外文翻译---花键轴开模冷挤压中局部镦粗问题的解决和相关光塑性研究 英文版.doc外文翻译---花键轴开模冷挤压中局部镦粗问题的解决和相关光塑性研究 英文版.doc

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JOURNALOFMATERIALSPROCESSINGTECHNOLOGY1142001185188SOLUTIONTOTHEBULGINGPROBLEMINTHEOPENDIECOLDEXTRUSIONOFASPLINESHAFTANDRELEVANTPHOTOPLASTICTHEORETICALSTUDYZHAOHUIHUANGA,,PEIFUFUBAFORGINGDIVISION,BEIJINGINSTITUTEOFAERONAUTICALMATERIALS,BEIJING100095,PRCHINABDEPARTMENTOFMATERIALSSCIENCEANDENGINEERING,JILINUNIVERSITYOFTECHNOLOGY,CHANGCHUN130025,PRCHINARECEIVED21JUNE1999ABSTRACTCOMPAREDWITHOTHERFORMINGMETHODS,THECOLDEXTRUSIONOFASPLINESHAFTHASMANYADVANTAGESHOWEVER,THEPROBLEMOFBULGINGATTHEDIEENTRANCE,WHICHISNOTYETSOLVED,RESISTSTHEWIDEAPPLICATIONOFTHISNETORNEARNETSHAPETECHNOLOGYTOSOLVETHEBULGINGPROBLEM,THEMETHODOFADDINGAGUIDINGLENGTHUPONTHEDIEENTRANCEINTHEDIEDESIGNINGISPUTFORWARDINTHISPAPERONTHEBASISOFPHOTOPLASTICEXPERIMENTS,ATHEORETICALANALYSISMODELOFTHESOLUTIONISFOUND,ANDTHECALCULATINGMETHODFORTHEGUIDINGLENGTHISALSOSUBMITTEDTHEAPPROPRIATEPROCESSINGPARAMETERSARECHOSENBASEDONTHECALCULATEDRESULTS,ANDASATISFACTORYEFFECTHASBEENOBTAINEDINTHEACTUALPROCESSING2001ELSEVIERSCIENCEBVALLRIGHTSRESERVEDKEYWORDSSPLINESHAFT;COLDEXTRUSION;BULGING;PHOTOPLASTICITY1INTRODUCTIONINRECENTYEARS,NETORNEARNETSHAPETECHNOLOGIESWITHTHEIRPOSSIBILITIESOFPRODUCINGPARTSWITHREADYTOBUILTINFUNCTIONALSURFACESHAVEBECOMEMOREANDMOREINTERESTING,EVENFORTHEPRODUCTIONOFCOMPLEXPARTSTHECOLDEXTRUSIONOFASPLINESHAFTHASAGREATERPOTENTIALTHANCUTTING,ATDIETHREADROLLINGANDROLLING,BECAUSEOFITSMANYOUTSTANDINGADVANTAGESSUCHASTHESAVINGOFRAWMATERIALS,HIGHPRODUCTIVITY,SUPERIORPRODUCTQUALITYANDLOWCOSTHOWEVER,THEDIEDESIGNANDTHECHOICEOFTHEPROCESSPARAMETERSRELYONEMPIRICALFACTORSDUETOTHELACKOFSYSTEMATICANALYSISANDSOTHEBILLETUSUALLYBULGESATTHEDIEENTRANCE,WHICHLEADSTOTHEFAILUREOFEXTRUSIONINTHEACTUALPROCESSRECENTLY,THISBULGINGPROBLEMHASBEENMAINLYSOLVEDBYEXPENSIVETRIALANDERRORINMAJORPLANTS,WHICHLIMITSGREATLYTHEAPPLICATIONOFTHISADVANCEDPROCESSTHECALCULATIONOFTHEFORMINGFORCEANDTHEPARAMETERSOFFORMINGPROCESSOFTHECOLDEXTRUSIONOFASPLINESHAFTHAVEBEENSTUDIEDBYSOMERESEARCHERS15,BUTSTUDYONTHEBULGINGPROBLEMHASNOTBEENREPORTEDTHISPAPERPUTSEMPHASISONTHESOLUTIONOFTHEBULGINGPROBLEM,ANDRELEVANTEXPERIMENTALANDTHEORETICALANALYSISCORRESPONDINGAUTHOREMAILADDRESSHUAPINGXIONGBIAMACCNZHUANG2THEFORMATIONOFBULGINGANDITSSOLUTION21HOWTOAVOIDBULGINGDURINGTHEPROCESSINGOFTHEOPENDIEEXTRUSIONOFASPLINESHAFT,THATPARTOFTHEBILLETWHICHHASNOTYETENTEREDTHEPLASTICZONEOFTHEDIEANDCANNOTBERESTRAINEDBYTHEDIE,SHOULDNOTBEDEFORMEDTHUSTHEFORMINGCONDITIONOFOPENDIEEXTRUSIONISPSSWHEREPISTHEUNITFORMINGFORCEONTHECROSSSECTIONOFTHEBILLET,ANDSSISTHEYIELDLIMITOFTHEEXTRUDEDMATERIALIFPSS,THENPARTOFTHEBILLETINFRONTOFTHEENTRANCEOFTHECONICALDIEWILLBEDEFORMEDFIRSTANDSUBSEQUENTLYBULGEDFINALLY,THEMETALFLOWISRESTRICTEDANDTHEOPENDIEEXTRUSIONFAILSWHICHPARAMETERISTHEMAJORFACTORFORDIEDESIGNINGANDHOWTOJUDGETHESUCCESSORFAILUREOFTHEOPENDIEEXTRUSIONISAPROBLEMSOMESTUDIESABOUTTHISPROBLEMWEREDONEWITHTHEUPPERBOUNDMETHOD6,7WHENTHEOTHERPARAMETERSAREFIXED,THEREARETWOCRITICALVALUESOFSEMICONEANGLEACR1ANDACR2ACR1ACR2WHENACR1AACR2,THEFORMINGCONDITIONPSSISSATISFIED,ANDTHEBULGINGPROBLEMCANBEAVOIDEDFURTHERMORE,THECRITICALVALUESVARYWITHTHECHANGEOFTHEOTHERPROCESSPARAMETERSINWHICHAANDSSARETWOIMPORTANTVARIABLESFIG1SHOWSTHEVARIATIONOFTHECRITICALDIEANGLEWITH09240136/01/SEEFRONTMATTER2001ELSEVIERSCIENCEBVALLRIGHTSRESERVEDPIIS0924013601007373186ZHUANG,PFU/JOURNALOFMATERIALSPROCESSINGTECHNOLOGY1142001185188FIG2THESTATEOFSPLINEFORMINGWITHDIFFERENTGUIDINGLENGTHSAL028MM;BL025MMTHEEXTRUDEDSPLINEINTHECASEOFL025MM,THEBULGINGPHENOMENONBECOMESWORSE,THEREARESERIOUSDEFECTSSUCHFIG1VARIATIONOFTHECRITICALDIEANGLEWITHDIFFERENTHARDNESSOFTHEBILLETDIFFERENTHARDNESSOFTHEBILLETIFAISWITHINTHERANGEOFTWOCROSSPOINTS,THEFORMINGPROCESSCANBECOMPLETEDSUCCESSFULLYTHESMALLERTHEBILLETHARDNESS,THENARROWERISTHERANGEOFA22SOLUTIONTOBULGINGINGENERAL,THELENGTHOFASPLINECONSISTSOFTHELENGTHWITHANENTIRETOOTH,ANDTHELENGTHWITHAPARTIALTOOTH,WHERETHELATTERMEANSTHEAXIALLENGTHOFTHEDIEANGLEINENGINEERINGDESIGNING,THELENGTHWITHAPARTIALTOOTHISALWAYSSHORTDUETOTHELIMITOFTHEWHOLELENGTHOFTHESHAFT,WHICHWILLLEADTOALARGEDIEANGLE,FREQUENTLYOUTSIDETHECRITICALRANGE,IEAACR2,CONSEQUENTLY,BULGINGCANNOTBEAVOIDEDONTHEBASISOFEXPERIMENTS,AFEASIBLEMETHODOFSOLVINGTHEBULGINGPROBLEMISSUBMITTEDASFOLLOWSADDINGAGUIDINGLENGTHL0ATTHEDIEENTRANCETORESTRAINTHEEXPANSIONOFTHEBULGINGSOTHATTHEOTHERPARTSOFTHEBILLETAREEXTRUDEDCONTINUOUSLYCORRESPONDINGEXPERIMENTSHAVEBEENDONE,BEGINNINGWITHL040MM,ANDTHENDECREASINGL0PROGRESSIVELYIFTHEEXTRUSIONISSUCCESSFULUNTILTHEEXTRUSIONFAILSOTHERPARAMETERSAREASFOLLOWSR1RADIUSOFTOOTHROOF101MM;R2RADIUSOFTOOTHROOT79MM;BTOOTHWIDTH395MM;ZTOOTHNUMBER6;RA3059THEMATERIALUSEDIS20CRMOSTEELLUBRICATEDBYPHOSPHATECOATINGTHERESULTSARELISTEDINTABLE1WHENL031MM,THEIDEALSPLINESHAFTCANBEOBTAINEDFORL028MM,ITSCONDITIONISUNSTABLEASSHOWNINFIG2A,ALITTLEBULGINGAPPEARSATTHEDIEENTRANCE,ANDTHEREARESOMENECRACKSONTHESURFACEOFTABLE1EFFECTOFDIFFERENTGUIDINGLENGTHONFORMINGABILITYGUIDINGLENGTHL0MM43734312825FORMINGABILITYOKOKOKOKUNSTEADYPOORASTEARSANDBURNSONTHESURFACEOFTHEEXTRUDEDSPLINEANDONLYASHORTLENGTHOFSPLINEDSHAFTISCOMPLETEDWITHTHEINCREASEOFBULGING,NORMALEXTRUSIONFAILSASFIG2BITISCONCLUDEDFROMABOVETHATASUITABLEGUIDINGLENGTHL0CANRESTRAINBULGING,ANDENABLEEXTRUSIONTOBECARRIEDOUTSUCCESSFULLY,EVENIFAISOUTSIDETHEFORMABILITYRANGEAACR23THEORETICALANALYSISMODELANDCALCULATIONMETHODFORTHEGUIDINGLENGTHL031PHOTOPLASTICEXPERIMENTSITO8STATEDRSTLYTHATPOLYCARBONATEPCCANREPLACECELLULOIDASAPHOTOPLASTICMODELMATERIAL,ANDPCALSOCANSIMULATECOLDFORMINGINTHISPAPER,THEAUTHORSSELECTAPHYSICALSIMULATIONMETHOD9TOSTUDYTHEABOVESOLUTIONTOTHEBULGINGPROBLEM,THEAIMBEINGTOOBTAINATHEORETICALANALYSISMODELBYTHEOBJECTIVESIMULATEDMETHODTHESIMULATEDMATERIALISPC,ANDTWODIEANGLES,A30ANDA45,ARECHOSENFIG3AANDBPRESENTSTHEISOCHROMATICPATTERNSFORALONGITUDINALSLICEWITHOUTBULGINGA30ANDTHEISOCHROMATICPATTERNSFORALONGITUDINALSLICEWITHBULGINGA45ITISFOUNDTHATWHENAACR2WITHOUTBULGINGTHEMETALOWSNORMALLYALONGTHEDIEINTERFACE,ANDTHEREISAZONEOFZERODEGREEFRINGES,WHICHMEANSTHATTHEREISNOPLASTICDEFORMATIONUPONTHEENTRANCEOFTHEDIEANGLEWHENAACR2A45,THEBILLETBECOMESBULGEDUPONENTERINGTHEDIEANGLE,ANDTHEFRINGESINTHISZONEAREVERYCLOSE,SIGNIFYINGTHATACONCENTRATIONOFSTRAINOCCURSHOWEVER,UPONTHEBULGING,THEREISALSOTHEZONEOFZERODEGREEFRINGESASLICEOFCROSSSECTIONATTHEBULGINGISILLUSTRATEDINFIG3CTHEREARESIXSYMMETRICALZONESOFFRINGES,WHILSTTHEOTHERSAREZONESOFZERODEGREEFRINGES,WHERENOPLASTICDEFORMATIONOCCURREDTHEDIAMETEROFTHESIXFRINGEDZONESISLARGERTHANTHATOFTHEOTHERZONES,BECAUSEINTHESEZONES,THEEXTRUDEDBILLETISDEFORMEDINTHERADIALDIRECTION,ANDEXPANDEDTOTHEGUIDINGLENGTHINTERFACE,LEADINGTOBULGINGZHUANG,PFU/JOURNALOFMATERIALSPROCESSINGTECHNOLOGY1142001185188FIG4THETHEORETICALANALYSISMODELOFTHEGUIDINGLENGTH187FIG3THEFRINGESOFPHOTOPLASTICEXPERIMENTSATHEISOCHROMATICPATTERNSFORALONGITUDINALSLICEWITHOUTBULGINGA30;BTHEISOCHROMATICPATTERNSFORALONGITUDINALSLICEWITHBULGINGA45;CTHEISOCHROMATICPATTERNSFORATRANSVERSESLICEATTHEBULGING32THEORETICALANALYSISMODELTHETHEORETICALANALYSISMODELOFTHESOLUTIONTOBULGINGISTHUSPRESENTEDONTHEBASISOFTHEABOVEPHOTOPLASTICEXPERIMENTSINFIG4WHENAACR2,THEMETALDISTORTIONISSOSERIOUSTHATPSS,RESULTINGINBULGINGWHENAGUIDINGLENGTHL0ISADDEDATTHEDIEENTRANCETORESTRAINTHEEXPANSIONOFTHEBULGING,THEBULGEDMETALFORMSADEADZONETHEOTHERPARTSHEARSTHROUGHTHEEASIESTOWINGCHANNELALSONAMEDTHEDEADZONEANGLEA1,WHICHWILLMINIMIZETHETOTALPOWERREQUIREDWHENADEADZONEFORMSINTHISWAYTHENORMALOPENDIEEXTRUSIONCANBEACCOMPLISHEDSMOOTHLYEVENIFAACR2DUETOA1A,THEREISADISTANCEBETWEENA1ANDAINTHEAXIALDIRECTION,ANDTHISDISTANCEISJUSTTHELIMITINGLENGTHOFTHEGUIDINGLENGTHL0,NAMEDL0LIMOBVIOUSLY,ONLYWHENL0L0LIMCANTHEGUIDINGLENGTHRESTRAINTHEBULGINGANDMAKETHEMETALOWCONTINUOUSLYTHISAPPROACHPRODUCESRESTRAINTOFTHEBILLETBEFOREENTERINGTHEDIEANGLE,BUTASHORTL0LIMISEXPECTEDFORDIEDESIGNING33CALCULATINGMETHODOFTHEGUIDINGLENGTHL0LIMITISKNOWNFROMTHEABOVEDISCUSSIONTHATDEADZONESAPPEARWHENAACR2THEMETALINTHEDEADZONEADHERESTOTHEDIEANDCANNOTMOVESOTHATASHEARINGSURFACEISGENERATEDATTHECONEANGLEA1,ANDTHEDEADZONEACTSASTHEDIESURFACETHROUGHWHICHTHEMETALISOWINGATTHESURFACEA1,THEFRICTIONBETWEENTHEDEADMETALANDTHEOWINGMETALISNOTHIGHERTHANTHESHEARINGSTRENGTHOFTHEMETALUSEDTS0310,11THEN,WHENAACR2,AISMADEASTHEOPTIMALPARAMETER,ANDTHEORIGINALFRICTIONCONDITIONISREPLACEDUSINGM1SUBSTITUTINGTHESEFACTORSINTOTHEUBM5,6,THEVALUEOFA1CANBEOBTAINEDWHENMINIMIZINGTHEPVALUE,ANDTHEREFORE,THEVALUEOFL0LIMISDETERMINEDBYCALCULATINGTHEDISTANCEOFA1ANDAINTHEAXIALDIRECTION4EXPERIMENTSANDANALYSISINTHISSECTION,THETHEORETICALANALYSISMODELANDCALCULATIONMETHODFORL0LIMAREVERIEDBYEXPERIMENTTHREEDIFFERENTSIZESOFSPLINEAREUSED,ANDTHREEEXPERIMENTALMATERIALSAREAPPLIEDPOLYCABONATE,20CRMOSTEELAND20CRMNTISTEELTHEIRSTRESSSTRAINCURVESAREOBTAINED188TABLE2ZHUANG,PFU/JOURNALOFMATERIALSPROCESSINGTECHNOLOGY1142001185188ANDTHATTHETHEORETICALANALYSISANDCALCULATIONMETHODARECOMPARISONOFEXPERIMENTALVALUESWITHCALCULATEDVALUESEXPERIMENTALMATERIALPOLYCARBONATE20CRMOSTEEL20CRMNTISTEELEXPERIMENTALVALUE560286342OFL0LIMMMCALCULATEDVALUEOF720352452L0LIMMMERROR286231303225FIG5SPLINESHAFTSAWITHOUTANDBWITHADEADZONEBYTENSILETESTINGTHERANGEOFCRITICALANGLEISGAINEDBYTHEUBM6,7,THENANEXPERIMENTALDIEANGLELARGERTHANTHECRITICALANGLEISCHOSENANDTHECOLDEXTRUSIONOFASPLINEISCARRIEDOUTTHEEXPERIMENTALVALUESANDCALCULATEDRESULTSARECOMPAREDINTABLE2THECALCULATEDRESULTSAGREEWELLWITHTHEEXPERIMENTALRESULTS,THEERROROFTHEUBMBEING30ORSOCONSIDERINGTHATTHEVALUESCALCULATEDBYTHEUBMAREALWAYSGREATERTHANOREQUALTOTHEACTUALVALUES,THEAUTHORSBELIEVETHATITISSAFETOCHOOSETHESEVALUESINTHEENGINEERINGDESIGNFINALLY,THEACTUALFORMINGPROCESSOFTHECOLDEXTRUSIONOFTHESPLINESHAFTOFAMOTORCYCLETRANSMISSIONISDONEONTHEBASISOFTHEABOVERESULTSHERE20CRMNTISTEELISUSED,ANDTHEPARAMETERSOFTHESTRAIGHTSIDESPLINEWITH6TEETHAREASFOLLOWSR110125MM,R2832MM,B4825MMTHEMAXIMUMCRITICALSEMIANGLEISACR22668VALUEOBTAINEDFROMTHEUBM7INTHEEXPERIMENTS,TWODIEANGLES,A30ANDA45,ARECHOSENWHENA45,THEGUIDINGLENGTHISL0LIM481MM7INTHEEXPERIMENTS,THEGUIDINGLENGTHL0,49MM,ISADDEDINSUCHACONDITIONTWOGROUPSOFBILLETSAREANNEALEDFORSOFTENING,ANDLUBRICATEDBYPHOSPHATECOATING,ANDTHENCOLDEXTRUDEDTHERESULTSARESHOWNINFIG5FIG5AGIVESTHECRITICALSTATEA30,WHERENOBULGINGAPPEARSALLOFTHEABOVEACCORDSWELLW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本文标题:外文翻译---花键轴开模冷挤压中局部镦粗问题的解决和相关光塑性研究 英文版.doc
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