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1MachinetoolnumericalcontrolreformsFirst,CNCsystemsandthedevelopmenttrendofhistory1946birthoftheworldsfirstelectroniccomputer,whichshowsthathumanbeingscreatedtoenhanceandreplacesomeofthementalworktools.Itandhumanagriculture,industrialsocietyinthecreationofthosewhomerelyincreasecomparedtomanualtools,fromaqualitativeleapformankindsentryintotheinformationsocietylaidthefoundation.Sixyearslater,in1952,computertechnologyappliedtothemachineintheUnitedStateswasbornfirstCNCmachinetools.Sincethen,thetraditionalmachineproducedaqualitativechange.NearlyhalfacenturysincetheCNCsystemhasexperiencedtwophasesandsixgenerationsofdevelopment.1.1,NumericalControlNCphase1952to1970Earlycomputerscomputationalspeedlowandtheprevailingscientificcomputinganddataprocessingisnotaffected,butcannotmeettherequirementsofrealtimecontrolmachine.Peoplehavetousedigitallogiccircuittiedintoasinglemachineasadedicatedcomputernumericalcontrolsystem,knownasthehardwareconnectionNCHARDWIREDNC,calledtheNumericalControlNC.Withthedevelopmentofcomponentsofthisphaseafterthreegenerations,thatis,in1952thefirstgenerationtube1959ofthesecondgenerationtransistor1965ofthethirdgenerationsmallscaleintegratedcircuits.1.2,ComputerNumericalControlCNCphase1970topresentTo1970,GMhasbeenasmallcomputerandmassproduced.SoittransplantsystemasthecorecomponentofNC,haveenteredaComputerNumericalControlCNCstageinfrontofthecomputershouldbeuniversalwordomitted.To1971,theUnitedStatesINTELcompanyintheworldwillbethefirsttimethetwomostcorecomputercomponentscomputingandcontroller,alargescaleintegratedcircuittechnologyintegrationinachip,calledthemicroprocessorMICROPROCESSOR,alsoknownasthecentralprocessingunitCPU.1974microprocessortobeusedinCNCsystem.Thisisbecausethefunctionofthecomputeristoosmalltocontrolamachinetoolcapacityaffluentthetimehasbeenusedtocontrolmorethanonemachine,calledGroupControl,asareasonableeconomicuseofthemicroprocessor.Minicomputerreliabilityandthennotideal.Earlymicroprocessorspeedandfunctionalitywhilestillnothighenough,butcanbeadoptedtosolvethemultiprocessorarchitecture.Asmicroprocessorcoreisageneralcomputercomponents,itisstillknownastheCNC.By1990,PCmachinespersonalcomputers,domestichabitsthatcomputerperformancehasbeendevelopedtoahighstage,asaCNCsystemtomeettherequirementsofthecorecomponents.NCsystembasedonPChasnowenteredthestage.Inshort,CNChasalsoexperiencedastagethreegenerations.Thatis,in1970sfourthgenerationsmallcomputer1974ofthefifthgenerationmicroprocessorsandthesixthgeneration1990BasedonthePCcalledPCBASEDabroad.Alsopointedoutthat,althoughtheforeigncomputerhasbeenrenamedNCCNC,2butChinastillcustomarysaidNumericalControlNC.Therefore,westressthedaytodayNC,inessence,isthatcomputernumericallycontrolled.1.3,thetrendoffuturedevelopmentofNC1.3.1continuetoopen,thesixthgenerationofPCbaseddevelopmentBasedonthePCwiththeopen,lowcost,highreliability,richinresourcessuchashardwareandsoftwarefeatures,andmoreCNCsystemmanufacturerswillembarkonthispath.AtleastitusedPCasafrontendmachine,todealwiththehumanmachineinterface,programming,networkingandcommunicationsproblems,theformerNCSomesystemshavethemandate.PCmachinewiththefriendlyinterface,willbeuniversaltoallCNCsystem.Remotecommunications,remotediagnosticsandmaintenancewillbemorewidespread.1.3.2highspeedandhighprecisionDevelopmentThisistoadapttohighspeedandhighprecisionmachinetoolstotheneedsofthedevelopmentdirection.1.3.3intelligentdirectiontothedevelopmentWithartificialintelligenceinthecomputerfieldinfiltrationandthecontinuingdevelopmentoftheintelligentnumericalcontrolsystemwillbecontinuouslyimproved.(1)adaptivecontroltechnologyCNCsystemcandetectsomeimportantinformationintheprocess,andautomaticallyadjustsystemparameterstoimprovethesystemrunningstatepurposes.(2)theintroductionofexpertguidanceprocessingsystemtheexperienceofskilledworkersandexperts,processingandthegeneralrulesoflawofspecialdepositsystem,theprocessparameterstothedatabaseasthefoundation,andestablishartificialintelligenceexpertsystem.(3)introductionofFaultDiagnosisExpertSystem(4)intelligentdigitalservodrivesAutomaticIdentificationcanload,andautomaticallyadjustparameterstogetthebestdrivesystemoperation.Second,CNCoftheneedfortransformation2.1,microscopicviewofthenecessityofFromthemicroperspective,CNCmachinetoolsthantraditionalmachineshavethefollowingprominentsuperiority,andtheseadvantagesarefromtheNCsystemincludescomputerpower.2.1.1canbeprocessedbyconventionalmachiningisnotthecurve,surfaceandothercomplexpartsBecausecomputersaresuperbcomputingpowercanbeaccuratelycalculatedinstantaneouseachcoordinateaxismovementexerciseshouldbeinstantaneous,itcancompoundintocomplexcurvesandsurfaces.2.1.2automatedprocessingcanbeachieved,butalsoflexibleautomationtoincreasemachineefficiencythantraditional3to7times.Becausecomputersarememoryandstoragecapacity,canbeimportedandstoredproceduresrememberdown,andthenclickproceduralrequirementstoimplementtheorderautomaticallytoachieveautomation.CNCmachinetoolasareplacement3procedures,wecanachieveanotherworkpiecemachiningautomation,sothatsinglepiecesandsmallbatchproductioncanbeautomated,ithasbeencalledflexibleautomation.2.1.3highprecisionmachiningparts,thesizedispersionofsmall,easytoassemble,nolongerneededrepair.2.1.4processescanberealizedmorefocused,inparttoreducethefrequentremovalmachine.2.1.5haveautomaticalarm,automaticcontrol,automaticcompensation,andotherselfregulatoryfunctions,thusachievinglongunattendedprocessing.2.1.6derivedfromthebenefitsofmorethanfive.Suchasreducingthelaborintensityoftheworkers,savethelaborforceonecanlookaftermorethanonemachine,adecreaseoftooling,shortenTrialProductionofanewproductcycleandtheproductioncycle,themarketdemandforquickresponse,andsoon.Theseadvantagesareourpredecessorsdidnotexpect,isaverymajorbreakthrough.Inaddition,CNCmachinetoolsortheFMCFlexibleManufacturingCell,FMSflexiblemanufacturingsystemandCIMSComputerIntegratedManufacturingSystem,andotherenterprises,thebasisofinformationtransformation.NCmanufacturingautomationtechnologyhasbecomethecoretechnologyandbasictechnology.2.2,themacroviewofthenecessityFromamacroperspective,themilitaryindustrialdevelopedcountries,themachineryindustry,inthelate1970s,early1980s,hasbegunalargescaleapplicationofCNCmachinetools.Itsessenceistheuseofinformationtechnologyonthetraditionalindustriesincludingthemilitary,theMachineryIndustryfortechnologicaltransformation.InadditiontothemanufacturingprocessusedinCNCmachinetools,FMC,FMS,butalsoincludedintheproductdevelopmentintheimplementationofCAD,CAE,CAM,virtualmanufacturingandproductionmanagementintheimplementationoftheMISManagementInformationSystem,CIMS,andsoon.Andtheproductsthattheyproduceanincreaseininformationtechnology,includingartificialintelligenceandothercontent.Astheuseofinformationtechnologytoforeignforces,thedepthofMachineryIndustryreferredtoasinformationtechnology,andultimatelymakestheirproductsintheinternationalmilitaryandcivilianproductsonthemarketcompetitivenessofmuchstronger.Andweintheinformationtechnologytotransformtraditionalindustriesthanabout20yearsbehinddevelopedcountries.SuchaspossessionofmachinetoolsinChina,theproportionofCNCmachinetoolsCNCratein1995toonly1.9percent,whileJapanin1994reached20.8percent,everyyearalargenumberofimportsofmechanicalandelectricalproducts.ThisalsoexplainsthemacroCNCtransformationoftheneed.Third,CNCmachinetoolsandproductionlinesofthetransformationofthemarket3.1,CNCtransformationofthemarketMycurrentmachinetotalmorethan380millionunits,ofwhichonlythetotalnumberofCNCmachinetool113,400Taiwan,orthatChinasCNCrateoflessthan34percent.Overthepast10years,Chinasannualoutputofabout0.6CNCmachinetoolsto0.8millionunits,anannualoutputvalueofabout1.8billionyuan.CNCmachinetoolsannualrateof6percent.Chinasmachinetooleasementsoverage10accountformorethan60belowthe10machines,automatic/semiautomaticmachinelessthan20percent,FMC/FMS,suchasahandfulmoreautomatedproductionlinetheUnitedStatesandJapanautomaticandsemiautomaticmachine,60percentabove.Thisshowsthatwethemajorityofmanufacturingindustriesandenterprisesoftheproduction,processingequipmentisthegreatmajorityoftraditionalmachinetools,andmorethanhalfofmilitaryageisover10yearsoldmachine.Processingequipmentusedbytheprevalenceofpoorqualityproducts,lessvariety,lowgrade,highcost,supplyalongperiod,inviewoftheinternationalanddomesticmarkets,lackofcompetitiveness,andadirectimpactonacompanysproducts,markets,efficiencyandimpactThesurvivalanddevelopmentofenterprises.Therefore,wemustvigorouslyraisetherateofCNCmachinetools.3.2,importequipmentandproductionlinesofthetransformationofNCmarketSinceChinasreformandopeningup,manyforeignenterprisesfromtheintroductionoftechnology,equipmentandproductionlinesfortechnologicaltransformation.Accordingtoincompletestatistics,from1979to198810,theintroductionoftechnologicaltransformationprojectsare18,446,about16.58billionUSdollars.Theseprojects,themajorityofprojectsinChinaseconomicconstructionplayaduerole.Some,however,theintroductionofprojectsduetovariousreasons,notequipmentornormaloperationoftheproductionline,andevenparalyzed,andtheeffectivenessofenterprisesaffectedbyseriousenterpriseisintrouble.Someoftheequipment,productionlinesintroducedfromabroad,thedigestionandabsorptionofsomebad,sparepartsincomplete,impropermaintenance,pooroperatingresultsonlypayattentiontotheintroductionofsomeimportedtheequipment,apparatus,productionlines,ignoresoftware,technology,andmanagement,resultinginitemsintegrity,andpotentialequipmentcannotplay,butsomecannotevenstartrunning,didnotplayduerole,butsomeproductionlinestoselltheproductsverywell,butnotbecauseofequipmentfailureproductionstandardsbecausesomehighenergyconsumption,lowpassrateproductsincurlosses,butsomehaveintroducedalongertime,andtheneedfortechnologicalupgrading.Someofthecausesoftheequipmentdidnotcreatewealth,butconsumptionofwealth.Thesecannotusetheequipment,productionlinesisaburden,butalsoanumberofsignificantassetsinstock,wealthisrepaired.Aslongasidentifyingthemaintechnicaldifficulties,andsolvekeytechnicalproblems,wecanminimizetheinvestmentandmakethemostoftheirassetsinstock,gainthegreatesteconomicandsocialbenefits.Thisisagreattransformationofthemarket.Fourth,NCtransformationofthecontentandgiftedmissing4.1,theriseofforeigntradereformIntheUnitedStates,JapanandGermanyandotherdevelopedcountries,andtheirmachinetransformationasneweconomicgrowthsector,thebusinessscene,isinagoldenage.Themachine,aswellastechnologycontinuestoprogress,isa
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