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JOURNALOFMECHANICALSCIENCEANDTECHNOLOGY242010145148WWWSPRINGERLINKCOM/CONTENT/1738494XDOI101007/S1220600911265OPTIMALINJECTIONMOLDINGCONDITIONSCONSIDERINGTHECORESHIFTFORAPLASTICBATTERYCASEWITHTHINANDDEEPWALLS†DONGGYUAHN1,,DAEWONKIM2ANDYEOLUIYOON31DEPARTMENTOFMECHANICALENGINEERING,CHOSUNUNIVERSITY,GWANGJU,501751,KOREA2INCHEONSERVICEDIVISION,KITECH,INCHEON,406840,KOREA3CHUNBOKINJECTIONMOLDINC,GWANGJU,123312,KOREAMANUSCRIPTRECEIVEDAPRIL24,2009;REVISEDSEPTEMBER21,2009;ACCEPTEDOCTOBER12,2009ABSTRACTTHEOBJECTIVEOFTHISPAPERISTOEXAMINETHEINFLUENCEOFINJECTIONMOLDINGPARAMETERSONTHECORESHIFTTOOBTAINTHEOPTIMALINJECTIONMOLDINGCONDITIONSOFAPLASTICBATTERYCASEWITHTHINANDDEEPWALLSUSINGNUMERICALANALYSESANDEXPERIMENTSUNLIKECONVENTIONALINJECTIONMOLDINGANALYSIS,THEFLEXIBLEPARTSOFTHEMOLDWEREREPRESENTEDBY3DTETRAHEDRONMESHESTOCONSIDERTHECORESHIFTINTHENUMERICALANALYSISTHEDESIGNOFEXPERIMENTSDOEWASUSEDTOESTIMATETHEPROPERMOLDINGCONDITIONSTHATMINIMIZETHECORESHIFTANDADOMINANTPARAMETERTHERESULTSOFTHEDOESHOWEDTHATTHEDOMINANTPARAMETERISTHEINJECTIONPRESSURE,ANDTHECORESHIFTDECREASESWHENTHEINJECTIONPRESSUREDECREASESINADDITION,ITWASSHOWNTHATTHEINITIALMOLDTEMPERATUREANDTHEINJECTIONTIMEHARDLYAFFECTTHECORESHIFTTHERESULTSOFTHEEXPERIMENTSSHOWEDTHATPRODUCTSWITHOUTWARPAGEAREMANUFACTUREDWHENTHEINJECTIONPRESSUREISNEARLY32MPACOMPARINGTHERESULTSOFTHEANALYSESWITHTHOSEOFTHEEXPERIMENTS,OPTIMALINJECTIONMOLDINGCONDITIONSWEREDETERMINEDINADDITION,ITWASSHOWNTHATTHECORESHIFTSHOULDBECONSIDEREDTOSIMULATETHEINJECTIONMOLDINGPROCESSOFAPLASTICBATTERYCASEWITHTHINANDDEEPWALLSKEYWORDSOPTIMALINJECTIONMOLDINGCONDITION;CORESHIFT;THINANDDEEPWALLS;BATTERYCASE;DESIGNOFEXPERIMENTS1INTRODUCTIONONEOFTHERECENTCONCERNSINTHEAUTOMOTIVEINDUSTRYISTHEREDUCTIONOFOVERALLWEIGHTTOIMPROVEFUELEFFICIENCYANDREDUCEAVEHICLE’SENVIRONMENTALIMPACT13THEINJECTIONMOLDINGPROCESSOFTHINNERPLASTICCOMPONENTSALLOWSCONSIDERABLEWEIGHTSAVINGSONTHEAUTOMOTIVE,ASIGNIFICANTREDUCTIONINPRODUCTIONCOST,ANDASHORTERCYCLETIME1VARIOUSSTUDIESAREACTIVELYUNDERTAKENINANEFFORTTODEVELOPTHEINJECTIONMOLDINGPROCESSOFTHINWALLPLASTICPARTS1HIGHINJECTIONPRESSUREANDHIGHINJECTIONSPEEDARENECESSARYTOMANUFACTUREPLASTICPARTSWITHTHINANDDEEPWALLS4HOWEVER,AHIGHINJECTIONPRESSURECANGIVERISETOACORESHIFT,WHICHISTHESPATIALDEVIATIONOFTHEPOSITIONOFTHECOREDURINGINJECTIONMOLDING5SHEPARDETALFOUNDTHATTHEMOLDDESIGNANDINJECTIONMOLDINGCONDITIONSSTRONGLYAFFECTTHECORESHIFTOFTHEMOLD6LEOETALREPORTEDTHATTHEDEFLECTIONOFWEAKPLATESINTHEMOLDCAUSESVARIATIONSINTHETHICKNESSOFTHEPRODUCTANDTHEOVERPACKINGOFMOLDINGS7BAKHAREVETALREPORTEDTHATCORESHIFTEFFECTSININJECTIONMOLDINGCANBEPREDICTEDTHROUGHMOLDFILLINGSIMULATIONCOUPLEDWITHANELASTICANALYSISOFTHEFLEXIBLEPARTSOFTHEMOLD4INTHISPAPER,THEINFLUENCEOFINJECTIONMOLDINGPARAMETERSONTHECORESHIFTINTHEINJECTIONMOLDINGOFAPLASTICBATTERYCASEWITHTHINANDDEEPWALLSISEXAMINEDTOESTIMATEANOPTIMALINJECTIONMOLDINGCONDITIONTHEDESIGNOFEXPERIMENTSISUSEDTOESTIMATEAPROPERMOLDINGCONDITIONMINIMIZINGTHECORESHIFT,ASWELLASTODETERMINEADOMINANTMOLDINGPARAMETERSEVERALEXPERIMENTSARECARRIEDOUTTOOBTAINANOPTIMALINJECTIONPRESSURECOMPARINGTHERESULTSOFNUMERICALANALYSESWITHTHOSEOFTHEEXPERIMENTS,THEOPTIMALINJECTIONMOLDINGCONDITIONISACQUIREDTHEEFFECTSOFTHECORESHIFTONTHEQUALITYOFTHEPRODUCTAREALSODISCUSSED2NUMERICALANALYSISANDEXPERIMENTSINORDERTOSIMULATETHECORESHIFTANDINJECTIONMOLDINGCHARACTERISTICS,ATHREEDIMENSIONALINJECTIONMOLDINGANALYSISWASPERFORMEDUSINGTHECOMMERCIALCODEMPIV61FIG1ILLUSTRATESTHEANALYSISMODELTHEDIMENSIONSOFTHEBATTERYCASEARE1644MMW2514MML1840MMHTHEMAXIMUMANDMINIMUMTHICKNESSESOFTHEWALLSARE27MMAND18MM,RESPECTIVELYTHEDEPTHOFTHEWALLSIS1687MMTHERUNNERSYSTEMCONSISTSOFACONICALSPRUEWITHANINITIAL†THISPAPERWASPRESENTEDATTHEICMDT2009,JEJU,KOREA,JUNE2009THISPAPERWASRECOMMENDEDFORPUBLICATIONINREVISEDFORMBYGUESTEDITORSSUNGLIMKO,KEIICHIWATANUKICORRESPONDINGAUTHORTEL82622307043,FAX82622307234EMAILADDRESSSMARTMAILCHOSUNACKRKSMESPRINGER2010146DGAHNETAL/JOURNALOFMECHANICALSCIENCEANDTECHNOLOGY242010145148TABLE1PARAMETERSANDTHEIRLEVELSFORTHEDOELEVELPARAMETERS123AINITIALMOLDTEMPERATUREOC350400450BINJECTIONTIMESECONDS162228CINJECTIONPRESSUREMPA400350300DHOLDINGTIMESECONDS203244ABFIG1DESIGNOFTHERUNNERSYSTEMANDCOREADESIGNOFTHERUNNERSYSTEMANDPRODUCT,BMESHESFORTHEFLEXIBLEPARTSOFTHECOREABFIG2MOLDFORTHEMANUFACTUREOFTHEPLASTICBATTERYCASEADESIGNOFTHEMOLD,BMANUFACTUREDMOLDDIAMETEROF8MMANDAFINALDIAMETEROF15MM,CIRCULARRUNNERSWITHDIAMETERSOF8MM,ANDPINPOINTGATESWITHDIAMETERSOF2MMINORDERTOCONSIDERTHECORESHIFTPHENOMENONINTHENUMERICALANALYSIS,THEFLEXIBLEPARTSOFTHEMOLDANDTHEFLOWPARTWEREREPRESENTEDBY376,674EAOFTETRAHEDRONMESHESAND61,098EAOFSHELLMESHES,RESPECTIVELYTHEINJECTIONMATERIALWASAPOLYPROPYLENERESINTHEMELTINGTEMPERATUREOFPPWASSETAT230OCTHEDESIGNOFEXPERIMENTSDOEWASUSEDTOQUANTITATIVELYEXAMINETHEINFLUENCEOFINJECTIONMOLDINGPARAMETERSONTHECORESHIFTTABLE1SHOWSTHEINJECTIONMOLDINGPARAMETERSANDTHEIRLEVELSFORTHEL934ORTHOGONALARRAYTHESIGNALTONOISES/NRATIOWITHTHESMALLERTHEBETTERCHARACTERISTICSWASCALCULATEDTOESTIMATETHEPROPERCONDITIONFORMINIMIZINGTHECORESHIFTTHECONTRIBUTIONRATIOOFEACHPARAMETERISESTIMATEDUSINGANALYSISOFVARIANCEANOVATOOBTAINTHEDOMINANTPARAMETERAFFECTINGTHECORESHIFTSEVERALEXPERIMENTSWEREPERFORMEDUSINGANINJECTIONMOLDINGMACHINEWITH600TONSOFCLAMPINGFORCEFIG2SHOWSTHEDESIGNOFTHEMOLD,ASWELLASTHEMANUFACTUREDTABLE2ORTHOGONALARRAYANDRESULTSOFTHENUMERICALANALYSESDEFORMATIONOFFLEXIBLEPARTSMMOFEXPABCDF1F2F3F4F5F6111110160110070140080232122201800900701400802331333013009005011008016421230140100070130080185223101200900501100801662312014010007014008021731320110090050100080158321301701000701400802393321015010007015008022FIG3RESULTSOFTHENUMERICALANALYSISCORESHIFTMOLD,FORTHEEXPERIMENTSTHEDIMENSIONSOFTHEMOLDARE750MMW700MML870MMHTHEDOMINANTPARAMETERWASVARIEDWITHIN10OFTHEPROPOSEDCONDITIONBYTHEDOETODETERMINETHEOPTIMALCONDITIONINORDERTOEXAMINETHEINFLUENCEOFCORESHIFTONTHESIMULATIONOFTHEINJECTIONMOLDINGPROCESS,THERESULTSOFTHEEXPERIMENTSARECOMPAREDTOTHOSEOFTHENUMERICALANALYSES3RESULTSANDDISCUSSION31RESULTSOFINJECTIONMOLDINGANALYSISANDDOEFIG3ANDTABLE2SHOWTHERESULTSOFTHEINJECTIONMOLDINGANALYSISTHEFLEXIBLEPARTSOFTHECOREWEREDEFORMEDINIDENTICALDIRECTIONSREGARDLESSOFTHECOMBINATIONOFINJECTIONMOLDINGCONDITIONS,ASSHOWNINFIG3FIG3ANDTABLE2SHOWTHATTHEDEFORMATIONSOFTHEF1,F5,ANDF6PARTSOFTHECOREWEREGREATERTHAN01MMANDFLEXIBLEPARTSOFTHECOREDEFORMEDSYMMETRICALLYINADDITION,ITWASNOTEDTHATTHESHIFTSOFTHEF2ANDF3PARTSARENEGLIGIBLEINCOMPARISONWITHTHOSEOFOTHERPARTSFROMTHERESULTSOFTHEINJECTIONMOLDINGANALYSIS,THES/NANDCONTRIBUTIONRATIOSWERECALCULATEDFORTHEF1,F5,ANDF6PARTSOFTHECOREWITHRELATIVELYLARGECORESHIFTSFIG4ANDTABLE3SHOWTHERESULTSOFTHEDOEINFIG4,ITCANBESEENTHATTHES/NRATIOSOFTHEINJECTIONPRESSURE,THEHOLDINGTIME,THEINJECTIONTIME,ANDTHEINITIALMOLDTEMPERATUREAREMAXIMIZEDWHENTHEIRVALUESARE30MPA,16SECONDS,44SECONDS,AND40OC,RESPECTIVELYTHES/NRATIOOFTHEINDGAHNETAL/JOURNALOFMECHANICALSCIENCEANDTECHNOLOGY242010145148147TABLE3PURECONTRIBUTIONRATIOSOFEACHINJECTIONMOLDINGPARAMETERFORDIFFERENTFLEXIBLEPARTSCONTRIBUTIONRATIOFLEXIBLEPARTSINJECTIONTIMEINJECTIONPRESSUREHOLDINGTIMEF141565158F40099202F63373363MEAN2576374ABFIG4VARIATIONOFSIGNALTONOISERATIOSACCORDINGTOTHELEVELSOFINJECTIONMOLDINGPARAMETERSAS/NRATIOSOFINJECTIONPRESSUREANDHOLDINGTIME,BS/NRATIOSOFINITIALMOLDTEMPERATUREANDINJECTIONTIMEJECTIONPRESSUREALSOINCREASESREMARKABLYWHENTHEINJECTIONPRESSUREDECREASES,ASSHOWNINFIG4TABLE3SHOWSTHATTHEMEANVALUEOFTHECONTRIBUTIONRATIOOFTHEINJECTIONPRESSUREISNEARLY763ANDTHATTHECONTRIBUTIONRATIOOFTHEINJECTIONPRESSUREISMARKEDLYHIGHERTHANTHATOFTHEOTHERPARAMETERSFROMTHESERESULTS,ITWASNOTEDTHATTHEDOMINANTPARAMETER,WHICHMAINLYAFFECTSTHECORESHIFT,ISTHEINJECTIONPRESSURETHEVARIATIONINS/NRATIOANDTHECONTRIBUTIONRATIOFORTHEINJECTIONTIMEANDTHEINITIALMOLDTEMPERATUREARENEGLIGIBLE,ASSHOWNINFIG4ANDTABLE3FROMTHESERESULTS,ITWASNOTEDTHATTHEINJECTIONTIMEANDTHEINITIALMOLDTEMPERATUREHARDLYAFFECTTHECORESHIFT32RESULTSOFTHEEXPERIMENTSUSINGTHERESULTSOFTHEDOE,THEEXPERIMENTALCONDITIONSOFINJECTIONTIME,HOLDINGTIME,ANDINITIALMOLDTEMPERATUREWERESETAT16SECONDS,44SECONDS,AND40OC,RESPECTIVELYTHEINJECTIONPRESSUREWASVARIEDINTHERANGEOF2732MPAFIG5SHOWSTHERESULTSOFTHEINJECTIONMOLDINGEXPERIFIG5MOLDEDPRODUCTFORDIFFERENTINJECTIONPRESSURESAINJECTIONPRESSURE30MPACONDITIONPROPOSEDBYTHEDOE,BINJECTIONPRESSURE32MPAOPTIMALCONDITIONABFIG6COMPARISONOFTHERESULTSOFNUMERICALANALYSESANDTHOSEOFTHEEXPERIMENTSATHICKNESSDISTRIBUTIONOFCHANNELS,BPOSTDEFORMATIONOFTHEMOLDEDPRODUCTMENTSTHESHORTSHOTDIDNOTOCCURINALLEXPERIMENTALCONDITIONS,ASSHOWNINFIG5HOWEVER,THEWARPAGESOFTHEWALLSOFTHEMOLDEDPRODUCTOCCURREDWHENTHEINJECTIONPRESSUREWASLOWERTHAN30MPA,ASSHOWNINFIG5ATHISRESULTSFROMTHEINSUFFICIENTHOLDINGPRESSURETHEWARPAGESOFTHEPRODUCTWALLSDONOTOCCURWHENTHEINJECTIONPRESSUREIS32MPA,ASSHOWNINFIG5BFROMTHESERESULTS,THEOPTIMALINJECTIONMOLDINGCONDITIONSOFTHETESTEDPLASTICBATTERYCASEWITHTHINANDDEEPWALLSWEREDETERMINEDASANINJECTIONPRESSUREOF32MPA,ANINJECTIONTIMEOF16SECONDS,AHOLDING148DGAHNETAL/JOURNALOFMECHANICALSCIENCEANDTECHNOLOGY242010145148TIMEOF44SECONDS,ANDANINITIALMOLDTEMPERATUREOF40OCTHERESULTSOFTHEEXPERIMENTSWERECOMPAREDTOTHOSEOFTHENUMERICALANALYSES,ASSHOWNINFIG6FIG6ASHOWSTHATTHEDIFFERENCEINWALLTHICKNESSBETWEENTHEANALYSESANDTHEEXPERIMENTSISREDUCEDFROM015MM018MMTO009MM007MMWHENTHECORESHIFTISCONSIDEREDINTHENUMERICALANALYSISINADDITION,ITWASNOTEDTHATTHETHICKNESSVARIATIONOFTHEWALLSISPROPERLYPREDICTEDBYTHECORESHIFTANALYSISFIG6BSHOWSTHATTHECORESHIFTAPPRECIABLYAFFECTSTHEPOSTDEFORMATIONPATTERNOFTHEMOLDEDPRODUCT,ANDTHENUMERICALANALYSISACCOUNTINGFORTHECORESHIFTCANPREDICTTHEPOSTDEFORMATIONOFTHEPRODUCTWITHIN015MMOFCOMPUTATIONALACCURACYTHERESULTSOFTHENUMERICALANALYSESSHOWTHATTHEINJECTIONPRESSUREISREDUCEDFROM502MPATO320MPAWHENTHECORESHIFTISCONSIDEREDTHISISDUETOINCREASEDCAVITYVOLUMEINDUCEDBYTHEELASTICDEFORMATIONOFTHECOREBASEDONTHEABOVERESULTS,ITISNOTEDTHATINJECTIONMOLDINGANALYSISACCOUNTINGFORTHECORESHIFTCANPROPERLYSIMULATETHEINJECTIONMOLDINGPROCESSOFTHEBATTERYCASEWITHTHINANDDEEPWALLS4CONCLUSIONSTHEINFLUENCEOFINJECTIONMOLDINGPARAMETERSONTHECORESHIFTINTHEMOLDINGOFAPLASTICBATTERYCASEWITHTHINANDDEEPWALLSWASINVESTIGATEDUSINGNUMERICALANALYSISANDTHEEXPERIMENTTHEELASTICDEF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