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如何进行

大学阶段的英语学习徐锦芬教授华中科技大学外国语学院引言1)以学生为中心的教育理念使培养学生的自主学习能力(autonomouslearning)成为近20年来高等教育中一个很重要的目标和内容。2)开展学生的自主学习能力是教学模式改革成功的一个重要标志。3)学习者的个体差异使我们意识到只有通过培养学生的自主学习能力才能使学习者的学习效果到达最正确。英语学习中的常见误区:1〕把五种技能学习变成单一的看懂〔“懂得了”不等于“掌握了”〕。2〕把知识当成技能3〕速成心理4〕对教师的依赖5〕缺乏系统性6〕大学阶段感觉不到进步,甚至感觉退步了成功英语学习者必须具备的要素:1〕兴趣interest2〕方法method3〕自信心self-confidence4〕决心determination5〕毅力〔持之以恒〕perseverence6〕求知欲curiosity提纲1.制订明确的学习目标和方案2.合理安排外语学习时间3.注重教材学习与课外学习相结合4.不断进行阶段性反思与总结5.侧重提高英语表达能力

1.制订明确的学习目标和方案

(1)Long-termplansandshort-termplans(2)Don’tbetooambitious2.合理安排外语学习时间

(1)SettingasidesufficienttimeforEnglishlearningeveryday

(2)Makingfulluseoftheafter-dinnertime

聚沙成塔

Manygrainsofsandpiledupwillmakeapagoda.

水滴石穿

Drippingwaterwearsthroughrock

(3)

LearningEnglishforrelaxation3.注重教材学习与课外学习相结合防止两个极端:(1)beingconfinedtotextbook(2)overemphasizingout-of-classreadings1)Howtolearntextbook

Before-classPreview→In-classdiscussion→After-classReview课前预习培养自己的阅读理解能力→课堂讨论培养自己的英语交际能力→课后复习稳固延伸所学的各种语言知识、文化知识。2〕WhattolearnafterclassbesidestextbookPrinciplesforchoosingmaterials〔1〕Interest兴趣〔2〕Linguisticallyappropriate语言难度适中〔3〕Booksnottoothick,articlesnottoolong书不要太厚,文章不要太长〔4〕Largeamountofreading阅读量要大(量多/内容广)Typesofreading/listeningmaterials(1)Othertextbooks(2)EnglishmagazinesandnewspapersChinaDaily很全面,有些难度21stCentury贴近学生生活Star上海出版,主要是文化内容(如音乐会/时尚/广告等)BeijingReviews周报,适合中等水平者ChinaToday月刊,广州出版,介绍中国Times词汇量大(3)Materialsfromwebsites普特英语听力://360abc世博英语英语点津(4)BritishandAmericanliteratureworks

例如:“Asthesunsetburns〔太阳下山时的壮观景色〕overthehillsinalmostunbearablebeauty,astheseaturnssilver,andthefirststarshangabove〔更增加了小岛晚景的迷人之处〕thedarkslopesofGroaghaun,yousigh…thenyousighagain〔既表达了对景色的赞叹之心,又表达了依依惜别之情〕.Itisoneofthoseplaceswhichamanlocksupinhisheart,promisinghimselfthatsomedayhewillgobackthere---someday.”3〕Howtodealwithnewwordsinthereadingmaterials(1)看生词--是否影响对上下文的理解。如果不,说明不重要,至少在当时的语境中。--是否屡次出现(highrepetition)。出现频率越高越重要。--是否“似曾相识”。对英语学习者来说,英语词汇有三类:很熟悉、似曾相识、根本不认识。(2)趣味性原那么(3)以动词、名词、修饰词为先后顺序的原那么(inorderofv./n./modifiersuchasadj.&adv.)(4〕猜测词义:利用上下文、同义反义词等Finallytheenemysurrendered.Theythrewouttheirweaponsandwalkedoutofthehousewiththeirhandsabovetheirhead.InoticedthereweremanystudentswhospokemuchbetterthanIdid.Ibegantofeelintimidated.SoonceagainIwasafraidtospeak.4.不断进行阶段性反思与总结

(1)writingjournals

(2)peerdiscussionorteacher-studentdiscussion5.侧重提高英语表达能力1)我国学生在用英语表达时普遍存在的问题(1)想表达的东西用英文表达不出来〔词不达意〕,或总用一个词表示.(2)句型、时态混乱.(3)前言不搭后语,或上下文不连贯.(4)讲出或写出的英语中式味道很浓.(5)所用的英语缺乏色彩,没有生命力.2)导致英语表达能力差的原因(1)没有养成说英语写英语想英语的习惯(2)语音、语调、重音、停顿不正确Icorrectmystudents’papers.Icollectmystudents’papers.Womanwithouthermanisnothing(3)平时学习英语时对精彩生动的语言描述不够敏感,例如:这教训使我难以忘怀。Thislessonmademerememberforever/neverforget.Thislessonisdeeplyrootedinmymind.她脸红了,让我看穿了她的心思。Herredfacemademeseethroughhermind.Herredfacetoldmewhatshewasthinking.(4)受传统应试教学的影响,擅长做题、考试,但不会运用〔如:背单词〕

3〕具体措施〔1〕语音语调根本功训练学习英语首先要重视语音语调,不求完美,但要根本正确。否那么,将不仅影响听力及口语,还会影响整个英语学习,更谈不上语感的培养。〔2〕掌握词汇学习方法〔3〕加强口语训练〔4〕加强写作和汉译英训练〔5〕做有心人〔6〕学会用英英或英汉双解词典

〔2〕掌握词汇学习的方法(a)注意不同词性及其搭配例1:affect,effectHowdoyouthinkthechangeswillaffectyou?(不是affectonyou)Whateffectdoyouthinkthechangeswillhaveonyou?例2:solve,solutionsolveaproblem,但是findasolutiontoaproblem(b)注意词类之间的联想和搭配例:参加考试:takeanexam参加俱乐部:joinaclub报名参加网球比赛:enterforatennismatch你不想参加我们的网球比赛吗?Won’tyoujoinusinatennismatch?你愿意参加我们星期五的晚会吗?WouldyouliketocometoourpartyonFridaynight?词类之间的联想分为一般联想和特殊联想两种。一般联想:例:acquireknowledge,seekadvice,developone’stalents特殊联想:blacktea是“红茶”,而不是“黑茶”。smallpotato是“小人物”,而不是一种“小土豆”。fatchance是“微小的时机”,而不是“很大的时机”friendlycamera是“傻瓜照相机”,而不是什么“友好照相机”。(c)注意专题联想和词语的搭配如:与人物外貌的描写有关的词语stronglybuiltamanofstrongbuildsixfeetinheightamanofmediumheightShehasaslimfigure.(d)同义联想和词语的搭配〔略〕(e)反义联想和词语的搭配〔略)〔f〕防止使用“大”词、生僻词,要用好“小”词、常用词〔尤其那些一词多义的词〕heavysea波涛汹涌的海面/大海aheavystorm/rain狂风暴雨heavytraffic拥挤的交通heavyfood不易消化的食物heavyroads泥滑难走的路I’maheavysleeper.He’saheavysmoker〔3〕加强口语训练〔几个步骤〕出声朗读口语课文、精读课文或其他容易上口的读物。每天抽一点时间放声朗读,使自己听得见自己的声音,渐渐做到流利、顺畅。在朗读的根底上选择容易上口而且有较强实用性的课文或段落进行背诵,也要求出声背。在背诵的根底上对一篇课文、一个故事或一段对话的内容用自己的话复述出来,用自己掌握的词汇和语法把一段事讲清楚,这时已背熟的东西往往会自动跳出来帮你讲故事。提倡自言自语,自问自答〔灵活,可靠,有效〕〔4〕加强写作和汉译英训练写作时学会使用具体的词汇来代替笼统的词汇如,下文通过一系列对bodylanguage的具体描写来说明人们的紧张状态:Imagineafewpeoplesittinginawaitingroom:oneistappinghisfingersonhisbriefcase,anotherkeepsrubbinghishandstogether,anotherisbitinghisfingernails,stillanothergrabsthearmsofhischairtightlyandonekeepsrunninghisfingersthroughhishair.而不是笼统的描写:Allthepeopleinthewaitingroomareverynervous.

再如,(1)TheMarinewrappedhisstrongfingersaroundtheoldman’slimpones,squeezingamessageofloveandencouragement.而不是:

TheMarineheldtheoldman’shands,tellinghimhowmuchhelovedhim.

(2)Hestruggledwiththebigrocklyinginthemiddleoftheroad,lifteditwithallhisstrengthandgotitoutofthewayjustbeforethetrainflashedbywithafullloadoffreight..而不是:

Hetriedhisbesttomove

thebigrocklyinginthemiddleoftheroad,andfinallygotitoutofthewayjustbeforethetrainwentbywithafullloadoffreight.

再如,

Ayoungwomanwascomingtowardme,herfigurelongandslim.Hergoldenhairlaybackincurlsfromherdelicateears;hereyeswereblueasflowers.Herlipsandchinhadagentlefirmness. Awomanwellpast40,shehadgrayinghairpinnedupunderawornhat. Shewasmorethanalittleoverweight,herthick-ankledfeetthrustintolow-heeledshoes.汉译英时应注意的问题1〕翻译时一定要考虑语境〔context〕一次性用品singlesexproduct(disposablesupplies)人山人海peoplemountainpeoplesea(crowded)“你接/抓得真准”Youcaughttheballverywell/accurately.我们完成了将伤员送往医院的任务。Wehavecompletedthetaskofsendingthewoundedtothehospital.2〕注意汉英两种语言的区别如:(1)汉语:多用动词表达动意英语:用动词或非动词表达动意例如:我投票支持了班长的提议。Ivotedforthemonitor'sproposal.〔介词表示动意〕我支持他参加俱乐部。Isupportedhiminhisjoiningaclub.〔介词表示动意〕他一向很支持我们的工作。He'sbeenverysupportiveofourwork.〔形容词表示动意〕(2)汉语:少用结构词,并列结构多英语:多用结构词,语法结构性强例如:WhenIwentintotheroom,Isawhimreading.〔When结构词,但中文一般不说“当我......时”)学校决定精简机构,减少学科。Theschooldecidedtostreamlinetheorganizationbyreducingthesubjects〔5〕做有心人注重日常话题或生活中常见行为的英文表达〔略〕注意收集与自己生活爱好有关的表达法热水瓶被子(铺~)床垫床单(凉~)双层床牙膏节约用水停电干杯食堂排队排长队插队thermosquilt(spreadone’s~)mattresssheet(airthe~)double-deckbedtoothpasteusewaterwiselyhaveapowerfailurecheers/bottomsupcanteenline/queueupstandinalongqueuejumpthequeue我喜欢拉上被单把头蒙住.Ilikedrawingthesheetupovermyhead.

活学活用Hisgreatness/layin

hisoutstandingabilities/tocombinethequalitiesofanoriginalscientist/withthoseofaforward-lookingindustrialist.Hisexcellencelayinhisoutstandingabilitiesto

combinethequalitiesofasciencestudentwiththoseofanartsstudent.HispopularitylayinhisabilitytospeakEnglishwellandhiswarm-heartednessinhelpinghisclassmateswiththeirspokenEnglish.〔6〕学会用英英或英汉双解词典词典给读者提供了多方面的信息:词义﹑发音、词类、词的搭配、例句、文体(正式还是非正式)、贬褒义、同反义等。英英词典例如,英语中insist,persist翻译成汉语都可能是“坚持”,这样的翻译并不能准确说明它们的根本含义,英英词典那么不然,它告诉你insist的意思是“tosayfirmlyandrepeatedlythatsomethingistrue,esp.whenotherpeoplethinkitmaynotbetrue”,persist的含义那么是“tocontinuetodosomething,althoughthisisdifficultorotherpeoplewarnyounottodoit”。

例1:LongmanDictionaryofContemporaryEnglish,3rdEdition(1995)〔1〕Symbols〔2〕Charts〔3〕UsageNote〔4〕Coloredpictures〔1〕symbols:〔2〕ChartsLongmanDictionaryofContemporaryEnglishLongmanDictionaryofContemporaryEnglish(3)Usagenote:toshowWORDCHOICEtoshowCOLLOCATIONSToshowWORDFOCUSWORDCHOICE:big,large,great

bigandlarge

havethesamemeaning,butlargeisslightlymoreformalandmorelikelytobeusedinwrittenthanspokenEnglish:abiglunch

alargehouse

largeisusedwithquantitywordssuchas'number'and'amount':largeamountsofmoney

alargeproportionofthestudents

greatisnotusuallyusedtotalkaboutsizebutitcanbeusedinliterarywritingtodescribeverylargeandimpressivethings:Beforethemstoodagreatpalace.

greatisusedwithlength,height,andage,andintheexpressionagreatdeal(=alot):Thegrasshadreachedagreatheight.

agreatdealofmoney

LongmanDictionaryofContemporaryEnglish

WORDCHOICE:

big,tall,high

bigisnotusedjusttodescribeaperson'sheight.Itisusedtodescribeachildwhoisgrowing,orapersonwhoisheavy,withalotoffatormuscleontheirbody.

tall

isusedtodescribeaperson'sheight.Itcanalsobeusedtodescribetrees,buildings,orotherthingsthatarenarrowandmeasurealongdistancefrombottomtotop:Sheistallandthin.

thetallestbuildinginLondon

highisusedtodescribethingsorplacesthatarealongwayfromtheground:ahighshelf

thehighestmountainintheworldLongmanDictionaryofContemporaryEnglishCollocations:sb’sattentionisonsb/sthpayattention(tosb/sth)turnyourattentiontosb/sth(=startlisteningto,lookingat,orthinkingaboutsomething)give(your)attentiontosb/sth(=listento,lookat,orthinkaboutsomething,sothat

youcandealwithaproblem)sb’sfull/complete/undividedattentionkeepsb’sattentionclose/carefulattentionsb’sattentionwandersmay/couldIhaveyourattention?(=usedwhenaskingagroupofpeopletolistencarefullytoyou)Collocations:My

attentionwasn'treallyonthegame.

Shetriedtopayattentiontowhathewassaying.

Ifyoupaidmoreattention

inclass,youmightactuallylearnsomething!

Scottsatdownathisdeskandturnedhisattentiontothefilehehadinfrontofhim.

Asasocietyweneedtogivemoreattentiontotheneedsofolderpeople.

Nowhe'sgone,Ican

giveyoumyundividedattention.

Thisgameisfunandissuretokeeptheattentionof

anyyoungstudent.

Theylistenedtothespeechwithcloseattention.

Attentiontodetail

isessentialinthisjob.

DuringthelectureSarah's

attentionbegantowander.WORDFOCUS:AIRPORT

whatyoudoattheairport:Whenyouarriveattheairport,yougointotheterminalbuilding.Youcheckinforyourflightatthecheck-indesk.Youshowyourpassportatpassportcontrolandthengothroughsecurity,wheretheycheckthatyouarenotcarryinganyweapons.Ifyouhavetimeyoucanwaitforyourflightinthedeparturelounge.Whenyourflightiscalled,yougothroughthedeparturegateinordertogetontotheplane.Theplanethentakesofffromtherunway.Afteryourplanehaslanded,yougotothebaggagereclaimtocollectyourbags,thengothroughcustomsandimmigration,wheretheycheckyourpassportandyourbags.Youthengooutintothearrivalsareaoftheairport.LongmanDictionaryofContemporaryEnglishDefinitions:Givenincompletesentencesinsteadofwordsandphrases.play(p.1258-59)例2:CollinsCobuildEnglishDictionary

(1995)

PlayWhenchildren,animal,orperhapsadultsplay,theyspendtimedoingenjoyablethings,suchasusingtoysandtakingpartingames.Whenyouplayasport,game,or

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