52-Memory Coherence in Shared Virtual Memory Systems.pdf52-Memory Coherence in Shared Virtual Memory Systems.pdf

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MEMORYCOHERENCEINSHAREDVIRTUALMEMORYSYSTEMSKAILLPRINCETONUNIVERSITYANDPAULHUDAKYALEUNIVERSITYTHEMEMORYCOHERENCEPROBLEMINDESIGNINGANDIMPLEMENTINGASHAREDVIRTUALMEMORYONLOOSELYCOUPLEDMULTIPROCESSORSISSTUDIEDINDEPTHTWOCLASSESOFALGORITHMS,CENTRALIZEDANDDISTRIBUTED,FORSOLVINGTHEPROBLEMAREPRESENTEDAPROTOTYPESHAREDVIRTUALMEMORYONANAPOLLORINGBASEDONTHESEALGORITHMSHASBEENIMPLEMENTEDBOTHTHEORETICALANDPRACTICALRESULTSSHOWTHATTHEMEMORYCOHERENCEPROBLEMCANINDEEDBESOLVEDEFFICIENTLYONALOOSELYCOUPLEDMULTIPROCESSORCATEGORIESANDSUBJECTDESCRIPTORSC21COMPUTERCOMMUNICATIONNETWORKSNETWORKARCHITECTUREANDDESIGNNETWORKCOMMUNICATIONS;C24COMPUTERCOMMUNICATIONNETWORKSDISTRIBUTEDSYSTEMSNETWORKOPERATINGSYSTEMS;D42OPERATINGSYSTEMSSTORAGEMANAGEMENTDISTRIBUTEDMEMORIES;UIRTUOLMEMORY;D47OPERATINGSYSTEMSORGANIZATIONANDDESIGNDISTRIBUTEDSYSTEMSGENERALTERMSALGORITHMS,DESIGN,EXPERIMENTATION,MEASUREMENT,PERFORMANCEADDITIONALKEYWORDSANDPHRASESLOOSELYCOUPLEDMULTIPROCESSORS,MEMORYCOHERENCE,PARALLELPROGRAMMING,SHAREDVIRTUALMEMORY1INTRODUCTIONTHEBENEFITSOFAVIRTUALMEMORYGOWITHOUTSAYING;ALMOSTEVERYHIGHPERFORMANCESEQUENTIALCOMPUTERINEXISTENCETODAYHASONEINFACT,ITISHARDTOBELIEVETHATLOOSELYCOUPLEDMULTIPROCESSORSWOULDNOTALSOBENEFITFROMVIRTUALMEMORYONECANEASILYIMAGINEHOWVIRTUALMEMORYWOULDBEINCORPORATEDINTOASHAREDMEMORYPARALLELMACHINEBECAUSETHEMEMORYHIERARCHYNEEDNOTBEMUCHDIFFERENTFROMTHATOFASEQUENTIALMACHINEONAMULTIPROCESSORINWHICHTHEPHYSICALMEMORYISDISTRIBUTED,HOWEVER,THEIMPLEMENTATIONISNOTOBVIOUSTHISRESEARCHWASSUPPORTEDINPARTBYNATIONALSCIENCEFOUNDATIONGRANTSMCS8302018,DCR8106181,ANDCCR8814265APRELIMINARYVERSIONOFTHISPAPERAPPEAREDINTHEPROCEEDINGSOFTHE5THANNUALACMSYMPOSIUMONPRINCIPLESOFDISTRIBUTEDCOMPUTING36AUTHORS’ADDRESSESKLI,DEPARTMENTOFCOMPUTERSCIENCE,PRINCETONUNIVERSITY,PRINCETON,NJ08544;PHUDAK,DEPARTMENTOFCOMPUTERSCIENCE,YALEUNIVERSITY,NEWHAVEN,CT06520PERMISSIONTOCOPYWITHOUTFEEALLORPARTOFTHISMATERIALISGRANTEDPROVIDEDTHATTHECOPIESARENOTMADEORDISTRIBUTEDFORDIRECTCOMMERCIALADVANTAGE,THEACMCOPYRIGHTNOTICEANDTHETITLEOFTHEPUBLICATIONANDITSDATEAPPEAR,ANDNOTICEISGIVENTHATCOPYINGISBYPERMISSIONOFTHEASSOCIATIONFORCOMPUTINGMACHINERYTOCOPYOTHERWISE,ORTOREPUBLISH,REQUIRESAFEEAND/ORSPECIFICPERMISSION01989ACM07342071/89/110003210150ACMTRANSACTIONSONCOMPUTERSYSTEMS,VOL7,NO4,NOVEMBER1989,PAGES321359322’KLIANDPHUDAKTHESHAREDVIRTUALMEMORYDESCRIBEDINTHISPAPERPROVIDESAVIRTUALADDRESSSPACETHATISSHAREDAMONGALLPROCESSORSINALOOSELYCOUPLEDDISTRIBUTEDMEMORYMULTIPROCESSORSYSTEMAPPLICATIONPROGRAMSCANUSETHESHAREDVIRTUALMEMORYJUSTASTHEYDOATRADITIONALVIRTUALMEMORY,EXCEPT,OFCOURSE,THATPROCESSESCANRUNONDIFFERENTPROCESSORSINPARALLELTHESHAREDVIRTUALMEMORYNOTONLY“PAGES”DATABETWEENPHYSICALMEMORIESANDDISKS,ASINACONVENTIONALVIRTUALMEMORYSYSTEM,BUTITALSO“PAGES”DATABETWEENTHEPHYSICALMEMORIESOFTHEINDIVIDUALPROCESSORSTHUSDATACANNATURALLYMIGRATEBETWEENPROCESSORSONDEMANDFURTHERMORE,JUSTASACONVENTIONALVIRTUALMEMORYSWAPSPROCESSES,SODOESTHESHAREDVIRTUALMEMORYTHUSTHESHAREDVIRTUALMEMORYPROVIDESANATURALANDEFFICIENTFORMOFPROCESSMIGRATIONBETWEENPROCESSORSINADISTRIBUTEDSYSTEMTHISISQUITEAGAINBECAUSEPROCESSMIGRATIONISUSUALLYVERYDIFFICULTTOIMPLEMENTINEFFECT,PROCESSMIGRATIONSUBSUMESREMOTEPROCEDURECALLSTHEMAINDIFFICULTYINBUILDINGASHAREDVIRTUALMEMORYISSOLVINGTHEMEMORYCOHERENCEPROBLEMTHISPROBLEMISSIMILARTOTHATWHICHARISESWITHMULTICACHESCHEMESFORSHAREDMEMORYMULTIPROCESSORS,BUTTHEYAREDIFFERENTINMANYWAYSINTHISPAPERWECONCENTRATEONTHEMEMORYCOHERENCEPROBLEMFORASHAREDVIRTUALMEMORYANUMBEROFALGORITHMSAREPRESENTED,ANALYZED,ANDCOMPAREDAPROTOTYPESYSTEMCALLEDIVYHASBEENIMPLEMENTEDONALOCALAREANETWORKOFAPOLLOWORKSTATIONSTHEEXPERIMENTALRESULTSOFNONTRIVIALPARALLELPROGRAMSRUNONTHEPROTOTYPESHOWTHEVIABILITYOFASHAREDVIRTUALMEMORYTHESUCCESSOFTHISIMPLEMENTATIONSUGGESTSANOPERATINGMODEFORSUCHARCHITECTURESINWHICHPARALLELPROGRAMSCANEXPLOITTHETOTALPROCESSINGPOWERANDMEMORYCAPABILITIESINAFARMOREUNIFIEDWAYTHANTHETRADITIONAL“MESSAGEPASSING”APPROACH2SHAREDVIRTUALMEMORYASHAREDVIRTUALMEMORYISASINGLEADDRESSSPACESHAREDBYANUMBEROFPROCESSORSFIGURE1ANYPROCESSORCANACCESSANYMEMORYLOCATIONINTHEADDRESSSPACEDIRECTLYMEMORYMAPPINGMANAGERSIMPLEMENTTHEMAPPINGBETWEENLOCALMEMORIESANDTHESHAREDVIRTUALMEMORYADDRESSSPACEOTHERTHANMAPPING,THEIRCHIEFRESPONSIBILITYISTOKEEPTHEADDRESSSPACECOHERENTATALLTIMES;THATIS,THEVALUERETURNEDBYAREADOPERATIONISALWAYSTHESAMEASTHEVALUEWRITTENBYTHEMOSTRECENTWRITEOPERATIONTOTHESAMEADDRESSASHAREDVIRTUALMEMORYADDRESSSPACEISPARTITIONEDINTOPAGESPAGESTHATAREMARKEDREADONLYCANHAVECOPIESRESIDINGINTHEPHYSICALMEMORIESOFMANYPROCESSORSATTHESAMETIMEBUTAPAGEMARKEDWRITECANRESIDEINONLYONEPROCESSOR’SPHYSICALMEMORYTHEMEMORYMAPPINGMANAGERVIEWSITSLOCALMEMORYASALARGECACHEOFTHESHAREDVIRTUALMEMORYADDRESSSPACEFORITSASSOCIATEDPROCESSORLIKETHETRADITIONALVIRTUALMEMORY17,THESHAREDMEMORYITSELFEXISTSONLYVIRTUALLYAMEMORYREFERENCECAUSESAPAGEFAULTWHENTHEPAGECONTAININGTHEMEMORYLOCATIONISNOTINAPROCESSOR’SCURRENTPHYSICALMEMORYWHENTHISHAPPENS,THEMEMORYMAPPINGMANAGERRETRIEVESTHEPAGEFROMEITHERDISKORTHEMEMORYOFANOTHERPROCESSORIFTHEPAGEOFTHEFAULTINGMEMORYREFERENCEHASCOPIESONOTHERPROCESSOR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编号:201401051948486825    类型:共享资源    大小:2.59MB    格式:PDF    上传时间:2014-01-05
  
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