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JournalofMechanicalScienceandTechnology242010145148www.springerlink.com/content/1738494xDOI10.1007/s1220600911265Optimalinjectionmoldingconditionsconsideringthecoreshiftforaplasticbatterycasewiththinanddeepwalls†DongGyuAhn1,,DaeWonKim2andYeolUiYoon31DepartmentofMechanicalEngineering,ChosunUniversity,GwangJu,501751,Korea2IncheonServiceDivision,KITECH,Incheon,406840,Korea3ChunBokInjectionMoldInc.,GwangJu,123312,KoreaManuscriptReceivedApril24,2009RevisedSeptember21,2009AcceptedOctober12,2009AbstractTheobjectiveofthispaperistoexaminetheinfluenceofinjectionmoldingparametersonthecoreshifttoobtaintheoptimalinjectionmoldingconditionsofaplasticbatterycasewiththinanddeepwallsusingnumericalanalysesandexperiments.Unlikeconventionalinjectionmoldinganalysis,theflexiblepartsofthemoldwererepresentedby3Dtetrahedronmeshestoconsiderthecoreshiftinthenumericalanalysis.ThedesignofexperimentsDOEwasusedtoestimatethepropermoldingconditionsthatminimizethecoreshiftandadominantparameter.TheresultsoftheDOEshowedthatthedominantparameteristheinjectionpressure,andthecoreshiftdecreaseswhentheinjectionpressuredecreases.Inaddition,itwasshownthattheinitialmoldtemperatureandtheinjectiontimehardlyaffectthecoreshift.Theresultsoftheexperimentsshowedthatproductswithoutwarpagearemanufacturedwhentheinjectionpressureisnearly32MPa.Comparingtheresultsoftheanalyseswiththoseoftheexperiments,optimalinjectionmoldingconditionsweredetermined.Inaddition,itwasshownthatthecoreshiftshouldbeconsideredtosimulatetheinjectionmoldingprocessofaplasticbatterycasewiththinanddeepwalls.KeywordsOptimalinjectionmoldingconditionCoreshiftThinanddeepwallsBatterycaseDesignofexperiments1.IntroductionOneoftherecentconcernsintheautomotiveindustryisthereductionofoverallweighttoimprovefuelefficiencyandreduceavehiclesenvironmentalimpact13.Theinjectionmoldingprocessofthinnerplasticcomponentsallowsconsiderableweightsavingsontheautomotive,asignificantreductioninproductioncost,andashortercycletime1.Variousstudiesareactivelyundertakeninanefforttodeveloptheinjectionmoldingprocessofthinwallplasticparts1.Highinjectionpressureandhighinjectionspeedarenecessarytomanufactureplasticpartswiththinanddeepwalls4.However,ahighinjectionpressurecangiverisetoacoreshift,whichisthespatialdeviationofthepositionofthecoreduringinjectionmolding5.Shepardetal.foundthatthemolddesignandinjectionmoldingconditionsstronglyaffectthecoreshiftofthemold6.Leoetal.reportedthatthedeflectionofweakplatesinthemoldcausesvariationsinthethicknessoftheproductandtheoverpackingofmoldings7.Bakharevetal.reportedthatcoreshifteffectsininjectionmoldingcanbepredictedthroughmoldfillingsimulationcoupledwithanelasticanalysisoftheflexiblepartsofthemold4.Inthispaper,theinfluenceofinjectionmoldingparametersonthecoreshiftintheinjectionmoldingofaplasticbatterycasewiththinanddeepwallsisexaminedtoestimateanoptimalinjectionmoldingcondition.Thedesignofexperimentsisusedtoestimateapropermoldingconditionminimizingthecoreshift,aswellastodetermineadominantmoldingparameter.Severalexperimentsarecarriedouttoobtainanoptimalinjectionpressure.Comparingtheresultsofnumericalanalyseswiththoseoftheexperiments,theoptimalinjectionmoldingconditionisacquired.Theeffectsofthecoreshiftonthequalityoftheproductarealsodiscussed.2.NumericalanalysisandexperimentsInordertosimulatethecoreshiftandinjectionmoldingcharacteristics,athreedimensionalinjectionmoldinganalysiswasperformedusingthecommercialcodeMPIV6.1.Fig.1illustratestheanalysismodel.Thedimensionsofthebatterycaseare164.4mmW251.4mmL184.0mmH.Themaximumandminimumthicknessesofthewallsare2.7mmand1.8mm,respectively.Thedepthofthewallsis168.7mm.Therunnersystemconsistsofaconicalspruewithaninitial†ThispaperwaspresentedattheICMDT2009,Jeju,Korea,June2009.ThispaperwasrecommendedforpublicationinrevisedformbyGuestEditorsSungLimKo,KeiichiWatanuki.Correspondingauthor.Tel.82622307043,Fax.82622307234Emailaddresssmartmail.chosun.ac.kr©KSMESpringer2010146D.G.Ahnetal./JournalofMechanicalScienceandTechnology242010145148Table1.ParametersandtheirlevelsfortheDOE.LevelParameters123AInitialmoldtemperatureoC35.040.045.0Binjectiontimeseconds1.62.22.8CInjectionpressureMPa40.035.030.0DHoldingtimeseconds2.03.24.4abFig.1.DesignoftherunnersystemandcoreaDesignoftherunnersystemandproduct,bMeshesfortheflexiblepartsofthecore.abFig.2.MoldforthemanufactureoftheplasticbatterycaseaDesignofthemold,bManufacturedmold.diameterof8mmandafinaldiameterof15mm,circularrunnerswithdiametersof8mm,andpinpointgateswithdiametersof2mm.Inordertoconsiderthecoreshiftphenomenoninthenumericalanalysis,theflexiblepartsofthemoldandtheflowpartwererepresentedby376,674EAoftetrahedronmeshesand61,098EAofshellmeshes,respectively.Theinjectionmaterialwasapolypropyleneresin.ThemeltingtemperatureofPPwassetat230oC.ThedesignofexperimentsDOEwasusedtoquantitativelyexaminetheinfluenceofinjectionmoldingparametersonthecoreshift.Table1showstheinjectionmoldingparametersandtheirlevelsfortheL934orthogonalarray.ThesignaltonoiseS/Nratiowiththesmallerthebettercharacteristicswascalculatedtoestimatetheproperconditionforminimizingthecoreshift.ThecontributionratioofeachparameterisestimatedusingAnalysisofVarianceANOVAtoobtainthedominantparameteraffectingthecoreshift.Severalexperimentswereperformedusinganinjectionmoldingmachinewith600tonsofclampingforce.Fig.2showsthedesignofthemold,aswellasthemanufacturedTable2.Orthogonalarrayandresultsofthenumericalanalyses.DeformationofflexiblepartsmmofExpABCDF1F2F3F4F5F6111110.160.110.070.140.080.23212220.180.090.070.140.080.23313330.130.090.050.110.080.16421230.140.100.070.130.080.18522310.120.090.050.110.080.16623120.140.100.070.140.080.21731320.110.090.050.100.080.15832130.170.100.070.140.080.23933210.150.100.070.150.080.22Fig.3.ResultsofthenumericalanalysisCoreshift.mold,fortheexperiments.Thedimensionsofthemoldare750mmW700mmL870mmH.Thedominantparameterwasvariedwithin±10oftheproposedconditionbytheDOEtodeterminetheoptimalcondition.Inordertoexaminetheinfluenceofcoreshiftonthesimulationoftheinjectionmoldingprocess,theresultsoftheexperimentsarecomparedtothoseofthenumericalanalyses.3.Resultsanddiscussion3.1ResultsofinjectionmoldinganalysisandDOEFig.3andTable2showtheresultsoftheinjectionmoldinganalysis.Theflexiblepartsofthecoreweredeformedinidenticaldirectionsregardlessofthecombinationofinjectionmoldingconditions,asshowninFig.3.Fig.3andTable2showthatthedeformationsoftheF1,F5,andF6partsofthecoreweregreaterthan0.1mmandflexiblepartsofthecoredeformedsymmetrically.Inaddition,itwasnotedthattheshiftsoftheF2andF3partsarenegligibleincomparisonwiththoseofotherparts.Fromtheresultsoftheinjectionmoldinganalysis,theS/NandcontributionratioswerecalculatedfortheF1,F5,andF6partsofthecorewithrelativelylargecoreshifts.Fig.4andTable3showtheresultsoftheDOE.InFig.4,itcanbeseenthattheS/Nratiosoftheinjectionpressure,theholdingtime,theinjectiontime,andtheinitialmoldtemperaturearemaximizedwhentheirvaluesare30MPa,1.6seconds,4.4seconds,and40oC,respectively.TheS/NratiooftheinD.G.Ahnetal./JournalofMechanicalScienceandTechnology242010145148147Table3.Purecontributionratiosofeachinjectionmoldingparameterfordifferentflexibleparts.ContributionratioFlexiblePartsInjectiontimeInjectionPressureHoldingtimeF14.156.515.8F40.099.20.2F63.373.36.3Mean2.576.37.4abFig.4.VariationofsignaltonoiseratiosaccordingtothelevelsofinjectionmoldingparametersaS/Nratiosofinjectionpressureandholdingtime,bS/Nratiosofinitialmoldtemperatureandinjectiontime.jectionpressurealsoincreasesremarkablywhentheinjectionpressuredecreases,asshowninFig.4.Table3showsthatthemeanvalueofthecontributionratiooftheinjectionpressureisnearly76.3andthatthecontributionratiooftheinjectionpressureismarkedlyhigherthanthatoftheotherparameters.Fromtheseresults,itwasnotedthatthedominantparameter,whichmainlyaffectsthecoreshift,istheinjectionpressure.ThevariationinS/Nratioandthecontributionratiofortheinjectiontimeandtheinitialmoldtemperaturearenegligible,asshowninFig.4andTable3.Fromtheseresults,itwasnotedthattheinjectiontimeandtheinitialmoldtemperaturehardlyaffectthecoreshift.3.2ResultsoftheexperimentsUsingtheresultsoftheDOE,theexperimentalconditionsofinjectiontime,holdingtime,andinitialmoldtemperatureweresetat1.6seconds,4.4seconds,and40oC,respectively.Theinjectionpressurewasvariedintherangeof2732MPa.Fig.5showstheresultsoftheinjectionmoldingexperiFig.5.MoldedproductfordifferentinjectionpressuresaInjectionpressure30MPaConditionproposedbytheDOE,bInjectionpressure32MPaOptimalcondition.abFig.6.ComparisonoftheresultsofnumericalanalysesandthoseoftheexperimentsaThicknessdistributionofchannels,bPostdeformationofthemoldedproduct.ments.Theshortshotdidnotoccurinallexperimentalconditions,asshowninFig.5.However,thewarpagesofthewallsofthemoldedproductoccurredwhentheinjectionpressurewaslowerthan30MPa,asshowninFig.5a.Thisresultsfromtheinsufficientholdingpressure.Thewarpagesoftheproductwallsdonotoccurwhentheinjectionpressureis32MPa,asshowninFig.5b.Fromtheseresults,theoptimalinjectionmoldingconditionsofthetestedplasticbatterycasewiththinanddeepwallsweredeterminedasaninjectionpressureof32MPa,aninjectiontimeof1.6seconds,aholding148D.G.Ahnetal./JournalofMechanicalScienceandTechnology242010145148timeof4.4seconds,andaninitialmoldtemperatureof40oC.Theresultsoftheexperimentswerecomparedtothoseofthenumericalanalyses,asshowninFig.6.Fig.6ashowsthatthedifferenceinwallthicknessbetweentheanalysesandtheexperimentsisreducedfrom0.15mm0.18mmto0.09mm0.07mmwhenthecoreshiftisconsideredinthenumericalanalysis.Inaddition,itwasnotedthatthethicknessvariationofthewallsisproperlypredictedbythecoreshiftanalysis.Fig.6bshowsthatthecoreshiftappreciablyaffectsthepostdeformationpatternofthemoldedproduct,andthenumericalanalysisaccountingforthecoreshiftcanpredictthepostdeformationoftheproductwithin0.15mmofcomputationalaccuracy.Theresultsofthenumericalanalysesshowthattheinjectionpressureisreducedfrom50.2MPato32.0MPawhenthecoreshiftisconsidered.Thisisduetoincreasedcavityvolumeinducedbytheelasticdeformationofthecore.Basedontheaboveresults,itisnotedthatinjectionmoldinganalysisaccountingforthecoreshiftcanproperlysimulatetheinjectionmoldingprocessofthebatterycasewiththinanddeepwalls.4.ConclusionsTheinfluenceofinjectionmoldingparametersonthecoreshiftinthemoldingofaplasticbatterycasewiththinanddeepwallswasinvestigatedusingnumericalanalysisandtheexperiment.Theelasticdeformationofthecorewasconsideredtoreflectcoreshifteffectsonthenumericalanalysis.ThroughnumericalanalysisandDOE,itwasshownthattheinjectionpressureisthedominantprocessparameteraffectingcoreshiftandthatthecoreshiftdecreaseswhentheinjectionpressuredecreases.Inaddition,itwasnotedthattheinjectiontime,theholdingtime,andtheinitialmoldtemperaturehardlyaffectcoreshift.Itwasdemonstratedthroughexperimentsthatthemoldedproductwithoutwarpagescanbemanufacturedataninjectionpressureofapproximately32MPa.Comparingtheresultsofthenumericalanalyseswiththoseoftheexperiments,theoptimalinjectionmoldingconditionswereobtained.Inaddition,itwasshownthatthecoreshiftshouldbeconsideredtoaccuratelysimulatetheinjectionmoldingprocessofaplasticbatterycasewiththinanddeepwalls.References1R.Spina,Injectionmouldingofautomotivecomponentcomparisonbetweenhotrunnersystemsforacasestudy,J.Mater.Process.Technol.155156200414971504.2K.J.Kim,C.W.Sung,Y.N.Baik,Y.H.Lee,D.S.Bae,K.H.KimandS.T.Won,Hydroformingsimulationofhighstrengthsteelcrossmembersinanautomotiverearsubframe,Int.J.Prec.Eng.Manuf.9320085558.3K.J.Kim,M.H.Rhee,B.I.Choi,C.W.Kim,C.W.Sung,C.P.Han,K.W.KangandS.T.Won,Developmentofapplicationtechniqueofaluminumsandwichsheetsforautomotivehood,Int.J.Prec.Eng.Manuf.10420097175.4S.C.Chen,R.D.Chien,H.H.TsengandJ.S.Huang,Responseofasequentialvalvegatesystemusedforthinwallinjectionmolding,J.Appl.Polym.Sci.985200519691977.5A.Bakharev,Z.Fan,F.Costa,S.Han,X.JinandP.Kennedy,Predictionofcoreshifteffectsusingmoldfilingsimulation,Proc.ofANTEC2004Plastics,Chicago,Illinois,USA.2004621625.6T.A.Shepard,M.OConnell,K.PowellandS.Charwinsky,Minimisingcoreshiftininjectionmouldedcontainer,Plast.Eng.52219962729.7V.LeoandC.Cuvelliez,Theeffectofthepackingparameters,gategeometry,andmoldelasticityonthefinaldimensionsofamoldedpart,Polym.Eng.Sci.3615199619611971.DongGyuAhnreceivedhisB.S.degreeinProductionandMechanicalEngineeringfromPusanNationalUniversity,Korea,in1992.HethenreceivedhisM.S.andPh.D.degreesfromKAISTin1994and2002,respectively.Dr.AhniscurrentlyaProfessorattheDepartmentofMechanicalEngineeringatChosunUniversityinGwangJu,Korea.Dr.Ahnsresearchinterestsincluderapidprototypingandmanufacturing,lightweightsandwichpanel,lasermaterialprocessing,andmoldsanddies.
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