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1MACHINETOOLNUMERICALCONTROLREFORMSFIRST,CNCSYSTEMSANDTHEDEVELOPMENTTRENDOFHISTORY1946BIRTHOFTHEWORLDSFIRSTELECTRONICCOMPUTER,WHICHSHOWSTHATHUMANBEINGSCREATEDTOENHANCEANDREPLACESOMEOFTHEMENTALWORKTOOLSITANDHUMANAGRICULTURE,INDUSTRIALSOCIETYINTHECREATIONOFTHOSEWHOMERELYINCREASECOMPAREDTOMANUALTOOLS,FROMAQUALITATIVELEAPFORMANKINDSENTRYINTOTHEINFORMATIONSOCIETYLAIDTHEFOUNDATIONSIXYEARSLATER,IN1952,COMPUTERTECHNOLOGYAPPLIEDTOTHEMACHINEINTHEUNITEDSTATESWASBORNFIRSTCNCMACHINETOOLSSINCETHEN,THETRADITIONALMACHINEPRODUCEDAQUALITATIVECHANGENEARLYHALFACENTURYSINCETHECNCSYSTEMHASEXPERIENCEDTWOPHASESANDSIXGENERATIONSOFDEVELOPMENT11,NUMERICALCONTROLNCPHASE1952TO1970EARLYCOMPUTERSCOMPUTATIONALSPEEDLOWANDTHEPREVAILINGSCIENTIFICCOMPUTINGANDDATAPROCESSINGISNOTAFFECTED,BUTCANNOTMEETTHEREQUIREMENTSOFREALTIMECONTROLMACHINEPEOPLEHAVETOUSEDIGITALLOGICCIRCUITTIEDINTOASINGLEMACHINEASADEDICATEDCOMPUTERNUMERICALCONTROLSYSTEM,KNOWNASTHEHARDWARECONNECTIONNCHARDWIREDNC,CALLEDTHENUMERICALCONTROLNCWITHTHEDEVELOPMENTOFCOMPONENTSOFTHISPHASEAFTERTHREEGENERATIONS,THATIS,IN1952THEFIRSTGENERATIONTUBE;1959OFTHESECONDGENERATIONTRANSISTOR;1965OFTHETHIRDGENERATIONSMALLSCALEINTEGRATEDCIRCUITS12,COMPUTERNUMERICALCONTROLCNCPHASE1970TOPRESENTTO1970,GMHASBEENASMALLCOMPUTERANDMASSPRODUCEDSOITTRANSPLANTSYSTEMASTHECORECOMPONENTOFNC,HAVEENTEREDACOMPUTERNUMERICALCONTROLCNCSTAGEINFRONTOFTHECOMPUTERSHOULDBEUNIVERSALWORDOMITTEDTO1971,THEUNITEDSTATESINTELCOMPANYINTHEWORLDWILLBETHEFIRSTTIMETHETWOMOSTCORECOMPUTERCOMPONENTSCOMPUTINGANDCONTROLLER,ALARGESCALEINTEGRATEDCIRCUITTECHNOLOGYINTEGRATIONINACHIP,CALLEDTHEMICROPROCESSORMICROPROCESSOR,ALSOKNOWNASTHECENTRALPROCESSINGUNITCPU1974MICROPROCESSORTOBEUSEDINCNCSYSTEMTHISISBECAUSETHEFUNCTIONOFTHECOMPUTERISTOOSMALLTOCONTROLAMACHINETOOLCAPACITYAFFLUENTTHETIMEHASBEENUSEDTOCONTROLMORETHANONEMACHINE,CALLEDGROUPCONTROL,ASAREASONABLEECONOMICUSEOFTHEMICROPROCESSORMINICOMPUTERRELIABILITYANDTHENNOTIDEALEARLYMICROPROCESSORSPEEDANDFUNCTIONALITYWHILESTILLNOTHIGHENOUGH,BUTCANBEADOPTEDTOSOLVETHEMULTIPROCESSORARCHITECTUREASMICROPROCESSORCOREISAGENERALCOMPUTERCOMPONENTS,ITISSTILLKNOWNASTHECNCBY1990,PCMACHINESPERSONALCOMPUTERS,DOMESTICHABITSTHATCOMPUTERPERFORMANCEHASBEENDEVELOPEDTOAHIGHSTAGE,ASACNCSYSTEMTOMEETTHEREQUIREMENTSOFTHECORECOMPONENTSNCSYSTEMBASEDONPCHASNOWENTEREDTHESTAGEINSHORT,CNCHASALSOEXPERIENCEDASTAGETHREEGENERATIONSTHATIS,IN1970SFOURTHGENERATIONSMALLCOMPUTER;1974OFTHEFIFTHGENERATIONMICROPROCESSORSANDTHESIXTHGENERATION1990BASEDONTHEPCCALLEDPCBASEDABROADALSOPOINTEDOUTTHAT,ALTHOUGHTHEFOREIGNCOMPUTERHASBEENRENAMEDNCCNC,2BUTCHINASTILLCUSTOMARYSAIDNUMERICALCONTROLNCTHEREFORE,WESTRESSTHEDAYTODAYNC,INESSENCE,ISTHATCOMPUTERNUMERICALLYCONTROLLED13,THETRENDOFFUTUREDEVELOPMENTOFNC131CONTINUETOOPEN,THESIXTHGENERATIONOFPCBASEDDEVELOPMENTBASEDONTHEPCWITHTHEOPEN,LOWCOST,HIGHRELIABILITY,RICHINRESOURCESSUCHASHARDWAREANDSOFTWAREFEATURES,ANDMORECNCSYSTEMMANUFACTURERSWILLEMBARKONTHISPATHATLEASTITUSEDPCASAFRONTENDMACHINE,TODEALWITHTHEHUMANMACHINEINTERFACE,PROGRAMMING,NETWORKINGANDCOMMUNICATIONSPROBLEMS,THEFORMERNCSOMESYSTEMSHAVETHEMANDATEPCMACHINEWITHTHEFRIENDLYINTERFACE,WILLBEUNIVERSALTOALLCNCSYSTEMREMOTECOMMUNICATIONS,REMOTEDIAGNOSTICSANDMAINTENANCEWILLBEMOREWIDESPREAD132HIGHSPEEDANDHIGHPRECISIONDEVELOPMENTTHISISTOADAPTTOHIGHSPEEDANDHIGHPRECISIONMACHINETOOLSTOTHENEEDSOFTHEDEVELOPMENTDIRECTION133INTELLIGENTDIRECTIONTOTHEDEVELOPMENTWITHARTIFICIALINTELLIGENCEINTHECOMPUTERFIELDINFILTRATIONANDTHECONTINUINGDEVELOPMENTOFTHEINTELLIGENTNUMERICALCONTROLSYSTEMWILLBECONTINUOUSLYIMPROVED(1)ADAPTIVECONTROLTECHNOLOGYCNCSYSTEMCANDETECTSOMEIMPORTANTINFORMATIONINTHEPROCESS,ANDAUTOMATICALLYADJUSTSYSTEMPARAMETERSTOIMPROVETHESYSTEMRUNNINGSTATEPURPOSES(2)THEINTRODUCTIONOFEXPERTGUIDANCEPROCESSINGSYSTEMTHEEXPERIENCEOFSKILLEDWORKERSANDEXPERTS,PROCESSINGANDTHEGENERALRULESOFLAWOFSPECIALDEPOSITSYSTEM,THEPROCESSPARAMETERSTOTHEDATABASEASTHEFOUNDATION,ANDESTABLISHARTIFICIALINTELLIGENCEEXPERTSYSTEM(3)INTRODUCTIONOFFAULTDIAGNOSISEXPERTSYSTEM(4)INTELLIGENTDIGITALSERVODRIVESAUTOMATICIDENTIFICATIONCANLOAD,ANDAUTOMATICALLYADJUSTPARAMETERSTOGETTHEBESTDRIVESYSTEMOPERATIONSECOND,CNCOFTHENEEDFORTRANSFORMATION21,MICROSCOPICVIEWOFTHENECESSITYOFFROMTHEMICROPERSPECTIVE,CNCMACHINETOOLSTHANTRADITIONALMACHINESHAVETHEFOLLOWINGPROMINENTSUPERIORITY,ANDTHESEADVANTAGESAREFROMTHENCSYSTEMINCLUDESCOMPUTERPOWER211CANBEPROCESSEDBYCONVENTIONALMACHININGISNOTTHECURVE,SURFACEANDOTHERCOMPLEXPARTSBECAUSECOMPUTERSARESUPERBCOMPUTINGPOWERCANBEACCURATELYCALCULATEDINSTANTANEOUSEACHCOORDINATEAXISMOVEMENTEXERCISESHOULDBEINSTANTANEOUS,ITCANCOMPOUNDINTOCOMPLEXCURVESANDSURFACES212AUTOMATEDPROCESSINGCANBEACHIEVED,BUTALSOFLEXIBLEAUTOMATIONTOINCREASEMACHINEEFFICIENCYTHANTRADITIONAL3TO7TIMESBECAUSECOMPUTERSAREMEMORYANDSTORAGECAPACITY,CANBEIMPORTEDANDSTOREDPROCEDURESREMEMBERDOWN,ANDTHENCLICKPROCEDURALREQUIREMENTSTOIMPLEMENTTHEORDERAUTOMATICALLYTOACHIEVEAUTOMATIONCNCMACHINETOOLASAREPLACEMENT3PROCEDURES,WECANACHIEVEANOTHERWORKPIECEMACHININGAUTOMATION,SOTHATSINGLEPIECESANDSMALLBATCHPRODUCTIONCANBEAUTOMATED,ITHASBEENCALLEDFLEXIBLEAUTOMATION213HIGHPRECISIONMACHININGPARTS,THESIZEDISPERSIONOFSMALL,EASYTOASSEMBLE,NOLONGERNEEDEDREPAIR214PROCESSESCANBEREALIZEDMOREFOCUSED,INPARTTOREDUCETHEFREQUENTREMOVALMACHINE215HAVEAUTOMATICALARM,AUTOMATICCONTROL,AUTOMATICCOMPENSATION,ANDOTHERSELFREGULATORYFUNCTIONS,THUSACHIEVINGLONGUNATTENDEDPROCESSING216DERIVEDFROMTHEBENEFITSOFMORETHANFIVESUCHASREDUCINGTHELABORINTENSITYOFTHEWORKERS,SAVETHELABORFORCEONECANLOOKAFTERMORETHANONEMACHINE,ADECREASEOFTOOLING,SHORTENTRIALPRODUCTIONOFANEWPRODUCTCYCLEANDTHEPRODUCTIONCYCLE,THEMARKETDEMANDFORQUICKRESPONSE,ANDSOONTHESEADVANTAGESAREOURPREDECESSORSDIDNOTEXPECT,ISAVERYMAJORBREAKTHROUGHINADDITION,CNCMACHINETOOLSORTHEFMCFLEXIBLEMANUFACTURINGCELL,FMSFLEXIBLEMANUFACTURINGSYSTEMANDCIMSCOMPUTERINTEGRATEDMANUFACTURINGSYSTEM,ANDOTHERENTERPRISES,THEBASISOFINFORMATIONTRANSFORMATIONNCMANUFACTURINGAUTOMATIONTECHNOLOGYHASBECOMETHECORETECHNOLOGYANDBASICTECHNOLOGY22,THEMACROVIEWOFTHENECESSITYFROMAMACROPERSPECTIVE,THEMILITARYINDUSTRIALDEVELOPEDCOUNTRIES,THEMACHINERYINDUSTRY,INTHELATE1970S,EARLY1980S,HASBEGUNALARGESCALEAPPLICATIONOFCNCMACHINETOOLSITSESSENCEISTHEUSEOFINFORMATIONTECHNOLOGYONTHETRADITIONALINDUSTRIESINCLUDINGTHEMILITARY,THEMACHINERYINDUSTRYFORTECHNOLOGICALTRANSFORMATIONINADDITIONTOTHEMANUFACTURINGPROCESSUSEDINCNCMACHINETOOLS,FMC,FMS,BUTALSOINCLUDEDINTHEPRODUCTDEVELOPMENTINTHEIMPLEMENTATIONOFCAD,CAE,CAM,VIRTUALMANUFACTURINGANDPRODUCTIONMANAGEMENTINTHEIMPLEMENTATIONOFTHEMISMANAGEMENTINFORMATIONSYSTEM,CIMS,ANDSOONANDTHEPRODUCTSTHATTHEYPRODUCEANINCREASEININFORMATIONTECHNOLOGY,INCLUDINGARTIFICIALINTELLIGENCEANDOTHERCONTENTASTHEUSEOFINFORMATIONTECHNOLOGYTOFOREIGNFORCES,THEDEPTHOFMACHINERYINDUSTRYREFERREDTOASINFORMATIONTECHNOLOGY,ANDULTIMATELYMAKESTHEIRPRODUCTSINTHEINTERNATIONALMILITARYANDCIVILIANPRODUCTSONTHEMARKETCOMPETITIVENESSOFMUCHSTRONGERANDWEINTHEINFORMATIONTECHNOLOGYTOTRANSFORMTRADITIONALINDUSTRIESTHANABOUT20YEARSBEHINDDEVELOPEDCOUNTRIESSUCHASPOSSESSIONOFMACHINETOOLSINCHINA,THEPROPORTIONOFCNCMACHINETOOLSCNCRATEIN1995TOONLY19PERCENT,WHILEJAPANIN1994REACHED208PERCENT,EVERYYEARALARGENUMBEROFIMPORTSOFMECHANICALANDELECTRICALPRODUCTSTHISALSOEXPLAINSTHEMACROCNCTRANSFORMATIONOFTHENEEDTHIRD,CNCMACHINETOOLSANDPRODUCTIONLINESOFTHETRANSFORMATIONOFTHEMARKET31,CNCTRANSFORMATIONOFTHEMARKETMYCURRENTMACHINETOTALMORETHAN380MILLIONUNITS,OFWHICHONLYTHETOTALNUMBEROFCNCMACHINETOOL113,400TAIWAN,ORTHATCHINASCNCRATEOFLESSTHAN34PERCENTOVERTHEPAST10YEARS,CHINASANNUALOUTPUTOFABOUT06CNCMACHINETOOLSTO08MILLIONUNITS,ANANNUALOUTPUTVALUEOFABOUT18BILLIONYUANCNCMACHINETOOLSANNUALRATEOF6PERCENTCHINASMACHINETOOLEASEMENTSOVERAGE10ACCOUNTFORMORETHAN60BELOWTHE10MACHINES,AUTOMATIC/SEMIAUTOMATICMACHINELESSTHAN20PERCENT,FMC/FMS,SUCHASAHANDFULMOREAUTOMATEDPRODUCTIONLINETHEUNITEDSTATESANDJAPANAUTOMATICANDSEMIAUTOMATICMACHINE,60PERCENTABOVETHISSHOWSTHATWETHEMAJORITYOFMANUFACTURINGINDUSTRIESANDENTERPRISESOFTHEPRODUCTION,PROCESSINGEQUIPMENTISTHEGREATMAJORITYOFTRADITIONALMACHINETOOLS,ANDMORETHANHALFOFMILITARYAGEISOVER10YEARSOLDMACHINEPROCESSINGEQUIPMENTUSEDBYTHEPREVALENCEOFPOORQUALITYPRODUCTS,LESSVARIETY,LOWGRADE,HIGHCOST,SUPPLYALONGPERIOD,INVIEWOFTHEINTERNATIONALANDDOMESTICMARKETS,LACKOFCOMPETITIVENESS,ANDADIRECTIMPACTONACOMPANYSPRODUCTS,MARKETS,EFFICIENCYANDIMPACTTHESURVIVALANDDEVELOPMENTOFENTERPRISESTHEREFORE,WEMUSTVIGOROUSLYRAISETHERATEOFCNCMACHINETOOLS32,IMPORTEQUIPMENTANDPRODUCTIONLINESOFTHETRANSFORMATIONOFNCMARKETSINCECHINASREFORMANDOPENINGUP,MANYFOREIGNENTERPRISESFROMTHEINTRODUCTIONOFTECHNOLOGY,EQUIPMENTANDPRODUCTIONLINESFORTECHNOLOGICALTRANSFORMATIONACCORDINGTOINCOMPLETESTATISTICS,FROM1979TO198810,THEINTRODUCTIONOFTECHNOLOGICALTRANSFORMATIONPROJECTSARE18,446,ABOUT1658BILLIONUSDOLLARSTHESEPROJECTS,THEMAJORITYOFPROJECTSINCHINASECONOMICCONSTRUCTIONPLAYADUEROLESOME,HOWEVER,THEINTRODUCTIONOFPROJECTSDUETOVARIOUSREASONS,NOTEQUIPMENTORNORMALOPERATIONOFTHEPRODUCTIONLINE,ANDEVENPARALYZED,ANDTHEEFFECTIVENESSOFENTERPRISESAFFECTEDBYSERIOUSENTERPRISEISINTROUBLESOMEOFTHEEQUIPMENT,PRODUCTIONLINESINTRODUCEDFROMABROAD,THEDIGESTIONANDABSORPTIONOFSOMEBAD,SPAREPARTSINCOMPLETE,IMPROPERMAINTENANCE,POOROPERATINGRESULTS;ONLYPAYATTENTIONTOTHEINTRODUCTIONOFSOMEIMPORTEDTHEEQUIPMENT,APPARATUS,PRODUCTIONLINES,IGNORESOFTWARE,TECHNOLOGY,ANDMANAGEMENT,RESULTINGINITEMSINTEGRITY,ANDPOTENTIALEQUIPMENTCANNOTPLAY,BUTSOMECANNOTEVENSTARTRUNNING,DIDNOTPLAYDUEROLE,BUTSOMEPRODUCTIONLINESTOSELLTHEPRODUCTSVERYWELL,BUTNOTBECAUSEOFEQUIPMENTFAILUREPRODUCTIONSTANDARDS;BECAUSESOMEHIGHENERGYCONSUMPTION,LOWPASSRATEPRODUCTSINCURLOSSES,BUTSOMEHAVEINTRODUCEDALONGERTIME,ANDTHENEEDFORTECHNOLOGICALUPGRADINGSOMEOFTHECAUSESOFTHEEQUIPMENTDIDNOTCREATEWEALTH,BUTCONSUMPTIONOFWEALTHTHESECANNOTUSETHEEQUIPMENT,PRODUCTIONLINESISABURDEN,BUTALSOANUMBEROFSIGNIFICANTASSETSINSTOCK,WEALTHISREPAIREDASLONGASIDENTIFYINGTHEMAINTECHNICALDIFFICULTIES,ANDSOLVEKEYTECHNICALPROBLEMS,WECANMINIMIZETHEINVESTMENTANDMAKETHEMOSTOFTHEIRASSETSINSTOCK,GAINTHEGREATESTECONOMICANDSOCIALBENEFITSTHISISAGREATTRANSFORMATIONOFTHEMARKETFOURTH,NCTRANSFORMATIONOFTHECONTENTANDGIFTEDMISSING41,THERISEOFFOREIG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