语言文化论文-两封情书的文体学分析.doc语言文化论文-两封情书的文体学分析.doc

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语言文化论文两封情书的文体学分析摘要从文体学的角度对两封情书进行了分析。通过对情书中所用的词汇、句子结构和修辞法三个方面的分析,揭示这两封情书各自表达的感情。关键词文体学;词汇;句子结构;修辞法1INTRODUCTIONTHETWOLOVELETTERSARECHOSENFROMTHEPUBLICATION100WORLD’SGREATLETTERS,ONEOFWHICHWASWRITTENBYNAPOLEONBONAPARTETOHISWIFEJOSPHINEDEBEAUHARNAISINNOVEMBER13TH,1796ANDTHEOTHERISFROMAVERYFAMOUSFRENCHSTAGEACTRESSSARAHBERNHARDT18441923TOHERLOVERVICTORIENSARDUINTHEFOLLOWING,THEDIFFERENTSTYLESUSEDINTHESETWOLETTERSWILLBEANALYZEDINTERMSOFVOCABULARY,SENTENCESTRUCTUREANDFIGURESOFSPEECHINORDERTOEXPLORETHEDIFFERENTMOODSEXPRESSEDINTHEM2STYLISTICANALYSISOFTHETWOLETTERS(1)VOCABULARYINTHEFIRSTLETTER,LEXICALANAPHORAISUSEDITISTHEREPEATINGOFWORDSININITIALORFRONTPOSITIONINTHISDEVICE,WORDSAREREPEATEDATTHEBEGINNINGOFSUCCESSIVECLAUSES,SENTENCES,STANZASORPARAGRAPHSTHEPATTERNISAAWHATDOYOUDOALLDAY,MADAMWHATISTHEAFFAIRASIMPORTANTASTOLEAVEYOUNOTIMETOWRITETOYOURDEVOTEDLOVERBESIDESANAPHORA,ANADIPLOSISISUSEDINTHEFIRSTLETTER,TOOINANADIPLOSISAWORDINENDPOSITIONINALINEORSENTENCEISREPEATEDININITIALPOSITIONINTHELINEFOLLOWINGTHEPATTERNISAA,WRITEMEQUICKLYFOURPAGES,PAGESFULLOFAGREEABLETHINGSWHICHSHALLFILLMYHEARTWITHTHEPLEASANTESTFEELINGS(2)SENTENCESTRUCTURESKILLFULWRITERSEXPLOITVARIATIONINSENTENCELENGTHTOGREATEFFECTTOEXPRESSDIFFERENTMOODSORATTITUDES,TODESCRIBEACTIONOREVENTSORTOEMPHASIZEAPOINTTHETWOLETTERSUSEMORESHORTSENTENCESTHANLONGONESTOEMPHASIZETHEAUTHORS’FEELINGSFOREXAMPLE,THEFIRSTPARAGRAPHOFTHEFIRSTLETTERIDON’TLOVEYOU,NOTATALL;ONTHECONTRARY,IDETESTYOUYOU’REANAUGHTY,GAWKY,FOOLISHCINDERELLAANDTHELASTPARAGRAPHOFTHESECONDLETTERIAMASHUNGRYFORTHEMASFORFOODIAMTHIRSTYFORTHEM,ANDMYTHIRSTISOVERWHELMINGUSESHORTSENTENCESFOREMPHASIS,ANDTHESESENTENCESREFLECTTHEHUSBAND’SDEEPLOVEFORHISWIFEANDTHEGIRL’SSTRONGAFFECTIONFORHERLOVEROFCOURSE,LONGSENTENCESAREALSOUSEDINTHETWOLETTERSTHEEXCELLENTCOMBINATIONOFLONGANDSHORTSENTENCESADDSRHYTHMTOTHETWOLETTERSSOTHATTHEYSOUNDMOREFORCEFULANDCADENCEDKNOWNASEROTESISINGREEK,THERHETORICALQUESTIONISONETHATISASKEDTOIMPLYADEFINITEANSWERTHISDEVICEISOFTENUSEDINARGUMENTAND/ORPERSUASIONFOREXAMPLE,INTHESECONDPARAGRAPHOFTHEFIRSTLETTERWHATDOYOUDOALLDAY,MADAMWHATISTHEAFFAIRASIMPORTANTASTOLEAVEYOUNOTIMETOWRITETOYOURDEVOTEDLOVER,SEVERALRHETORICALQUESTIONSAREUSEDTOQUERYHISWIFEWHYSHEPAYSNOATTENTIONTOHIM,WHICH,ATTHESAMETIME,SHOWTHATHEDEEPLYLOVESHISWIFEANDTHATHEBADLYNEEDSLOVEFROMHERBALANCEINSENTENCECONSTRUCTIONISBASEDONTHEPRINCIPLETHATIDEASOFTHESAMEIMPORTANCESHOULDBEEXPRESSEDINTHESAMEGRAMMATICALFORMTOENHANCECLARITYANDCOHERENCE,BYGIVINGTHEM“EQUALWEIGHT”PARALLELISMISONEOFTHECHIEFSCHEMESOFBALANCEITINVOLVESBALANCINGTHESTRUCTURALELEMENTSOFASENTENCEITPLAYSAVERYIMPORTANTPARTINFORCEFULWRITINGOFANYKIND,ANDANYONEWHOHASLEARNTTOUSEITWITHEASEWILLFINDITANINVALUABLEAIDINMAKINGHIS/HERWRITINGCLEARANDEFFECTIVETAKETHESECONDPARAGRAPHOFTHEFIRSTLETTERFOREXAMPLEAGAINTHEAUTHORUSESPARALLELSENTENCESTOADDFORCETOHISSTATEMENTS,WHICHMORESTRONGLYEXPRESSESHISFEELINGS(3)FIGURESOFSPEECHLIKEADIAMONDISASIMILE,ANDPAPERTIGERISAMETAPHOR,ANDWITHMETONYMY,HYPERBOLE,PERSONIFICATION,PARADOXTHEYMAKEUPASCOREORMOREOFFIGURESOFSPEECHMOSTCOMMONLYUSEDTODAYEACHFIGUREHASITSOWNFORMANDCHARACTERISTICS,ANDITSOWNWAYOFACHIEVINGEFFECTSOMETIMESTWOORMOREFIGURESCANBEUSEDTOGETHERFORGREATERIMPACTINTHESECONDLETTER,THESENTENCES“THEYAREASNECESSARYTOMENOWASSUNLIGHTANDAIR”AND“IAMASHUNGRYFORTHEMASFORFOOD”USESIMILETOEXPRESSTHEAUTHOR’SEAGERNESSTOBETOGETHERWITHHERLOVEREVENTHOUGHHISWORDSAREBITTER,SHEWOULDLIKETOHEARTHEMALLDAYTHEYAREINDISPENSABLETOHERLIKESUNLIGHTANDAIR“ITISLIKETHEFACEOFACLOCK,BEREFTOFITSHANDS”ISALSOASIMILEWHICHDESCRIBESTHEAUTHOR’SFEELINGTHATWITHOUTHERLOVER,HERLIFEISDULL,INCOMPLETEANDIMPERFECTANDTHATWITHOUTHERLOVER,HEREXISTENCEISMEANINGLESSINTHETWOLETTERS,ESPECIALLYINTHESECONDONE,THEAUTHORSUSEALOTOFMETAPHORSTOEXPRESSTHEIRFEELINGSEG(1)IDON’TLOVEYOU,NOTATALL;ONTHECONTRARY,IDETESTYOUYOU’REANAUGHTY,GAWKY,FOOLISHCINDERELLA(2)PARISISAMORGUEWITHOUTYOUBUTNOWITISAVASTDESERTOFDESOLATIONANDLONELINESS(3)YOURWORDSAREMYFOOD,YOURBREATHMYWINEINTHEFIRSTSENTENCE,NAPOLEONBONAPARTECOMPARESHISWIFETOCINDERELLA,WHO,ASISKNOWNTOALL,ISABEAUTIFULANDKINDGIRLINTHEFAIRYTALE,FROMWHICHWECANSEEHETHINKSHISWIFEISBEAUTIFULANDKIND,TOOTHATREFLECTSTHEHUSBAND’SLOVEFORHISWIFETHESECONDSENTENCESHOWSTHATTHEAUTHORFEELSLONELYANDDEPRESSEDWITHOUTHERLOVER,WHICHALSOEXPRESSESTHEAUTHOR’SASPIRATIONTOBEWITHHIMASFORTHETHIRDSENTENCE,ITALSODEMONSTRATESTHATTHEAUTHORCAN’TLIVEWITHOUTHERLOVER,JUSTASPEOPLECAN’TLIVEWITHOUTEATINGFOODANDBREATHINGHYPERBOLEGREEK“OVERSHOOTING”ISBOLDOVERSTATEMENT,OREXTRAVAGANTEXAGGERATIONOFFACT,USEDEITHERFORSERIOUSORCOMICEFFECTITSFORMCANVARYFROMAPHRASE,ASENTENCE,TOAPARAGRAPHORPARAGRAPHSOFDESCRIPTIONFOREXAMPLE,INTHEFIRSTLETTER,THESENTENCE“IHOPEBEFORELONGTOCRUSHYOUINMYARMSANDCOVERYOUWITHAMILLIONKISSESBURNINGASTHOUGHBENEATHTHEEQUATOR”USESHYPERBOLETOEXPRESSTHEHUSBAND’SDEEPLOVEFORHISWIFE,ANDATTHESAMETIMEREFLECTSHISCHARACTERASBEINGEMOTIONALANDKINDOFRUDETHESECONDLETTERALSOUSESPERSONIFICATIONBYDEFINITION,PERSONIFICATIONISAFIGUREOFSPEECHTHATGIVESHUMANFORMORFEELINGSTOANIMALS,ORLIFEANDPERSONALATTRIBUTESTOINANIMATEOBJECTS,ORTOIDEASANDABSTRACTIONSFOREXA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