外文资料--A technical note on the characterization of electroformed.pdf外文资料--A technical note on the characterization of electroformed.pdf

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JOURNALOFMATERIALSPROCESSINGTECHNOLOGY1762006273–277ABSTRACTPROCEDURETHEMETALLOGRAPHICWITHK1INDUSTRYWITHTHISITIDOUBTABLETHETOINTHETHEAITYFIELD,THETURINGCOMPOSEDUSINTHEIR09240136/DOIATECHNICALNOTEONTHECHARACTERIZATIONOFELECTROFORMEDNICKELSHELLSFORTHEIRAPPLICATIONTOINJECTIONMOLDSMARIODMONZON,MDOLORESMARRERO,ANIZARDOBENITEZ,PEDROMHERNANDEZ,JFRANCISCOCARDENESUNIVERSIDADDELASPALMASDEGRANCANARIA,DEPARTAMENTODEINGENIERIAMECANICA,SPAINRECEIVED19NOVEMBER2003;RECEIVEDINREVISEDFORM14JANUARY2006;ACCEPTED11APRIL2006THETECHNIQUESOFRAPIDPROTOTYPINGANDRAPIDTOOLINGHAVEBEENWIDELYDEVELOPEDDURINGTHELASTYEARSINTHISARTICLE,ELECTROFORMINGASATOMAKECORESFORPLASTICSINJECTIONMOLDSISANALYSEDSHELLSAREOBTAINEDFROMMODELSMANUFACTUREDTHROUGHRAPIDPROTOTYPINGUSINGFDMSYSTEMTHEMAINOBJECTIVEISTOANALYZETHEMECHANICALFEATURESOFELECTROFORMEDNICKELSHELLS,STUDYINGDIFFERENTASPECTSRELATEDTOTHEIRSTRUCTURE,HARDNESS,INTERNALSTRESSESANDPOSSIBLEFAILURES,BYRELATINGTHESEFEATURESTOTHEPARAMETERSOFPRODUCTIONOFTHESHELLSANELECTROFORMINGEQUIPMENTFINALLYACOREWASTESTEDINANINJECTIONMOLD2006ELSEVIERBVALLRIGHTSRESERVEDEYWORDSELECTROPLATING;ELECTROFORMING;MICROSTRUCTURE;NICKELINTRODUCTIONONEOFTHEMOSTIMPORTANTCHALLENGESWITHWHICHMODERNCOMESACROSSISTOOFFERTHECONSUMERBETTERPRODUCTSPLASTICINJECTEDPIECES1–3,HOWEVER,ITISTRUETHATITISWHERETHEYHAVEDEVELOPEDMOREANDWHERETHEYFINDTHEHIGHESTOUTPUTTHISPAPERISINCLUDEDWITHINAWIDERRESEARCHLINEWHEREITOUTSTANDINGVARIETYANDTIMEVARIABILITYNEWDESIGNSFORREASON,MODERNINDUSTRYMUSTBEMOREANDMORECOMPETVEANDITHASTOPRODUCEWITHACCEPTABLECOSTSTHEREISNOTHATCOMBININGTHETIMEVARIABLEANDTHEQUALITYVARIISNOTEASYBECAUSETHEYFREQUENTLYCONDITIONONEANOTHER;TECHNOLOGICALADVANCESINTHEPRODUCTIVESYSTEMSAREGOINGPERMITTHATCOMBINATIONTOBEMOREEFFICIENTANDFEASIBLEAWAYTHAT,FOREXAMPLE,IFITISOBSERVEDTHEEVOLUTIONOFSYSTEMSANDTECHNIQUESOFPLASTICSINJECTION,WEARRIVEATCONCLUSIONTHAT,INFACT,ITTAKESLESSANDLESSTIMETOPUTNEWPRODUCTONTHEMARKETANDWITHHIGHERLEVELSOFQUALTHEMANUFACTURINGTECHNOLOGYOFRAPIDTOOLINGIS,INTHISONEOFTHOSETECHNOLOGICALADVANCESTHATMAKESPOSSIBLEIMPROVEMENTSINTHEPROCESSESOFDESIGNINGANDMANUFACINJECTEDPARTSRAPIDTOOLINGTECHNIQUESAREBASICALLYOFACOLLECTIONOFPROCEDURESTHATAREGOINGTOALLOWTOOBTAINAMOLDOFPLASTICPARTS,INSMALLORMEDIUMSERIES,ASHORTPERIODOFTIMEANDWITHACCEPTABLEACCURACYLEVELSAPPLICATIONISNOTONLYINCLUDEDINTHEFIELDOFMAKINGEMAILADDRESSMMONZONDIMULPGCESMDMONZONATTEMPTSTRIALSTARTINGANEQUIPMENTFORMINGCATIONSWPARAMETERSRAPIDRATEMETHOD2THROUGHEPOXICCOREING–SEEFRONTMATTER2006ELSEVIERBVALLRIGHTSRESERVED101016/JJMATPROTEC200604003TOSTUDY,DEFINE,ANALYZE,TESTANDPROPOSE,ATANINDUSLEVEL,THEPOSSIBILITYOFCREATINGCORESFORINJECTIONMOLDSFROMOBTAININGELECTROFORMEDNICKELSHELLS,TAKINGASINITIALMODELAPROTOTYPEMADEINAFDMRAPIDPROTOTYPINGITALSOWOULDHAVETOSAYBEFOREHANDTHATTHEELECTROTECHNIQUEISNOTSOMETHINGNEWBECAUSEITSAPPLIINTHEINDUSTRYARECOUNTLESS3,BUTTHISRESEARCHORKHASTRIEDTOINVESTIGATETOWHATEXTENTANDUNDERWHICHTHEUSEOFTHISTECHNIQUEINTHEPRODUCTIONOFMOLDSISTECHNICALLYFEASIBLEALLMADEINANACCUANDSYSTEMATIZEDWAYOFUSEANDPROPOSINGAWORKINGMANUFACTURINGPROCESSOFANINJECTIONMOLDTHECOREISFORMEDBYATHINNICKELSHELLTHATISOBTAINEDTHEELECTROFORMINGPROCESS,ANDTHATISFILLEDWITHANRESINWITHMETALLICCHARGEDURINGTHEINTEGRATIONINTHEPLATE4THISMOLDFIG1PERMITSTHEDIRECTMANUFACTURBYINJECTIONOFATYPEAMULTIPLEUSESPECIMEN,ASTHEYARE274PROCESSINGDEFINEDSPECIMENTIONANDTOOLSRESEARCHEDABCDETHEFORMEDPLATENPROCESSCA3WHICHWHENBATHANMADETHETHECATHODESULF10703TOMOLDS,SULFSTRESSESCONDITIONS,AROUNDALSOISAMIDEALSOPERMITTINGOFTOHARMFULTIDISTRIBHASMDMONZONETAL/JOURNALOFMATERIALSFIG1MANUFACTUREDINJECTIONMOLDWITHELECTROFORMEDCOREBYTHEUNEENISO3167STANDARDTHEPURPOSEOFTHISISTODETERMINETHEMECHANICALPROPERTIESOFACOLLECOFMATERIALSREPRESENTATIVEINDUSTRY,INJECTEDINTHESETOOLSITSCOMPARISONWITHTHEPROPERTIESOBTAINEDBYCONVENTIONALTHESTAGESTOOBTAINACORE4,ACCORDINGTOTHEMETHODOLOGYINTHISWORK,ARETHEFOLLOWINGDESIGNINCADSYSTEMOFTHEDESIREDOBJECTMODELMANUFACTURINGINARAPIDPROTOTYPINGEQUIPMENTFDMSYSTEMTHEMATERIALUSEDWILLBEANABSPLASTICMANUFACTURINGOFANICKELELECTROFORMEDSHELLSTARTINGFROMTHEPREVIOUSMODELTHATHASBEENCOATEDWITHACONDUCTIVEPAINTBEFOREHANDITMUSTHAVEELECTRICALCONDUCTIVITYREMOVALOFTHESHELLFROMTHEMODELPRODUCTIONOFTHECOREBYFILLINGTHEBACKOFTHESHELLWITHEPOXYRESINRESISTANTTOHIGHTEMPERATURESANDWITHTHEREFRIGERATINGDUCTSMADEWITHCOPPERTUBESINJECTIONMOLDHADTWOCAVITIES,ONEOFTHEMWASTHEELECTROCOREANDTHEOTHERWASDIRECTLYMACHINEDINTHEMOVINGTHUS,ITWASOBTAINED,WITHTHESAMETOOLANDINTHESAMECONDITIONS,TOINJECTSIMULTANEOUSLYTWOSPECIMENSINVITIESMANUFACTUREDWITHDIFFERENTTECHNOLOGIESOBTAININGANELECTROFORMEDSHELLTHEEQUIPMENTELECTRODEPOSITION5,6ISANELECTROCHEMICALPROCESSINACHEMICALCHANGEHASITSORIGINWITHINANELECTROLYTEPASSINGANELECTRICCURRENTTHROUGHITTHEELECTROLYTICISFORMEDBYMETALSALTSWITHTWOSUBMERGEDELECTRODES,ANODENICKELANDACATHODEMODEL,THROUGHWHICHITISTOPASSANINTENSITYCOMINGFROMADCCURRENTWHENCURRENTFLOWSTHROUGHTHECIRCUIT,THEMETALIONSPRESENTINSOLUTIONARETRANSFORMEDINTOATOMSTHATARESETTLEDONTHECREATINGAMOREORLESSUNIFORMDEPOSITLAYERTHEPLATINGBATHUSEDINTHISWORKISFORMEDBYNICKELAMATE7,8ATACONCENTRATIONOF400ML/L,NICKELCHLORIDEG/L,BORICACID50G/L,ALLBRITESLA30CC/LANDALLBRITE2CC/LTHESELECTIONOFTHISCOMPOSITIONISMAINLYDUETHETYPEOFAPPLICATIONWEINTEND,THATISTOSAY,INJECTIONEVENWHENTHEINJECTIONISMADEWITHFIBREGLASSNICKELAMATEALLOWSUSTOOBTAINANACCEPTABLELEVELOFINTERNALHAHATEMPERATUREIFYING4TESTSFORMEDFIGVFROMOFPERATURE560CONOPERATETECHNOLOGY1762006273–277INTHESHELLTHETESTSGAVERESULTS,FORDIFFERENTPROCESSNOTSUPERIORTO50MPAANDFOROPTIMUMCONDITIONS2MPANEVERTHELESS,SUCHLEVELOFINTERNALPRESSUREISACONSEQUENCEOFUSINGASANADDITIVEALLBRITESLA,WHICHASTRESSREDUCERCONSTITUTEDBYDERIVATIVESOFTOLUENESULFONANDBYFORMALDEHYDEINAQUEOUSSOLUTIONSUCHADDITIVEFAVOURSTHEINCREASEOFTHERESISTANCEOFTHESHELLWHENASMALLERGRAINALLBRITE703ISANAQUEOUSSOLUTIONBIODEGRADABLESURFACEACTINGAGENTSTHATHASBEENUTILIZEDREDUCETHERISKOFPITTINGNICKELCHLORIDE,INSPITEOFBEINGFORTHEINTERNALSTRESSES,ISADDEDTOENHANCETHECONDUCVITYOFTHESOLUTIONANDTOFAVOURTHEUNIFORMITYINTHEMETALLICUTIONINTHECATHODETHEBORICACIDACTSASAPHBUFFERTHEEQUIPMENTUSEDTOMANUFACTURETHENICKELSHELLSTESTEDBEENASFOLLOWSPOLYPROPYLENETANK600MM400MM500MMINSIZETHREETEFLONRESISTORS,EACHONEWITH800WMECHANICALSTIRRINGSYSTEMOFTHECATHODESYSTEMFORRECIRCULATIONANDFILTRATIONOFTHEBATHFORMEDBYAPUMPANDAPOLYPROPYLENEFILTERCHARGINGRECTIFIERMAXIMUMINTENSITYINCONTINUOUS50AANDCONTINUOUSCURRENTVOLTAGEBETWEEN0AND16VTITANIUMBASKETWITHNICKELANODESINCOSROUNDSELECTROLYTICNICKELWITHAPURITYOF99GASESASPIRATIONSYSTEMONCETHEBATHHASBEENDEFINED,THEOPERATIVEPARAMETERSTHATVEBEENALTEREDFORTESTINGDIFFERENTCONDITIONSOFTHEPROCESS2VEBEENTHECURRENTDENSITYBETWEEN1AND22A/DM,THEBETWEEN35AND55◦CANDTHEPH,PARTIALLYMODTHEBATHCOMPOSITIONOBTAINEDHARDNESSONEOFTHEMOSTINTERESTINGCONCLUSIONSOBTAINEDDURINGTHEHASBEENTHATTHELEVELOFHARDNESSOFTHEDIFFERENTELECTROSHELLSHASREMAINEDATRATHERHIGHANDSTABLEVALUESIN2,ITCANBEOBSERVEDTHEWAYINWHICHFORCURRENTDENSITYALUESBETWEEN25AND22A/DM2,THEHARDNESSVALUESRANGE540AND580HV,ATPH402ANDWITHATEMPERATURE45◦CIFTHEPHOFTHEBATHISREDUCEDAT35ANDTHETEMIS55◦CTHOSEVALUESAREABOVE520HVANDBELOWHVTHISFEATUREMAKESTHETESTEDBATHDIFFERENTFROMOTHERVENTIONALONESCOMPOSEDBYNICKELSULFAMATE,ALLOWINGTOWITHAWIDERRANGEOFVALUES;NEVERTHELESS,SUCHOPERAFIG2HARDNESSVARIATIONWITHCURRENTDENSITYPH402,T45◦CPROCESSINGTECHNOLOGY1762006273–277275TISTRESSTAINHAND,200–250ISTHEMOSTSTEEL520–595ANICKMATERIALSOFFILLINGFORPLASTICSSHELLMINIMUMPITTING5CURRENTPLESPERPENDICULARPREPARATION,ISHEDACID15,OBSERVPME3ADLARTICLE,THETHELAYERAPPROXIMATELYZONTALTHUS,THEGOINGTHEBEMOLDSTTSERIES1234FIG3SERIES1150,ETCH1FIG4SERIES2300,ETCH2MDMONZONETAL/JOURNALOFMATERIALSVITYWILLBELIMITEDDEPENDINGONOTHERFACTORS,SUCHASINTERNALBECAUSEITSVARIABILITYMAYCONDITIONTHEWORKATCERVALUESOFPH,CURRENTDENSITYORTEMPERATUREONTHEOTHERTHEHARDNESSOFACONVENTIONALSULFAMATEBATHISBETWEENHV,MUCHLOWERTHANTHEONEOBTAINEDINTHETESTSITNECESSARYTOTAKEINTOACCOUNTTHAT,FORANINJECTIONMOLD,HARDNESSISACCEPTABLESTARTINGFROM300HVAMONGTHEUSUALMATERIALSFORINJECTIONMOLDSITISPOSSIBLETOFINDFORIMPROVEMENT290HV,STEELFORINTEGRALHARDENINGHV,CASEHARDENEDSTEEL760–800HV,ETC,INSUCHWAYTHATITCANBEOBSERVEDTHATTHEHARDNESSLEVELSOFTHEELSHELLSWOULDBEWITHINTHEMEDIUM–HIGHRANGEOFTHEFORINJECTIONMOLDSTHEOBJECTIONTOTHELOWDUCTILITYTHESHELLISCOMPENSATEDINSUCHAWAYWITHTHEEPOXYRESINTHATWOULDFOLLOWITBECAUSETHISISTHEONERESPONSIBLEHOLDINGINWARDLYTHEPRESSURECHARGESOFTHEPROCESSESOFINJECTION;THISISTHEREASONWHYITISNECESSARYFORTHETOHAVEATHICKNESSASHOMOGENEOUSASPOSSIBLEABOVEAVALUEANDWITHABSENCEOFIMPORTANTFAILURESSUCHASMETALLOGRAPHICSTRUCTUREINORDERTOANALYZETHEMETALLOGRAPHICSTRUCTURE,THEVALUESOFDENSITYANDTEMPERATUREWEREMAINLYMODIFIEDTHESAMWEREANALYZEDINFRONTALSECTIONANDINTRANSVERSALSECTIONTOTHEDEPOSITIONFORACHIEVINGACONVENIENTTHEYWERECONVENIENTLYENCAPSULATEDINRESIN,POLANDETCHEDINDIFFERENTSTAGESWITHAMIXTUREOFACETICANDNITRICACIDTHEETCHESARECARRIEDOUTATINTERVALSOF25,40AND50S,AFTERBEINGPOLISHEDAGAIN,INORDERTOBEEDAFTERWARDSINAMETALLOGRAPHICMICROSCOPEOLYMPUS33/10BEFOREGOINGONTOCOMMENTTHEPHOTOGRAPHSSHOWNINTHISITISNECESSARYTOSAYTHATTHEMODELSUSEDTOMANUFACTURESHELLSWEREMADEINAFDMRAPIDPROTOTYPINGMACHINEWHEREMOLTENPLASTICMATERIALABS,THATLATERSOLIDIFIES,ISSETTLEDBYLAYERINEACHLAYER,THEEXTRUDERDIELEAVESATHREAD015MMINDIAMETERWHICHISCOMPACTEDHORIANDVERTICALLYWITHTHETHREADSETTLEDINMEDIATELYAFTERINTHESURFACEITCANBEOBSERVEDTHINLINESTHATINDICATEROADSFOLLOWEDBYTHEHEADOFTHEMACHINETHESELINESARETOACTASAREFERENCETOINDICATETHEREPRODUCIBILITYLEVELOFNICKELSETTLEDTHEREPRODUCIBILITYOFTHEMODELISGOINGTOAFUNDAMENTALELEMENTTOEVALUATEABASICASPECTOFINJECTIONTHESURFACETEXTURETHETESTEDSERIESAREINDICATEDINTABLE1ABLE1ESTEDSERIESPHTEMPERATURE◦CCURRENTDENSITYA/DM242025522239024555640024510004002452222FIRSTTHATSTILLALESSETCHISDARKCONDITIONSFIG3ILLUSTRATESTHESURFACEOFASAMPLEOFTHESERIESAFTERTHEETCHITSHOWSTHEROADSORIGINATEDBYTHEFDMMACHINE,ISTOSAYTHATTHEREISAGOODREPRODUCIBILITYITCANNOTBENOTICEDTHEROUNDEDGRAINSTRUCTUREINFIG4,SERIES2,AFTERSECONDETCH,ITCANBEOBSERVEDALINEOFTHEROADINAWAYCLEARTHANINTHEPREVIOUSCASEINFIG5,SERIES3AND2◦ITBEGINSTOAPPEARTHEROUNDEDGRAINSTRUCTUREALTHOUGHITVERYDIFFICULTTOCHECKTHEROADSATTHISTIMEBESIDES,THEMO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