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英文原文COMPUTERNUMERICALCONTROLUNITTODAY,COMPUTERNUMERICALCONTROLCNCMACHINESAREFOUNDALMOSTEVERYWHERE,FROMSMALLJOBSHOPSINRURALCOMMUNITIESTOFORTUNE500COMPANIESINLARGEURBANAREASTRULY,THEREISHARDLYAFACETOFMANUFACTURINGTHATISNOTINSOMEWAYTOUCHEDBYWHATTHESEINNOVATIVEMACHINETOOLSCANDOEVERYONEINVOLVEDINTHEMANUFACTURINGENVIRONMENTSHOULDBEWELLAWAREOFWHATISPOSSIBLEWITHTHESESOPHISTICATEDMACHINETOOLSINTHISCHAPTER,WEWILLEXPLORETHEBASICSOFTHECOREOFCNCMACHINETOOLCNCUNIT,SHOWINGYOUMUCHOFWHATISINVOLVEDWITHITSFUNCTION,WORKINGPRINCIPLES,HARDWARECONFIGURATIONANDSOFTWARESTRUCTUREWITHSOMANYTYPESOFCNCMACHINETOOLSANDCNCUNITSINEXISTENCE,ITISNEXTTOIMPOSSIBLEFORTHISCHAPTERTOBEEXTREMELYSPECIFICABOUTANYONEPARTICULARTYPETHEKEYCONCEPTSALLOWUSTOVIEWTHEMAINFEATURESOFCNCUNITINMOREGENERALTERMS,STRESSINGWHYTHINGSAREHANDLEDTHEWAYTHEYAREEVENMORETHANTHESPECIFICTECHNIQUESUSEDWITHANYONEPARTICULARCNCMACHINETOOLWITHTHISBROADBACKGROUND,YOUSHOULDBEABLETOEASILYZEROINONANYKINDOFCNCMACHINETOOLYOUWILLBEWORKINGWITH1.1INTRODUCTIONMACHINECONTROLSAREDIVIDEDINTOTWOTYPESNUMERICALCONTROLNCANDCOMPUTERNUMERICALCONTROLCNC.NCCONTROLSHAVETOREADTHEPROGRAMEACHTIMEAPARTISRUN;THEYHAVENOMEANSOFEDITINGEXISTINGPROGRAMS.CNCCONTROLSCANSTOREANDALLOWEDITINGOFLOADEDPROGRAMS.ALLMACHINESBUILTTODAYARECNCMACHINES.CNCUNITISTHEHEARTOFCNCMACHINENEVERTHELESS,INORDERTOAIDTOUNDERSTANDTHEWORKINGPRINCIPLESOFCNCUNIT,ITISNECESSARYTHATTHEPRINCIPLESOFNCSYSTEMBEINTRODUCEDFIRSTLY.1.1.1NCSYSTEMTHENCMACHINECANBEDIVIDEDINTOTHREEBASICAREASTHEFIRSTAREAISTHECONTROLUNIT,WHICHPROCESSESTHECOMMANDSFROMTHEINPUTMEDIATHESECONDAREAISTHEDRIVEMECHANISMS,ANDTHELASTAREAISTHEMACHINEITSELF.THEMOSTBASICFUNCTIONOFANYNCMACHINEISAUTOMATIC,PRECISE,ANDCONSISTENTMOTIONCONTROL.A11FORMSOFNCEQUIPMENTHAVETWOORMOREDIRECTIONSOFMOTION,CALLEDAXES.THESEAXESCANBEPRECISELYANDAUTOMATICALLYPOSITIONEDALONGTHEIRLENGTHSOFTRAVEL.THETWOMOSTCOMMONAXISTYPESARELINEARDRIVENALONGASTRAIGHTPATHANDROTARYDRIVENALONGACIRCULARPATH.INSTEADOFCAUSINGMOTIONBYMANUALLYTURNINGCRANKSANDHANDWHEELSASISREQUIREDONCONVENTIONALMACHINETOOLS,NCMACHINESALLOWMOTIONSTOBEACTUATEDBYSERVOMOTORSUNDERCONTROLOFTHENC,ANDGUIDEDBYTHEPARTPROGRAM.GENERALLYSPEAKING,THEMOTIONTYPERAPID,LINEAR,ANDCIRCULAR,THEAXESTOMOVE,THEAMOUNTOFMOTIONANDTHEMOTIONRATEFEEDRATEAREPROGRAMMABLEWITHALMOSTALLNCMACHINETOOLS.FIGURE1.1SHOWSTHEMAKEUPOFALINEARAXISOFANNCMACHINE.FIGURE1.1THEMAKEUPOFALINEARAXISOFALLNCMACHINEANNCCOMMANDEXECUTEDWITHINTHECONTROLCOMMONLYTHROUGHAPROGRAMTELLSTHEDRIVEMOTORTOROTATEAPRECISEAMOUNTOFANGLE.THEROTATIONOFTHEDRIVEMOTORINTURNROTATESTHEBALLSCREW.ANDTHEBALLSCREWDRIVESTHELINEARAXIS.AFEEDBACKDEVICEATTHEOPPOSITEENDOFTHEBALLSCREWALLOWSTHECONTROLTOCONFIRMTHATTHECOMMANDEDNUMBEROFROTATIONSHASTAKENPLACE.ALLNCMACHINETOOLSNEEDNUMERICALDATAFORCONTROLLINGTHERELATIVEMOTIONBETWEENCUTTINGTOOLANDPIECEPART,THECOMPONENTDIMENSIONSNORMALLYEMANATINGDIRECTLYFROMENGINEERINGDRAWINGSTHEGEOMETRICDATA.OTHERDIGITIZEDNUMERICALDATADEFINEFEEDRATES,SPINDLESPEEDS,TOOLIDENTIFICATIONNUMBERS,ANDMISCELLANEOUSFUNCTIONSTOPERFORMSUCHOPERATIONSASTOOLORWORKCHANGING,ORCOOLANTCONTROLTHETECHNOLOGICALDATA.THECOMBINATIONOFALLTHISNUMERICALINFORMATIONINASEQUENCEUNDERSTOODBYTHEMACHINETOOL’SCONTROLLERISCALLEDAPARTPROGRAM,ANDTHEPROCESSOFCREATINGTHEDATAINACORRECTLYSTRUCTUREDFORMATISCALLEDPROGRAMMING.NUMERICALCONTROLSUSESTANDARDMICROELECTRONICMODULESTHATHAVEBEENDEVELOPEDFORCOMPUTERHARDWARE。EXCEPTFORSPECIALMODULESNEEDEDINSERVOCONTROLCIRCUITS,NOINDIVIDUALMODULESARENECESSARY,INCONTRASTTOTRADITIONALCONTROLS,WHICHEMPLOYONLYCOMPONENTSTAILOREDTOSUITONESPECIFICCONTROLFUNCTION.INMODERNNCCONTROLLERSEXTENSIVECONTROLANDCALCULATIONTASKSAREPERFORMEDBYONEORMOREINTEGRALMICROPROCESSORS。THESEARETERMEDCOMPUTERNUMERICALCONTROLSYSTEMCNCS.1.1.2CNCSYSTEMANDFUNCTIONSOFCNCUNITCONTROLSYSTEMSBASEDONINDUSTRIALPCABBREVIATIONFORPERSONALCOMPUTERAREINCREASINGLYUSEDINAUTOMATIONTECHNOLOGY.MACHINECONTROLSHAVECHANGEDGREATLYWITHTHE“AGEOFTHECOMPUTER”.CONTROLSTODAYARE“SOFTWIRED”,WHICHALLOWSGREATERFLEXIBILITYINCHANGINGANDUPGRADINGTHECOMPUTERCONTROL.INFACT,MANYOFMACHINE’SOPERATINGCHARACTERISTICSCANBECHANGEDBYTHEOPERATOR,SOTHATTHEMACHINEOPERATESTHEWAYHE/SHEWANTSITTOPARAMETERTABLESINCNCMACHINESTODAYALLOWEACHMACHINETOBEPERSONALIZEDTOTHENEEDSOFTHEJOBTOBERUN.THEMODERNCNCMACHINETOOLISSOFTWAREDRIVEN.SIMPLYSPEAKING,COMPUTERCONTROLSAREPROGRAMMEDINSTEADOFHARDWIRED.DEFINITIONACCORDINGTOELECTRONICINDUSTRIESASSOCIATIONEIA,CNCSYSTEMISASPECIALCOMPUTERSYSTEMTHATISEQUIPPEDWITHCERTAININTERFACECIRCUITSANDSERVODRIVERS,ANDCANDOPARTORA11THEWORKSANNCSYSTEMDOBYRUNNINGTHESOFTWARESTOREDINITSMEMORIES.CNCSHAVEEXPANDABLEMEMORIESTHATCANSTORELARGENUMBERSOFPROGRAMS,PLUSSUBROUTINESANDCORRECTIONDATA。SOPHISTICATEDGRAPHICDISPLAYSANDDYNAMICSIMULATIONHAVEALSONOWBECOMEAVAILABLEASARESULTOFTHEEXTENSIVEMEMORYCAPACITYBEINGBUILTINTOCURRENTCNCS.WITHINONLYFEWYEARS,THECAPABILITYANDEFFICIENCYOFMACHINECONTROLLERSHASINCREASEDTOSUCHANEXTENTTHATTHENAME“NUMERICALCONTROL”ISNOLONGERAPPROPRIATE;“COMPUTERNUMERICALCONTROL”ISMOREACCURATELYDESCRIPTIVE.GENERALLY,CNCSCOMPRISESCNCUNIT,FEEDMOTIONSERVOSUBSYSTEM,SPINDLESERVOSUBSYSTEMANDSOMEAUXILIARYCONTROLCELLS,ASSHOWNINFIGURE12,CNCUNITISTHECOREOFTHEWHOLECNCSYSTEM.ITISCOMPOSEDOFHARDWAREANDSOFTWARE。THEHARDWARECOMPRISINGACNCUNITISMADEUPOFMICROPROCESSORS,ELECTRONICMEMORYMODULES,I/0INTERFACES,ANDPOSITIONCONTROLMODULES,ETC.CNCSOFTWARECONTROLSALLFUNCTIONSOFTHEMACHINEANDITSEFFICIENCYOFOPERATION,ANDMANAGESALLLOCALPROGRAMMINGATTHEMACHINETOOLANDGRAPHICSIMULATIONOFTHECUTTINGPROCESSIFAVAILABLE.THEHARDWAREANDTHESOFTWAREWORKTOGETHERTODOALLFUNCTIONSOFCNCUNIT,WHICHANORDINARYNCSYSTEMCANNEVERDO,SUCHASGRAPHICDISPLAYHMIHUMANMACHINEINTERFACE,SYSTEMDIAGNOSIS,IMPLEMENTINGOFVARIOUSCOMPLEXTOOLPATHCONTROLLINGANDCOMPENSATIONALGORITHMS,INTELLIGENTCONTROLLING,ONLINEPROGRAMMING,ANDWEBCOMMUNICATIONS,ETC.THEMAINFUNCTIONSANDFEATURESOFCNCUNITAREDESCRIBEDASFOLLOWSFIGURE1.2CNCMACHININGSYSTEM1CONTROLLINGFUNCTIONTHENUMBEROFCONTROLAXESANDSYNCHRONOUSLYCONTROLAXESCONTROLLINGFUNCTIONINDICATESTHEMAXIMUMAXISNUMBERTHECNCUNITCANCONTROLANDTHENUMBEROFAXESTHECNCUNITCANCONTROLSYNCHRONOUSLY.ITISALSOTHEMAREFEATURESOFCNCMACHINE.AXESTOBECONTROLLEDBYCNCUNITHAVELINEARAXESANDROTATEAXES,BASICAXESANDAUXILIARYAXES.GENERALLY,CNCMACHINENEEDSONLY2AXESTOBECONTROLLEDSYNCHRONOUSLY.INCASEOFDOUBLETOOLSLIDES,FOURAXESARENEEDED.CNCMILLINGMACHINE,BORINGMACHINE,ANDCNCMACHINECENTERNEED3ORMORECONTROLLEDAXES.THEMORETHENUMBEROFCONTROLLEDAXES,ESPECIALLYTHENUMBEROFAXESBEINGCONTROLLEDSYNCHRONOUSLY,THEMOREPOWERFULFUNCTIONSOFTHECNCUNIT,ANDTHEMORECOMPLEXSTRUCTUREOFTHECNCUNIT,THEMOREDIFFICULTYOFPROGRAMMING.2PREPARATORYFUNCTIONPREPARATORYFUNCTION,ALSOCALLEDGFUNCTION,DESCRIBESTHEMOTIONMODESOFCNCMACHINE.THEMOTIONMODESCOMPRISEINSTRUCTIONSOFBASICMOTIONS,DWELL,PLANESELECTIONS,COORDINATESYSTEMSETTINGS,TOOLCOMPENSATIONS,REFERENCEPOINTRETURN,FIXEDOPERATIONCIRCLES,ANDMETRIC/INCHUNITTRANSFER,ETC.ACCORDINGTOISOSTANDARD,THEREARE100TYPESOFGCODESFROMG00TOG99USEDINCNCUNIT,WHICHCANBEDIVIDEDINTOTWOCLASSESNONMODALCODESWHICHFUNCTIONSAREVALIDONLYINTHECODESEGMENTINCLUDINGTHECODESTHEMSELVESANDMODALCODESWHICHCANKEEPEFFECTIVEBEFORETHECOMINGOFNEXTGCODEOFTHESAMEGROUP.FORTHEEXACTFUNCTIONOFEACHGCODEUSEDINYOURMACHINETOOLS,YOUMUSTREFERENCEYOURCONTROLMANUFACTURER’SMANUALTOFINDTHELISTOFFUNCTIONSFORYOURMACHINE.3INTERPOLATIONFUNCTIONCNCUNITDOESINTERPOLATIONBYUSINGSOFTWAREREALTIMECALCULATIONS.LINEARINTERPOLATION,CIRCULARINTERPOLATION,HELICALINTERPOLATION,ANDPOLARCOORDINATEINTERPOLATIONWILLDOTHEIRBESTTOHELPCNCUNITGENERATETOOLTRACKASCLOSETOVARIOUSPATHSASPOSSIBLE.4FEEDFUNCTIONFEEDFUNCTIONUSESFFEEDRATEDESIGNATIONTODESIGNATETHEFEEDRATETOAXIS.THEMETHODBYWHICHFEEDRATEISPROGRAMMEDVARIESFROMONEMACHINETYPETOTHENEXT.GENERALLYSPEAKING,MACHININGCENTERSONLYALLOWTHEFEEDRATETOBESPECIFICINPERMINUTEFORMATINCHESORMILLIMETERSPERMINUTE,SUCHAS,F15000MEANSTHEFEDERATEIS15000MILLIMETERSPERMINUTE.TURNINGCENTERS,WHICHHAVEPOSITIONENCODERSINTHEIRSPINDLES,ALSOALLOWFEEDRATETOBESPECIFIEDINPERREVOLUTIONFORMATINCHESORMILLIMETERSPER.REVOLUTIONTHATISNAMEDSYNCHRONOUSFEEDRATE.5SPINDLEFUNCTIONAN“S”WORDISUSEDTOSPECIFYTHESPINDLESPEEDINRPMFORMACHININGCENTERSANM03ISUSEDTOTURNTHESPINDLEONINACLOCKWISEFORWARDD1A11NER.M04TURNSTHESPINDLEONINACOUNTERCLOCKWISEMANNER.M05TURNSTHESPINDLEOFF.NOTETHATTURNINGCENTERSALSOHAVEAFEATURECALLEDCONSTANTSURFACESPEED,WHICHALLOWSSPINDLESPEEDTOBESPECIFIEDINSURFACEFEETPERMINUTEORMETERSPERMINUTE.ONOPERATIONPANEL,THEREISABUTTONTOTURNTHESPINDLEONANDOFF,ASWELLASARHEOSTATTOCONTROLSPINDLESPEED.ALLOFTHESEFUNCTIONSAREACTIVATEDMANUALLY,THROUGHTHEMANUALORJOGMODE.6MISCELLANEOUSFUNCTIONLIKEPREPARATORYFUNCTIONS,MISCELLANEOUSFUNCTIONSMWORDS,FROMM00TOM99ALLOWAVARIETYOFSPECIALFUNCTIONS.MISCELLANEOUSFUNCTIONSARETYPICALLYUSEDASPROGRAMMABLESWITCHES1IKESPINDLEON/OFF,COOLANTON/OFF,ANDSOON7COMPENSATIONFUNCTIONALLTYPESOFCNCMACHINETOOLSREQUIRESOMEFORMSOFCOMPENSATION.THOUGHAPPLIEDFORDIFFERENTREASONSONDIFFERENTMACHINETYPES,ALLFORMSOFCOMPENSATIONALLOWTHECNCUSERTOALLOWFORUNPREDICTABLECONDITIONSRELATEDTOTOOLING.8ENHANCEDGRAPHICDISPLAYFUNCTION
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