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附录附录1ChinasconstructionmachineryandthedevelopmentofthemainachievementsofcrutchesAbstractThispaperathoroughreviewofChinasconstructionmachineryindustryinthe50yearsofthefoundingofthedevelopmentprocess,OnChinasconstructionmachineryindustryachievedamajortechnologicalachievements,pointingoutthattheindustrystechnicallevelwiththeinternationaladvancedlevelinthegapandfutureconstructionmachineryproductsinthedevelopmentoftechnicalcharacteristics.KeywordsconstructionmachinerytechnologydevelopmentConstructionofconstructionmachineryisthemaintechnicalequipment,toensureprojectquality,improveconstructionefficiency,speeduptheprogressoftheproject,reducelaborintensityofworkersandguaranteeofsafetyplaysanimportantrole.ThefoundingofNewChina50yearsago,especiallyaftertheThirdPlenumofthe11thPartyCongress,constructionmachineryandsupportingthecauseofbuildingtechnologywithChinasrapiddevelopmenthasalsomadesignificantprogressandachievedgreatachievements.1DevelopmentSince1949,constructionmachineryindustryfromscratch,fromsmalltolarge,experiencedastartup,industryformationanddevelopmentofthreehighspeeddevelopmentperiod1.1IndustrystartupperiodofIntheearlyyearsofNewChina,theconstructionsiteofconstructionmachineryareleftoverfromoldChinaBolaiPin,Chinahasnotyetprofessionalconstructionmachineryfactory.Fortheresumptionofwarsufferedseriousdamageduetothenationaleconomy,toalargescaleeconomicconstructionupsurgeinthedemandinthemid1950s,someofChinasconstructionmachineryrepairworkshopplantandothermachineryfactorygraduallydevelopedintoaprofessionalconstructionmachinerybuiltfactory.Inadditiontotherepairofconstructionmachinery,beganimitatingforeignconstructionmachinery,suchasthealkalineresistantDrumdrummixer,26tboomtowercrane,fightingcapacityandmechanicalexcavators,thelargestsincetheweightof10tand15tofmechanicalcrawlerCranesand58t,812t,12153staticgrind,suchasroller.1956,theoriginalconstructionofthebuildingmechanicaldesignestablishmentoftheroomafterthedevelopmentofmachineryfortheconstructionofmetalstructuresResearchDesignInstituteandtheInstituteofConstructionandmechanization,thestartofunifiedplanninganddevelopmentofChinasindependentconstructionmachineryproducts.Ⅱredflagfromthetowercraneandtheweightof10tand20tofthecablecranesatthattime,andsoistherepresentativeofChinasselfdevelopednewproducts.1.2duringtheformationofindustry1961to1978isaperiodofconstructionmachineryindustry.In1961,formerFirstMinistryofMachineIndustryBureauofthefifth,unifiedmanagement,planningoftheconstructionmachineryandconstructionmachineryindustrialdevelopment.StateCouncildecidedtoexcavatorplantinFushun,miningmachineryfactoryinGuiyang,constructionmachineryplantinZhengzhou,Beijingcraneplant,XuzhouHeavyMachineryPlant,ShenyangFengdonggongjuplants,XuanhuaConstructionMachineryFactory,Shaoguanexcavatorfactoryplantwasplacedunder20OneofthecentralizedleadershipoftheDepartment,specializingintheproductionofexcavators,cranes,scraper,bulldozers,suchaspneumaticZaoyanjixie.1963,theMinistryofconstructionmachinerybuiltmetalstructureoftheDepartmentofDesignInstitutewasplacedunderamachine,changeditsnametoaMinistryofConstructionMachineryInstitute.Ministryoftheoriginalbuildingwhichagroupofconstructionmachinerymanufacturers,suchastheShanghaiConstructionMachineryPlant,LiuzhouEngineeringMachineryPlant,theHarbinEngineeringMachineryPlantatthesametime,suchasaplanewasplacedundertheMinistry.1964,theStateEconomicCommissionandapprovedbytheMinistryofamachine,toadjustproductionlayout,theYangtzeRivermovingcraneplant,theYangtzeRiverexcavatorplant,theYangtzeRiverHydraulicEngineeringFactory,PuShenMachineryPlantandtheYellowRiverEngineeringMachineryPlant.Duringthisperiod,theformerSovietUnionintheJanuary5duringtheoriginalconstructionaidwhichtheMinistryofnorth,northeast,northwest,ChinaandSouthAfrica,southwestoffivemetalstructureplantalsoproducesconstructionmachinery,productionplanningexcavators,cranesproject,themobiledumptruck,Bulldozers,andsoon.Constructionmachineryandscientificresearchunitsofprofessionaldevelopment,research,development,testingsystemandgraduallyform,enhancetheindependentdevelopmentofcapacity.1961,amachinesetuptheDepartmentofMechanicalEngineeringInstitutein1969,anInstituteoftheMinistryofconstructionmachinerytomovetoBeijingfromHunan,changeditsnametoamachineoftheChangshaInstituteofMachineBuildingnowtheMinistryofConstructionConstructionMachineryResearchInstituteinChangshaIn1977,ChinaArchitectureDesignandResearchInstituteinLangfangCity,HebeireconstructionmechanizedInstitutein1979,theredevelopmentoftheMinistryofConstructioninBeijing,BeijingConstructionMachineryResearchInstitute.TheMinistryofCommunications,MinistryofRailwayshasalsosetuptherelevantscientificresearchunits.Theseconstructionmachineryandscientificresearchunitshavedifferentresearchandtechnicalfocalpointproducts.LargeandmediumsizedconstructionmachineryfactorieshavealsoestablishedtheInstituteforproductdevelopmentordesignBranch,inthefactoryonthedirectionofproductdevelopmentanddesign.Inthisperiod,morethan20institutionsofhigherindustrialconstructionmachineryorsetupaprofessionalengineeringmachinery,andsomeinstitutionshavesetupresearchinstitutes,participatedinthenationalkeyscientificresearchprojectsoftheresearchwork.Inaperiodofindustry,constructionmachineryandconstructionmachineryoftheincreasingvarietyofnewproductsdevelopedfaster.In1965,only147species,to1974todevelopthe225in1978,hasgrowntomorethan350,manydomesticproducttofillthegaps.Somemodelssuchashydraulicexcavators,truckcrane,towercranes,bulldozers,loaders,Drumdieselpiledrivers,staticrollerthreerollers,alkalinemixer,pHvibrators,pneumaticrockdrillingtoolsandotherproductshasbasicallytakenshapeSeries.Amongthem,concretemixers,dumpmotorvehicles,siliconvibrators,winch,Washihangtumachines,steelprocessingmachinery,Fengdonggongjuandotherproductscanbasicallymeetthedomesticneedswithoutimports.Withthenewproductsincrease,andanumberofpropertiesbehindtheoldproducts,suchas5tmechanicaltruckcrane,steamrollers,inthelowfrequencyconcretevibrators,raisethebladeofbulldozersandotherwireropebeeliminated.1.3highspeeddevelopmentperiodofindustryFrom1978aftertheThirdPlenumofthe11thPartyCongressuntilnow20,isChinasconstructionmachineryindustryhighspeeddevelopmentperiod.1978,theStateCouncildecidedtoconstructionmachineryandconstructionmachineryisdividedintotwomanufacturingmanagementsystem.Bulldozers,loaders,truckcrane,forklifttrucks,constructionmachinery,suchasZaoyanjixieaplanefromtheDepartmentofManagementandotherconstructionmachinerybytheStateConstructionCommitteelaterchangedtotheMinistryofConstructionmanagement.Duringthisperiod,sinceChinaadoptedeconomicconstructionasthecenterandthepolicyofreformandopeningup,constructionmachineryboomingmarketdemand,thedevelopmentofnewproductstofurtheracceleratethedevelopment,productserializationlevelhasbeenenhanced.Accordingtodifferentconstructionmechanizationoftherequirementsoftheconstructionmachineryandcompletesetsofdevelopment,development,productionwithrapiddevelopment.Thetypeofconstructionmachineryhasgrowntoincludeminingmachinery,transportmachineryofsoil,engineeringcranes,pilethemachinery,compactingmachinery,roadmachinery,concretemachinery,concreteproductsmachinery,steelandprestressedmachinery,highaltitudeoperatingmachinery,mechanicalrenovation,Municipalmachinery,sanitationmachinery,gardenmachinery,elevators,escalatorsandautomaticsidewalks,wastedisposalequipment,windowsanddoorsmanufacturingmachinery,andother18majorcategories.Inthis18majorcategories,thecategoryisdividedinto180groups.To1989therewere219products,655types,1065specifications,2026models.Thetechnologicallevelcanbedividedintothe50slevelofa556model,the1960stoearly1970slevelsby1003models,thelate1970sandearly80salevelof457models.Duringthisperiod,theconstructionmachineryindustryconscientiouslyimplementtheopendoorpolicy,introducedalargenumberofadvancedforeigntechnology,introducedfromabroadhave125models.ThroughtheintroductionofmodelsofdigestionandabsorptionandChina,Chinasconstructionmachineryofthemajoraircraftoftheproductstructureandperformanceachievedinaforeigncountry,thelate1970searly1980slevel.June5tothepresent,Chinasconstructionmachineryindustrytofurtheracceleratethepaceoftechnologicaltransformationandtechnologytransfer,investmentintechnologicaltransformationofupto20billionyuan,totaltechnologyimportprojectsreached99,ConstructionMachineryproductshavebeendevelopedtothespecificationsofover1300,Modelover2500.Towercranes,hydraulicexcavators,vibratoryroller,hydraulicpiledriver,concretemixingplantandsiliconpumptrucks,crawlercranes,asphaltpaversilicon,elevatorsandescalators,andothermajormodelshasreachedthelevelofskillsForeignthelate1980searly1990s,thetechnicallevel.Abuilteightnewproductsandtechnologieswonstatelevelscientificandtechnologicalprogressawards,91areministeriallevelscientificandtechnologicalprogressawards,morethan100citiesHuosheng9scientificandtechnologicalprogressawardsandotherincentives.Chinasconstructionmachineryindustryafter50yearsofdevelopment,especiallysincereformandopeningupofrapiddevelopment,hasbeenformedtocompleteabasicproductcategories,specificationsfairlycompletevariety,technicalstandardsandcontinuouslyimproveproductquality,domesticproductioncanmeetthebasicneedsofacertainProductionscaleindustries.Atpresent,theindustryalreadyhasmorethan1,000manufacturers,productionamountedtomorethan450productvarieties.AccordingtotheMinistryofConstructionin1997ontheoriginalsystemthebackboneofconstructionmachinerymanufacturingenterprisestoincompletestatistics,constructionmachineryproductsin1997for13billionyuanoutputvalue,productsaleswere16.2billionyuanadmission,foreignexchangeearnedthroughexports130millionU.S.dollars.Constructionmachineryindustryoverthepaceofdevelopmentofthemachineryindustryhasbecomeoneofthefastestgrowingindustries.
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