外文翻译--越南小规模婴儿粉低成本挤压机的生产效能.doc外文翻译--越南小规模婴儿粉低成本挤压机的生产效能.doc

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英文原文ABILITYOFA‘‘VERYLOWCOSTEXTRUDER’’TOPRODUCEINSTANTINFANTFLOURSATASMALLSCALEINVIETNAMCMOUQUETA,,BSALVIGNOLB,NVANHOANB,JMONVOISC,STRECHEDAUR106,NUTRITION,LIMENTATIONSOCIE′TES,IRD,BP182,OUAGADOUGOU01,BURKINAFASOBGRET,269KIMMASTREET,HANOI,VIETNAMCGRET,213RUELAFAYETTE,75010PARIS,FRANCEDUR106,IRD,BP64501,F34394MONTPELLIERCEDEXFRANCERECEIVED25JULY2002;RECEIVEDINREVISEDFORM18NOVEMBER2002;ACCEPTED21NOVEMBER2002ABSTRACTEXTRUSIONCOOKINGISAUSEFULPROCESSFORTHEPRODUCTIONOFINSTANTINFANTFLOURS,ASITALLOWSGELATINISATIONANDPARTIALDEXTRINISATIONOFSTARCH,ASWELLASREDUCTIONOFTHEACTIVITYOFSOMEANTINUTRITIONALFACTORSBUTEXISTINGEXTRUSIONEQUIPMENTISNOTSUITEDTOTHECONTEXTOFDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIESASITREQUIRESCONSIDERABLEFINANCIALINVESTMENTANDTHEPRODUCTIONCAPACITYMINIMUM300KG/HISTOOHIGHTHEAIMOFOURSTUDYWASTOIMPROVETRADITIONALEXTRUDERSWITHLOWPRODUCTIONCAPACITYABOUT30KG/HMANUFACTUREDINVIETNAMANDTOTESTTHEIRPERFORMANCEINTHEPRODUCTIONOFINFANTFLOURSSEVERALBLENDSMADEWITHRICE,SESAMEAND/ORSOYBEANHAVEBEENEXTRUDEDWITHTHEMODIFIEDEQUIPMENTTHATWENAME‘‘VERYLOWCOSTEXTRUDER’’INTHECASEOFBLENDSCONTAININGSOYBEAN,STARCHGELATINISATIONWASNOTCOMPLETE,ANDDECREASEDWITHANINCREASEINTHELIPIDCONTENTOFTHEBLENDTHERATEOFTRYPSININHIBITORDESTRUCTIONEVOLVEDINASIMILARWAYADDINGWATERBEFOREEXTRUSION,OREXTRUDINGTHEBLENDSTWICEWASNOTEFFECTIVEININCREASINGTHERATESOFSTARCHGELATINISATIONORTRYPSININHIBITORDESTRUCTIONHOWEVER,THE‘‘VERYLOWCOSTEXTRUDER’’PROVEDITSABILITYTOPROCESSTHERICE–SESAMEBLENDTHATHADALIPIDCONTENTOFLESSTHAN6G/100GDM,ANDLOWINITIALWATERCONTENTAROUND10,WETBASISWBINTHISCASE,EXTRUSIONLEDTOTOTALSTARCHGELATINISATIONANDTHEEXTENTOFSTARCHDEXTRINISATION,WHICHWASMEASUREDBYCOMPARINGTHEVISCOSITYOFGRUELSPREPAREDFROMCRUDEANDCORRESPONDINGEXTRUDEDBLENDS,WASSUFFICIENTTOPREPAREGRUELSWITHSUBSTANTIALLYINCREASEDENERGYDENSITYWITHTHEADDITIONOFROASTEDSOYBEANFLOUR,SUGAR,MILKPOWDER,VITAMINSANDMINERALS,THISBLENDCOULDPROVIDEANUTRITIOUSINSTANTFLOURUSABLEASCOMPLEMENTARYFOODFORINFANTSANDYOUNGCHILDREN2003ELSEVIERSCIENCELTDALLRIGHTSRESERVEDKEYWORDSEXTRUSIONCOOKING;INSTANTFLOUR;COMPLEMENTARYFOOD;GELATINISATION;DEXTRINISATION;TRYPSININHIBITORDESTRUCTION1INTRODUCTIONEXTRUSIONCOOKINGISONEOFSEVERALDIFFERENTPROCESSESUSEDTOPRODUCEINFANTFLOURSTHISPARTICULARPROCESSHASMANYADVANTAGESTHATHAVEBEENEXTENSIVELYREVIEWEDBJORCKASP,1983;CAMIRE,CAMIRE,KRUMHAR,1990;HARPERJANSEN,1985FROMANUTRITIONALPOINTOFVIEW,EXTRUSIONCOOKINGALLOWSINACTIVATIONOFCERTAINANTINUTRITIONALFACTORSLIKETRYPSININHIBITORFACTORSTHUSINCREASINGPROTEINDIGESTIBILITYTHEHIGHTEMPERATUREGENERATEDDURINGPROCESSINGENSURESSATISFACTORYHYGIENICQUALITY,ANDINGENERALRESULTSINSTARCHGELATINISATION,THUSLEADINGTOANINSTANTFLOURIFNOTTRULYINSTANT,THEFLOURISATLEASTPRECOOKED,ANDTHESUBSEQUENTTIMEREQUIREDTOCOOKTHEGRUELISCONSIDERABLYREDUCEDDURINGEXTRUSIONCOOKING,RAWMATERIALSALSOUNDERGOHIGHSHEAR,THUSALLOWINGPARTIALSTARCHHYDROLYSISCOLONNA,DOUBLIER,MELCION,DEMONREDON,MERCIER,1984THEEXTENTOFHYDROLYSISDETERMINESTHEENERGYDENSITYATWHICHITWILLBEPOSSIBLETOPREPAREAGRUELOFSEMILIQUIDCONSISTENCYTHATISACCEPTABLETOINFANTSATAGIVENCONSISTENCY,THEMOREIMPORTANTTHESTARCHISHYDROLYZED,THEHIGHERTHEGRUELENERGYDENSITYWILLBEINSPITEOFTHESEADVANTAGES,THEADOPTIONOFEXTRUSIONCOOKINGPROCESSINGFORTHEPRODUCTIONOFINFANTFLOURINDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIESISSTILLLIMITEDONLYAFEWINDUSTRIALUNITSPRODUCEEXTRUDEDFLOURATALARGESCALEMAINLYINRESPONSETOTHENEEDOFINTERNATIONALORNONGOVERN03088146/03/SEEFRONTMATTER2003ELSEVIERSCIENCELTDALLRIGHTSRESERVEDDOI101016/S0308814602005459FOODCHEMISTRY822003249–255WWWELSEVIERCOM/LOCATE/FOODCHEMTEL226306737;FAX226310385EMAILADDRESSCLAIREMOUQUETIRDBFCMOUQUETMENTALORGANISATIONSFOREMERGENCYSUPPLIESTHEMAINREASONFORTHISISTHATMOSTEXTRUDERSAREDESIGNEDFORLARGESCALEPRODUCTION,THUSREQUIRINGVERYHIGHINVESTMENTANDTECHNICALKNOWLEDGEEVENTHESOCALLEDLOWCOSTEXTRUDERS,ORDRYEXTRUDERSTHATWEREDEVELOPEDFORTHEPRODUCTIONOFCOMPLEMENTARYFOODSATTHEBEGINNINGOFTHE1980SBYTHEUNIVERSITYOFCOLORADOHARPER,1995;HARPERJANSEN,1985;SAID,2000,ARETOOCOSTLYANDTHEIRPRODUCTIONCAPACITYISTOOHIGHABOUT55,000DOLLARSFORAMACHINEWITHAPRODUCTIONCAPACITYOF1TONPERHOUR,ANDARETHUSNOTAFFORDABLEFORDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIESTHEDEVELOPMENTOFASMALLSIMPLEMACHINE,WITHASMALLPRODUCTIONCAPACITYABOUT30KG/HISTHEREFOREOFGREATPOTENTIALINTERESTTHEVIETNAMESECONTEXTISPARTICULARLYWELLSUITEDFORTHEDEVELOPMENTOFTHEPRODUCTIONOFINFANTFLOURBYEXTRUSIONCOOKINGFORSEVERALREASONS1INRURALAREASANDPARTICULARLYINTHEPLAINS,MOTHERSPREPAREATHERMOSOFBOILEDHOTWATEREACHMORNINGINORDERTOHAVEASUPPLYOFSAFEDRINKINGWATERAVAILABLEDURINGTHEDAY,ANDTHISWATERCOULDEASILYBEUSEDFORTHEPREPARATIONOFAGRUELWITHANINSTANTFLOUR2ARUDIMENTARYEXTRUSIONCOOKINGPROCESSHASBEENUSEDFORMANYYEARSINTHECOUNTRYSIDE;SIMPLEEXTRUDERSWITHVERYSMALLPRODUCTIONCAPACITYALREADYEXISTANDAREUSEDFORTHEPRODUCTIONOFSNACKSORCASSAVANOODLESSOLDINTHESTREETTHESEMACHINESWEREPROBABLYORIGINALLYDESIGNEDINTHEUNITEDSTATESATTHEENDOFTHENINETEENTHCENTURYFORTHEEXTRUSIONOFPLASTIC3THESESMALLEXTRUDERSARENOWMANUFACTUREDLOCALLYINSMALLMECHANICALWORKSHOPS,ANDITISALSOEASYANDCHEAPTOCONSTRUCTSPAREPARTSLOCALLYFORTHEMAINTENANCEOFTHEMACHINESOCCASIONALATTEMPTSHAVEBEENMADETOPRODUCEINSTA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