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JournalofMaterialsProcessingTechnology187–1882007690–693AdaptivesystemforelectricallydriventhermoregulationofmouldsforinjectionB.Nardina,∗,B.ˇZagara,∗,ASlovenia,Abstractditionsmeans.mouldit.wpatent.onlineinfluencecontrol.©2006ElsevierB.V.Allrightsreserved.Ksimulations1.DevelopmentoftechnologyofcoolingmouldsviathermoelectricalTEMmeansderivesoutoftheindustrialpraxisandproblems,i.e.atdesign,toolmakingandexploitationoftools.Currentcoolingtechnologieshavetechnologicallimitations.Theirfinitepletelyretrollableingtechnologies.eningonlytionand1.1.prPlasticprocessingisbasedonheattransferbetweenplasticmaterialandmouldcavity.Withincalculationofheattransferoneshouldconsidertwomajorfactsfirstisallusedenergy09240136/doilimitationscanbelocatedandpredictedinadvancewithelementanalysesFEAsimulationpackagesbutnotcomavoided.ResultsofadiversestateoftheartanalysesvealedthatallexistingcoolingsystemsdonotprovideconheattransfercapabilitiesadequatetofitintodemandtechnologicalwindowsofcurrentpolymerprocessingPolymerprocessingisnowadayslimitedintermofshorttheproductioncycletimeandwithinthatreducingcostswithheatcapacitymanipulationcapabilities.Otherproducoptimizationcapabilitiesarealreadydriventomechanicalpolymerprocessinglimitations3.∗Correspondingauthors.Tel.3863490920fax38634264612.EmailaddressBlaz.Nardintecos.siB.Nardin.whichisbasedonfirstlawofthermodynamicslawofenergyconservation1,secondisvelocityofheattransfer.Basictaskatheattransferanalysesistemperaturecalculationovertimeanditsdistributioninsidestudiedsystem.Thatlastdependsonvelocityofheattransferbetweenthesystemandsurroundingsandvelocityofheattransferinsidethesystem.Heattransfercanbebasedasheatconduction,convectionandradiation1.1.2.CoolingtimeCompleteinjectionmouldingprocesscyclecomprisesofmouldclosingphase,injectionofmeltintocavity,packingpressurephaseforcompensatingshrinkageeffect,coolingphase,mouldopeningphaseandpartejectionphase.Inmostcases,thelongesttimeofallphasesdescribedaboveiscoolingtime.Coolingtimeininjectionmouldingprocessisdefinedastimeneededtocooldowntheplasticpartdowntoejectiontemperature1.–seefrontmatter©2006ElsevierB.V.Allrightsreserved.10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2006.11.052aTECOS,ToolandDieDevelopmentCentreofbFacultyofElectricalEngineeringOneofthebasicproblemsinthedevelopmentandproductionprocessinthemould.PrecisestudyofthermodynamicprocessesinmouldsSuchsystemupgradesconventionalcoolingsystemswithintheInthepaper,theauthorswillpresentresultsoftheresearchproject,whichThetestingstage,theprototypestageandtheindustrializationphasethermoregulationofthemouldoverthecycletimeandoverallPresentedapplicationcanpresentamilestoneinthefieldofmouldtemperatureeywordsInjectionmouldingMouldcoolingThermoelectricmodulesFEMIntroduction,definitionofproblemmoulding.Glojeka,D.KriˇzajbKidriˇcevaCesta25,3000Celje,Slovenia,Ljubljana,Sloveniaofmouldsforinjectionmouldingisthecontroloftemperatureconshowed,thatheatexchangecanbemanipulatedbythermoelectricalorcanbeastandaloneapplicationforheatmanipulationwithinascarriedoutinthreephasesanditsresultsarepatentedinA686\2006willbepresented.Themainresultsoftheprojectweretotalandrapidonqualityofplasticproductwithemphasisondeformationandproductqualitycontrolduringtheinjectionmouldingprocess.ThermalprocessesininjectionmouldingplasticocessingB.Nardinetal./JournalofMaterialsProcessingTechnology187–1882007690–693691coolingfrommouldandtemperaturefrom2.entmosti.e.lines,accumulatedtoityintoalterlikintetheerties.withatureindependentdonefromsimulation.TEM2.1.wtricalTheFig.2.TEMblockdiagram.nowneverusedintheinjectionmouldingapplications.TEMmoduleseeFig.2isadevicecomposedofproperlyarrangedpairsofPandNtypesemiconductorsthatarepositionedbetweentwoceramicplatesformingthehotandthecoldthermoelectriccoolersites.Powerofaheattransfercanbeeasilycontrolledthroughcurrent.2.2.intounit.transferallosystem.modulesperatureheatconstanttricwithtemchannelscontrollablemouldFig.1.Mouldtemperaturevariationacrossonecycle2.Themainaimofacoolingprocessistoloweradditionaltimewhichistheoreticallyneedlessinpraxis,itextends45upto67ofthewholecycletime1,4.Fromliteratureandexperiments1,4,itcanbeseen,thatthetemperaturehasenormousinfluenceontheejectiontimethereforethecoolingtimecosts.InjectionmouldingprocessisacyclicprocesswheremouldvariesasshowninFig.1wheretemperaturevariesaveragevaluethroughwholecycletime.CoolingtechnologyforplasticinjectionmouldsAsitwasalreadydescribed,therearealreadyseveraldiffertechnologies,enablingtheuserstocoolthemoulds5.Theconventionalisthemethodwiththedrillingtechnology,producingholesinthemould.Throughtheseholescoolingthecoolingmediaisflowing,removingthegeneratedandheatfromthemould1,2.Itisalsoveryconvenientbuildindifferentmaterials,withdifferentthermalconductivwiththeaimtoenhancecontrolovertemperatureconditionsthemould.Suchapproachesaresocalledpassiveapproacheswardsthemouldtemperaturecontrol.Thechallengingtaskistomakeanactivesystem,whichcanthethermalconditions,regardingtothedesiredaspects,eproductqualityorcyclestime.OneofsuchapproachesisgratingthermalelectricalmodulesTEM,whichcanalterthermalconditionsinthemould,regardingthedesiredpropWithsuchapproach,theonecancontroltheheattransferthetimeandspacevariable,whatmeans,thatthetempercanberegulatedthroughouttheinjectionmouldingcycle,ofthepositioninthemould.Theheatcontrolisbythecontrolunit,wheretheinputvariablesarereceivedthemanualinputortheinputfromtheinjectionmouldingWiththeoutputvalues,thecontrolunitmonitorsthemodulebehaviour.ThermoelectricmodulesTEMFortheneedsofthethermalmanipulation,theTEMmoduleasintegratedintomould.InteractionbetweentheheatandelecvariablesforheatexchangeisbasedonthePeltiereffect.phenomenonofPeltiereffectiswellknown,butitwasuntilthemagnitudeandthepolarityofthesuppliedelectricApplicationformouldcoolingThemainideaoftheapplicationisinsertingTEMmodulewallsofthemouldcavityservingasaprimaryheattransferSuchbasicassemblycanbeseeninFig.3.SecondaryheatisrealizedviaconventionalfluidcoolingsystemthatwsheatflowsinandoutfrommouldcavitythermodynamicDevicepresentedinFig.3comprisesofthermoelectricAthatenableprimarilyheattransferfromortotemcontrollablesurfaceofmouldcavityB.SecondarytransferisenabledviacoolingchannelsCthatdelivertemperatureconditionsinsidethemould.ThermoelecmodulesAoperateasheatpumpandassuchmanipulateheatderivedtoorfromthemouldbyfluidcoolingsysC.Systemforsecondaryheatmanipulationwithcoolingworkasheatexchanger.ToreduceheatcapacityofareathermalinsulationDisinstalledbetweenthecavityFandthemouldstructureplatesE.Fig.3.StructureofTEMcoolingassembly.692B.Nardinetal./JournalofMaterialsProcessingTechnology187–1882007690–693aturesystem.inputandinformationcutionrelations.ormediacurrentofofFurthermore,filesDescribedresearchtroltheoretical,aspectoneinto3.mouldingdesigndaysMoldfloespeciallydesignerstionunreliabletion.TEM,bandsimulationsFig.5.CrosssectionofaprototypeinFEMenvironment.3.1.Physicalmodel,FEManalysisImplementationofFEManalysesintodevelopmentprojectwasdoneduetoauthorslongexperienceswithsuchpackages4andpossibilitytoperformdifferenttestinthevirtualenvironment.eninthemdeCOMSOLidenticalpossibletakingfluidphysicswimpactgoaling.temperatureFig.4.Structurefortemperaturedetectionandregulation.ThewholeapplicationconsistsofTEMmodules,atempersensorandanelectronicunitthatcontrolsthecompleteThesystemisdescribedinFig.4andcomprisesofanunitinputinterfaceandasupplyunitunitforelectronicpowerelectronicsupplyHbridgeunit.Theinputandsupplyunitswiththetemperaturesensorloopareattachedtoacontrolunitthatactsasanexeunittryingtoimposepredefinedtemperate/time/positionUsingthePeltiereffect,theunitcanbeusedforheatingcoolingpurposes.ThesecondaryheatremovalisrealizedviafluidcoolingseenasheatexchangerinFig.4.Thatunitisbasedoncoolingtechnologiesandservesasasinkorasourceaheat.Thisenablescompletecontrolofprocessesintermstemperature,timeandpositionthroughthewholecycle.itallowsvarioustemperature/time/positionprowithinthecyclealsoforstartingandendingprocedures.technologycanbeusedforvariousindustrialandpurposeswhereprecisetemperature/time/positionconisrequired.ThepresentedsystemsinFigs.3and4wereanalysedfromtheaswellasthepracticalpointofview.ThetheoreticalwasanalysedbytheFEMsimulations,whilethepracticalbythedevelopmentandtheimplementationoftheprototyperealapplicationtesting.FEManalysisofmouldcoolingCurrentdevelopmentofdesigningmouldsforinjectioncomprisesofseveralphases3.Amongthemisalsoandoptimizationofacoolingsystem.ThisisnowaperformedbysimulationsusingcustomizedFEMpackagesw4thatcanpredictcoolingsystemcapabilitiesanditsinfluenceonplastic.Withsuchsimulations,mouldgatherinformationonproductrheologyanddeformaduetoshrinkageasellasproductiontimecycleinformation.ThisthermalinformationisusuallyaccuratebutcanstillbeincasesofinsufficientrheologicalmaterialinformaForthehighqualityinputforthethermalregulationofitisneededtogetapictureaboutthetemperaturedistriutionduringthecycletimeandthroughoutthemouldsurfacethroughoutthemouldthickness.Therefore,differentprocessareneeded.WholeprototypecoolingsystemwasdesignedinFEMvironmentseeFig.5throughwhichtemperaturedistributioneachpartofprototypecoolingsystemandcontactsbetweenwereexplored.Forsimulatingphysicalpropertiesinsideavelopedprototype,asimulationmodelwasconstructedusingMultiphysicssoftware.ResultwasaFEMmodeltorealprototypeseeFig.7throughwhichitwastocompareandevaluateresults.FEMmodelwasexploredintermofheattransferphysicsintoaccounttwoheatsourcesawaterexchangerwithphysicsandathermoelectricmodulewithheattransferonlyconductionandconvectionwasanalysed,radiationasignoredduetolowrelativetemperatureandthereforelowontemperature.BoundaryconditionsforFEManalysesweresetwiththetoachieveidenticalworkingconditionsasinrealtestSurroundingairandthewaterexchangerweresetatstableof20◦C.Fig.6.TemperaturedistributionaccordingtoFEManalysis.B.Nardinetal./JournalofMaterialsProcessingTechnology187–1882007690–693693atureFig.inresponsevtemperaturewhatproblemsmounting,intelligent3.2.testedtionscontrolmouldwlatedsimulatingmouldingsors,temperaturerepresentsmoulding4.nectionmilestoneincoolingapplications.Itsintroductionintomouldsforinjectionmouldingwithitsproblematiccoolingconstructionandproblematicprocessingofpreciseandhighqualityplasticpartsrepresentshighexpectations.TheauthorswereassumingthattheuseofthePeltiereffectcanbeusedforthetemperaturecontrolinmouldsforinjectionmoulding.Withtheapproachbasedonthesimulationworkandtherealproductionoflaboratoryequipmentproved,theassumptionswereconfirmed.SimulationresultsshowedawideareaofpossibleapplicationofTEMmoduleintheinjectionmouldingprocess.Withmentionedfunctionalityofatemperatureprofileacrosscycletime,injectionmouldingprocesscanbefullycontrolled.Industrialproblems,suchasuniformcoolingofproblematicAancesolvmore,ofrefloityofproduct.icantlyTheofcontroloferances.mouldingandRefer123Fig.7.Prototypeinrealenvironment.ResultsoftheFEManalysiscanbeseeninFig.6,i.e.temperdistributionthroughthesimulationareashowninFig.5.6representssteadystateanalysiswhichwasveryaccuratecomparisontoprototypetests.Inordertosimulatethetimealsothetransientsimulationwasperformed,showingerypositiveresultsforfuturework.Itwaspossibletoachieveadifferenceof200◦Cinashortperiodoftime5s,couldcauseseveralproblemsintheTEMstructure.Thoseweresolvedbyseveralsolutions,suchasadequatechoosingappropriateTEMmaterialandapplyingelectronicregulation.LaboratorytestingAsitwasalreadydescribed,theprototypewasproducedandseeFig.7.Theresultsareshowing,thatthesetassumpwereconfirmed.WiththeTEMmoduleitispossibletothetemperaturedistributionondifferentpartsofthethroughoutthecycletime.Withthelaboratorytests,itasproven,thattheheatmanipulationcanbepracticallyreguwithTEMmodules.Thetestweremadeinthelaboratory,therealindustrialenvironment,withtheinjectionmachineKraussMaffeiKM60C,temperatureseninfraredcamerasandtheprototypeTEMmodules.Theresponsein1.8svariedform5upto80◦C,whatawideareafortheheatcontrolwithintheinjectioncycle.ConclusionsUseofthermoelectricmodulewithitsstraightforwardconbetweentheinputandoutputrelationsrepresentsa45classsurfacesanditsconsequenceofplasticpartappearcanbesolved.Problemsoffillingthinlongwallscanbeedwithoverheatingsomesurfacesatinjectiontime.Furtherwithsuchapplicationcontroloverrheologicalpropertiesplasticmaterialscanbegained.WiththeproperthermalgulationofTEMitwaspossibleeventocontrolthemeltwinthemould,duringthefillingstageofthemouldcav.ThisisdonewiththeappropriatetemperaturedistributionthemouldhighertemperatureonthethinwalledpartsoftheWiththeapplicationofTEMmodule,itispossibletosignifreducethecycletimeintheinjectionmouldingprocess.limitsofpossibletimereductionliesintheframeof10–25additionalcoolingtime,describeinSection1.2.WiththeapplicationofTEMmoduleitispossibletoactivelythewarpingoftheproductandtoregulatetheamountproductwarpageinthewaytoachieverequiredproducttolThepresentedTEMmodulecoolingapplicationforinjectionprocessisamatterofprioritynoteforthepatent,heldownedbyTECOS.encesI.ˇCati´c,Izmjenatoplineukalupimazainjekcijskopreˇsanjeplastomera,Druˇstvoplastiˇcaraigumaraca,Zagreb,1985.I.ˇCati´c,F.Johannaber,Injekcijskopreˇsanjepolimeraiostalihmateriala,Druˇstvozaplastikuigumu,Bibliotekapolimerstvo,Zagreb,2004.B.Nardin,K.Kuzman,Z.Kampuˇs,Injectionmouldingsimulationresultsasaninputtotheinjectionmouldingprocess,inAFDM2002TheSecondInternationalConferenceonAdvancedFormingandDieManufacturingTechnology,Pusan,Korea,2002.TECOS,SlovenianToolandDieDevelopmentCentre,MoldflowSimulationProjects1996–2006.S.C.Chen,etal.,Rapidmoldsurfaceheating/coolingusingelectromagneticinductiontechnologyANTEC2004,ConferenceCDROM,Chicago,Illinois,16–20May,2004.
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