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JOURNALOFMATERIALSPROCESSINGTECHNOLOGY169200514TECHNICALNOTETHEDEVELOPMENTOF3DMODELSTHROUGHRAPIDPROTOTYPINGCONCEPTSDMCSANTOSA,AEMPERTENCEA,HBCAMPOSA,PRCETLINB,∗ADEPARTMENTOFMECHANICALENGINEERING,UFMG,CIDADEUNIVERSITRIA,PAMPULHA,31270901,BHORIZONTE,MG,BRAZILBDEPARTMENTOFMETALLURGICALANDMATERIALSENGINEERING,UFMG,RUAESPIRITOSANTO35,30160030,BHORIZONTE,MG,BRAZILRECEIVED6NOVEMBER2003;RECEIVEDINREVISEDFORM6JANUARY2004;ACCEPTED8JUNE2004ABSTRACTTHREEDIMENSIONALMODELSAREBEINGINCREASINGLYUSEDASPROTOTYPESINVARIOUSAREASOFMANUFACTURING,RESEARCHANDEDUCATIONTHEYAREESPECIALLYUSEFULINTHEEVALUATIONOFELEMENTSTYPICALOFMECHANICALDESIGN,BUTAREALSOIMPORTANTINARCHITECTURE,MEDICINE,ARTS,ETCTHESEMODELSCANBEDEVELOPEDUSINGVARIOUSMETHODS,SUCHASMASSMODELING,SURFACEPLANIFICATION,ANDRAPIDPROTOTYPINGRPWITHREMOVALORADDITIONOFMATERIALBASEDONACAD/CAMPLATFORMTHISLATTERAPPROACHWASEMPLOYEDINTHEPRESENTPAPERCOMPLEXSOLIDSAREFORMEDTHROUGHTHEASSOCIATIONOFELEMENTARYSOLIDSSUCHASSPHERES,PRISMS,CYLINDERS,TORUS,ETC,ANDTHENRAPIDPROTOTYPINGISAPPLIEDINVOLVINGASLICINGPROCESSAVIRTUALMODELBASEDONACADPLATFORMALLOWSTHEDETERMINATIONOFPATHSFOREACHSLICEDLEVELTHESEARETRANSLATEDINTONUMERICALCONTROLCODES,ANDFEDTOAMILLINGPROCESSOFABLANK,ALLOWINGTHEMANUFACTURINGOFA3DMODEL2005ELSEVIERBVALLRIGHTSRESERVEDKEYWORDS3DMODELS;ELEMENTARYSOLIDS;RAPIDPROTOTYPING1INTRODUCTIONMECHANICALPARTSREPRESENTANIMPORTANTFRACTIONOFVARIOUSPRODUCTSWIDELYUSEDINOURSOCIETYFIERCECOMPETITIONDEMANDSAPERMANENTINCREASEINPRODUCTIVITYANDFASTERRESPONSETOCHANGINGTECHNICALANDCOMMERCIALDEMANDSONSUCHPARTSTHISHASLEDTOWIDESPREADUSEOFAUTOMATICDESIGNPROCEDURES,BASEDONEITHERTRADITIONALMECHANICSORONNUMERICALMETHODSSUCHASFINITEELEMENTANALYSISFEA,INORDERTOEVALUATESTRESSANDSTRAINLEVELSSUCHANALYSESDEMANDANINITIAL3DMODELINGOFTHEPARTUNDERCONSIDERATIONANINCREASEDINTERESTIN3DMODELSOFMECHANICALPARTSISALSOOBSERVEDTHESESERVEASPROTOTYPES,ALLOWINGTHEANALYSISOFTHEINTERFERENCEWITHOTHERPARTS,OFTHEKINEMATICBEHAVIOROFTHEPRODUCTANDOFTHEMANUFACTURINGPROCESSESTOBEEMPLOYEDINTHEPRODUCTIONOFTHEPARTTHECONCEPTUALIZATIONANDPREPARATIONOFSUCHMODELSISOFSPECIALIMPORTANCEINTHEEDUCATIONANDRESEARCHINMECHANICALENGINEERINGITALLOWSAFARBETTER3DVISUALIZATIONOFPARTS,LEADINGTOENHANCEDGEOMETRICINTERPRETATIONAND∗CORRESPONDINGAUTHOREMAILADDRESSPCETLINDEMETUFMGBRPRCETLIN09240136/SEEFRONTMATTER2005ELSEVIERBVALLRIGHTSRESERVEDDOI101016/JJMATPROTEC200406035SPATIALANALYSISOFMECHANICALPARTSTHISISOFPARTICULARIMPORTANCEINTHEAREASOFMECHANICALDESIGNANDMANUFACTURINGPROCESSES1,2THESEMODELSCANBEDEVELOPEDUSINGVARIOUSMETHODS,SUCHASMASSMODELING,SURFACEPLANIFICATION,ANDRAPIDPROTOTYPINGRPWITHREMOVALORADDITIONOFMATERIALBASEDONACAD/CAMPLATFORMTHISLATTERAPPROACHWASEMPLOYEDINTHEPRESENTPAPERCOMPLEXSOLIDSAREFORMEDTHROUGHTHEBOOLEANASSOCIATIONINVOLVINGADDITION,SUBTRACTIONANDINTERSECTIONOFELEMENTARYSOLIDSSUCHASSPHERES,PRISMS,CYLINDERS,TORUS,ETC,ANDTHENRAPIDPROTOTYPINGISAPPLIEDINVOLVINGASLICINGPROCESSAVIRTUALMODELBASEDONACADPLATFORMALLOWSTHEDETERMINATIONOFPATHSFOREACHSLICEDLEVELTHESEARETRANSLATEDINTONUMERICALCONTROLCODES,ANDFEDTOAMILLINGPROCESSOFABLANK,ALLOWINGTHEMANUFACTURINGOFA3DMODELFIGS1AND2ILLUSTRATETHEABOVEPROCEDURE2THE3DFORMPROGRAMTHE“3DFORM”ISACOMPUTERPROGRAMFORTHEGENERATIONOF3DMODELS,ORIGINALLYDEVELOPEDATTHEFEDERALUNIVERSITYOFMINASGERAIS,INBRAZILITUSESTHEASSOCIATIONOFELEMEN2DMCSANTOSETAL/JOURNALOFMATERIALSPROCESSINGTECHNOLOGY169200514FIG1THEASSOCIATIONOFELEMENTARYSOLIDSINORDERTOOBTAINA3DMODELTARYSOLIDSINORDERTOOBTAINCOMPLEXSHAPESTHE“3DFORM”WORKSASA“CLIENT”PROGRAM,CONTROLLINGTHEGENERATIONOFTHEELEMENTARYSOLIDS,ANDMANAGES“SLAVE”PROGRAMSSUCHASACADPLATFORMOFFERINGAPROGRAMMINGINTERFACEFOREXTERNALUSEOFITSCOMMANDS35THE“3DFORM”EMPLOYEDTHEVISUALBASICSIXLANGUAGEINORDERTOCONTROLANAUTOCAD2000PLATFORMITSMAINFEATURESARETHEFOLLOWINGCONTROLOFTHEGENERATIONOFELEMENTARYSOLIDSSPHERES,PRISMS,CONES,CYLINDERS,ETCINACADPLATFORM,ATDESIREDPOSITIONSANDWITHTHEREQUIREDDIMENSIONSAPPLICATIONOFBOOLEANOPERATIONSOFADDITION,SUBTRACTIONANDINTERSECTIONOFTHEABOVEMENTIONEDSOLIDS,ALLOWINGTHECONSTRUCTIONOF3DMECHANICALPARTSALLOWSTHEPERMANENTEDITIONVISUALIZATIONANDPRINTING,FROMVARIOUSOBSERVATIONVIEWPOINTS,OFTHE3DMECHANICALPARTSUNDERANALYSISSLICINGOFTHEPARTSMODELEDINTHECADPLATFORM,ATANYDESIREDPOSITIONANDSLICINGINTERVAL,LEADINGTORPPROCEDURESCAPTURING,TREATINGANDSTORINGOFTHEGEOMETRICDATAGENERATEDINTHESLICINGPROCESS,FOREACHCUTTINGPLANEINTHEMECHANICALPARTDEVELOPMENTOFCNCCODEFILESFORAPREDEFINEDEQUIPMENT,ALLOWINGTHECREATIONOFANAUTOMATICSEQUENCEFORTHEMACHININGOFTHECONTOURSOFEACHCUTTINGPLANEANDTHEPHYSICALMANUFACTURINGOFTHEMECHANICALPARTTHEGRAPHICALINTERFACEOFTHE“3DFORM”PROGRAMPRESENTEDINFIG3COVERSTHECREATIONOFCOMPLEXSOLIDSBASEDONTHEASSOCIATIONOFELEMENTARYSOLIDSAVISUALIZATIONTREEALLOWSTHEPERMANENTTRACKINGOFTHECREATIONHISTORYOFTHEOBJECTTHISTREECANBESAVEDINAFILE,EITHERFORACOMPLETEDFIG2SLICINGPROCESSLEADINGTOMILLINGPATHSFIG3MAINSCREENOFTHE3DFORMPROGRAMORPARTIALLYCONSTRUCTEDPARTTHEINTERFACEISUSERFRIENDLYANDTHECOMMANDSAREEASILYACCESSIBLETHEMAINSCREENOFTHE3DFORMPROGRAMISSHOWNINFIG3,ANDCANBEDIVIDEDINTOFIVEAREASWITHPREDEFINEDFUNCTIONSTHEREGIONOFTHEMAINCOMMANDSISINTHEUPPERPARTOFTHESCREENITCONTAINSTHECOMMANDSFOROBJECTCREATION,FORBOOLEANOPERATIONS,FORTHEGENERATIONOFGCODES,ETCTHEREGIONINTHEUPPERLEFTREGIONOFTHESCREENDISPLAYSTHEINSTANTANEOUSCREATIONSEQUENCEOFTHEPART,ALLOWINGACLEARTRACKINGOFALLTHESTEPSFOLLOWEDBYTHEUSERTHEREGIONINTHEUPPERRIGHTREGIONOFTHESCREENDISPLAYSTHEVISUALIZATIONCOMMANDS,INVOLVINGTHEDEFINITIONOFPREFERENTIALVIEWSANDOFTHECOLORSOFTHECREATEDSOLIDSTHEREGIONINTHELOWERLEFTOFTHESCREENALLOWSTHEINTRODUCTIONOFTHEDATAFORTHECREATIONOFTHEELEMENTARYSOLIDSTHISDATAISPERMANENTLYSAVEDANDCANBEACCESSEDATANYMOMENTTHE3DDRAWINGCANBEVIEWEDTHERIGHTLOWERREGIONOFTHESCREENTHEFOLLOWINGOPTIONSCANBEUSEDORBITALPOSITIONING,ZOOM,SHADING,PANANDBACKGROUNDCOLORBLACKORWHITEITISALSOPOSSIBLETODISPLAYTHELIMITSOFTHESELECTEDOBJECT,ASSHOWNINFIG4FIG4VISUALIZATIONOFTHELIMITSOFANOBJECTDMCSANTOSETAL/JOURNALOFMATERIALSPROCESSINGTECHNOLOGY1692005143ASPECIALSYSTEMFORTHEOPENING,SAVINGANDRECOVERYOFTHEDRAWINGWASCREATED,INORDERTOFACILITATESTOPPINGANDRESTARTINGOFTHEPROJECTATANYTIMESAVINGINVOLVESTWOTYPESOFFILESONECOVERSALLOPERATIONSTEPSUPTOTHESAVINGMOMENT,WHEREASTHEOTHERINCLUDESTHELASTDRAWINGVERSION3RAPIDPROTOTYPINGTHROUGHMATERIALREMOVALTHEMANUFACTURINGPROCESSEMPLOYEDINTHEPRESENTRPWORKINVOLVEDMATERIALREMOVALTHROUGHMACHININGINASMALLSCALECNCMILLINGMACHINEEMCOPCMILL50ACCORDINGTOERBE6,SUCHRPSTARTSWITHTHESLICINGOFAVIRTUALMODELPRESENTLYFULLYPERFORMEDBY3DFORMFOLLOWEDBYTHECREATIONOFMACHININGPATHSFORACNCMACHINETHESEWEREEXECUTEDINTHEMILLINGMACHINE,RESULTINGINAPROTOTYPE7,8THENUMBEROFSLICESISCHOSENBASEDONTHEDESIREDCUTTINGDEPTHINTHEMACHININGPROCESSTHE“3DFORM”PROGRAMGENERATESTHE“G”CODESFORTHECNCMACHININGOFEACHSLICETHESEARETHENGROUPEDINCODEBLOCKSANDSOMECOMPLEMENTARYCODESAREADDEDTHESEINVOLVEINSTRUCTIONSSUCHASCHANGESOFTHEORIGINOFTHEEQUIPMENTTOTHEORIGINOFTHEMODEL,DEFINITIONOFTHETOOLTYPESANDOFMACHININGPARAMETERS,CHANGESINTOOLSANDINBLANKPOSITION,ETCBEFOREFINALMANUFACTURINGOFTHEPROTOTYPE,ITISNECESSARYTOMAKESOMESIMULATIONSANDTESTS,INORDERTOVERIFYPOSSIBLEPROBLEMSINTHECODES,EVENTUALINCOMPATIBILITIESBETWEENTHESECODESANDTHOSEFORTHEEQUIPMENT,ORSOMEOTHERERRORSFIG5ILLUSTRATESTHESIMULATIONOFA3DMODELANDFIG6SHOWSTHECORRESPONDINGMODELMACHINEDINTHECNCMILLINGMACHINEEMCOPCMILL50FIG5SIMULATIONOFA3DMODELFIG6PHYSICALMODELOBTAINEDINTHESMALLSCALECNCMILLINGMACHINEEMCOPCMILL504CONCLUSIONSTHEDEVELOPMENTOF3DMODELSUSINGRPTHROUGHMATERIALREMOVALISVERYINTERESTING,ESPECIALLYFORTHEMANUFACTURINGOFSMALLPARTSANDINMECHANICALENGINEERINGTEACHINGTHEMATERIALREMOVALTECHNIQUEFORRPPROVEDQUITEVERSATILE,ALLOWINGTHEMACHININGOFTHINSECTIONSANDCOMPLEXSHAPESFORTEACHINGPURPOSES,VARIOUSPROTOTYPESWEREMACHINEDINNYLONANDINALUMINUM,ANDREPLACEDTHETRADITIONALTECHNICALANDISOMETRICISOMETRICALDRAWINGSTHEEDUCATIONALRESULTSSURPASSEDBYFARPREVIOUSRESULTSBASEDONTHETRADITIONALAPPROACH,ESPECIALLYFROMTHEPOINTOFVIEWOFGEOMETRICINTERPRETATIONCAPACITY,AIMINGATMACHINEDESIGNANDMANUFACTURINGPROCESSESEVALUATIONACKNOWLEDGEMENTSTHEAUTHORSGRATEFULLYACKNOWLEDGEFINANCIALSUPPORTFROMFUNDAODEAMPAROPESQUISADEMINASGERAISFAPEMIG,PROGRAMADENCLEOSDEEXCELNCIA,MCTPRONEX,CONSELHONACIONALDEDESENVOLVIMENTOCIENTFICOETECNOLGICOCNPQ,FINANCIADORADEESTUDOSEPROJETOSFINEP,COORDENAODEAPERFEIOAMENTODEPESSOALDENVELSUPERIORCAPESANDSERVIONACIONALDEAPRENDIZADODAINDUSTRIA,CENTRODEFORMAOPROFISSIONALEUVALDOLODISENAI/MGREFERENCES1HGARDNER,FRAMESOFMINDTHETHEORYOFMULTIPLEINTELLIGENCES,10THANNIVERSARYED,19932ACL,NUNES,WSERAMOS,PROPOSTAMETODOLGICACOMPLEMENTARAUXILIARBASEADANOSATUAISPROCESSOSDEMULTIMDIAAPLICADOSAOENSINODEDESENHO,ESPECIFICAMENTEGEOMETRIADESCRITIVAEDESENHOTCNICO,CONGRESSOBRASILEIRODEENSINODEENGENHARIA,BRAZIL,19983MHALVORSON,MICROSOFTVISUALBASIC5,STEPBYSTEP,MICROSOFT,19974GOMURA,MASTERINGAUTOCAD14,PREMIUNED,SYBEX,19994DMCSANTOSETAL/JOURNALOFMATERIALSPROCESSINGTECHNOLOGY1692005145DJFOLEY,COMPUTERGRAPHICSPRINCIPLESANDPRACTICE,ADDISONWESLEY,19906HHERBE,EESEPULVEDA,LATECNOLOGIADEPROTOTIPOSRPIDOSYSUSAPORTESALDESARROLLODEPRODUCTOS,CONGRESOIBEROAMERICANODEINGENIERAMECNICA,19997AARUIZ,IFECRUZ,SISTEMACAD/CAMPARAMTRICO,CONGRESOIBEROAMERICANODEINGENIERAMECNICA,19998PAGMAHO,NUMERICALCONTROLNC,IFAOINFORMATIONSSYSTEMGMBH,1991
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