连交通大学2008届本科生毕业设计(论文)外文翻译Figure6showstheassembledcrosssectionsoftheconventionalinvolutetypeharmonicdriveandthedevelopedharmonicdrive.Figure7showsacomputergraphicsimulationoftheengagementoftheinvoluteanddevelopedflexsplines.FromFig.7,itwasfoundthattheinterferenceofthetoothofthedevelopedcycloidtypeflexsplinedidnotoccurduringtheflexsplinetranslation.NETSHAPEMANUFACTURINGOFTHEFLEXSPLINEInordertomanufacturethecompositeflexsplinewithnetshapemanufacturingmethod,theelastomericcascadetoolingwhichiscomposedofthetoothdie,thetubedie,thesiliconrubbermandrel,thesteelcoreandthevises,wasusedinthethiswork.Figure8showsthedieassemblyforthemanufacturingofthecompositeflexspline.Inthismethod,theteethofthecompositeflexsplineweremoldedusingthetoothdiewhichhastheshapeoftheinternalgear.TheteethofthetoothdieweremachinedbyaCNCwirecuttingmachine.ThetoothmachiningwascarriedoutintwostagessuchasroughcuttingwithO3mmdiameterwireandprecisecuttingwith0.1mmdiameterwire.ThetoothdieasshowninFig.9wascomposedoffourpartstomakedemoldingofthecompositeflexsplineeasy.Beforewirecuttingthetoothprofile,therawdiematerialwasdividedintofourpieces.Aftergrindingthedividedsurfaces,thefourpartswereassembledandthetoothprofilewascutbyaCNCwirecuttingmachine.Figure9ashowsthetoothdiebeforeassemblyandFig.9bshowstheassembledtoothdie.Fortheconsolidationofthecompositematerialduringcure,thetaperedhollowsiliconrubbermandrelwasused.Inordertocompressthesiliconmandrel,thesteelcorewith5taperwasinsertedandpusheddownusingtheclampingnutsandbolts.Byadjustingtheclampinglength,thepressureofthesiliconmandrelwascontrolled.Thetubediewhichwasusedtomanufacturethetubesectionofthetlexsplinewasalsodividedintotwopartstomakethedemoldingoftheflexsplineeasy.Inordertorelievethestressconcentrationattheendofthetooth,theendofthetubediewastaperedat45.Thecompositeflexsplinewasmanufacturedbythefollowingprocesses.Thecarbonfiberepoxyprepregwaswrappedonthesiliconmandrel.ThepartoftheprepregtowhichthebossoftheflexsplineasshowninFig.2wasjoinedbycocurewasheatedalittletomaketheprepregflexibleandwasjoinedtothebosspart.Then,thetubesectionofthesiliconmandrelwrappedwithprepregwascoveredbythetube
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