外文资料--A high-power hydraulic drill for breaking hard rock.pdf外文资料--A high-power hydraulic drill for breaking hard rock.pdf

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AHIGHPOWERHYDRAULICDRILLFORBREAKINGHARDROCKFFVOITSEKHOVSKAYAUDC622012327UNLIKEOTHERMATERIALSSUCHASSTRUCTURALSTEELS,ROCKSHAVEAVERYINHOMOGENEOUSSTRUCTUREASINGLEROCKFRAGMENT,TOGETHERWITHVERYHARDINCLUSIONS,CONTAINSALSORELATIVELYSOFTPARTSATTHEBOUNDARIESBETWEENTHEHARDGRAINSMEASUREMENTSOFTHEMICROHARDNESSINANYDIRECTIONONAPOLISHEDSURFACEOFAROCKFRAGMENTGIVEVERYSCATTEREDREADINGSWEMAYENCOUNTERPOINTSWITHHARDNESSGREATERTHANTHATOFTUNGSTENCARBIDE,ANDAFRACTIONOFAMILLIMETERAWAYTHEREMAYBEAPOINTATWHICHTHEHARDNESSANDSHEARSTRENGTHFALLPRACTICALLYTOZEROANEXARNPLEOFAGRAPHOFTHEMICROHARDNESSOFAROCKALONGSOMEDIRECTIONOROTHERISILLUSTRATEDINFIG1,CURVECIFASIMILAREXPERIMENTTOMEASURETHEMICROHARDNESSWERECARRIEDOUTWITHSTEEL,WESHOULDSTILLFINDSOMESCATTEROFTHEREADINGS,BUTTHEAMOUNTOFSCATTERTHERATIOOFTHEMAXIMUMHARDNESSTOTHEMINIMUMWOULDBESEVERALORDERSOFMAGNITUDELESSFIG1,CURVED\1\ASTUDYOFTHEEFFECTSOFINHOMOGENEITYOFROCKISTHEMAINPREREQUISITEFORELUCIDATINGTHEPOSSIBILITYOFOBTAININGADURABLETOOLASTHELOADINGAREAOFAROCKINCREASES,THEREISANINCREASEINTHEPROBABILITYOFTHEPRESENCEOFWEAKPLACESINTHEZONEOFSTRONGSTRESSESFIGURE2ISAGRAPHILLUSTRATINGTHEDEPENDENCEOFTHEBREAKINGSTRESSONTHEAREAOFCONTACTOWINGTOTHEABOVEFEATURES,INROCKWEOBSERVEADECREASEINTHEBREAKINGLOADWITHINCREASEOFTHEAREAOFCONTACTCURVEATOTHELEFTOFPOINT0THECURVEREPRESENTSTHEMAXIMUMSTRENGTHOFTHEROCKFORMETAL,THESAMECHARACTERISTICAPPEARSINTHEFORMOFASTRAIGHTLINEBPARALLELTOTHEAXIS,ANDISDETERMINEDBYTHEFATIGUELIMITOFTHEMETALNOTETHATTOTHERIGHTOFPOINT0THEMETALSHOULDRETAINITSINTEGRITYUNDERREPEATEDLOADING,WHEREASAROCKSHOULDBREAKAFTERASINGLELOADAPPLICATIONEVIDENTLYTHEWORKINGZONELIESTOTHERIGHTOFPOINT0,BECAUSEITISINTHISZONETHATTHEMETALISSTRONGERTHANTHEROCKTHETOOLWILLSOMETIMESFALLONTOAPOINTWHERETHEROCKHASHIGHSTRENGTHANDWILLTHENBESUBJECTEDTOMARKEDABRASIVEWEARIFTHEENERGYOFTHEPERCUSSIVEDEVICEISLOW,THENFURTHERBREAKAGEOFTHEROCKWILLCEASEITISREASONABLETOTAKETHEIMPACTENERGYINTHEREGIONOF500015,000KGMRESEARCHATTHEINSTITUTEOFHYDRODYNAMICSOFTHESIBERIANBRANCHOFTHEACADEMYOFSCIENCESOFTHEUSSRHASREVEALEDTHATTHEPOSSIBILITYOFINFLICTINGHIGHENERGYBLOWSCOMPLETELYREMOVESANUMBEROFDIFFICULTIESWHICHPREVENTTHEADOPTIONOFPERCUSSIVEBREAKINGOFHARDROCKSININDUSTRY,WHILEOTHERFACTORSARISEWHICHINCREASETHEBREAKINGEFFICIENCY,NAMELY,DURABILITYOFTHETOOLANDASHARPREDUCTIONINPOWERCONSUMPTIONIN1964SOMEWORKERSATTHEINSTITUTEOFHYDRODYNAMICSOFTHESIBERIANBRANCHOFTHEACADEMYOFSCIENCESOFTHEUSSRPUTFORWARDTHEHYPOTHESISLATERCONFIRMEDBYAMERICANWORKERSTHATTHEENERGYCONSUMPTIONOFBREAKINGISREDUCEDWHENTHEIMPACTENERGYISRAISEDABOVE5000KGMONTHEBASISOFTHISHYPOTHESIS,WORKHASBEGUNONCREATINGANINSTRUMENTWITHHIGHIMPACTENERGYATTHEPRESENTTIME,HYDRAULICANDPNEUMATICDRILLSAREWIDELYUSEDININDUSTRYMOSTOFTHESEHAVEIMPACTENERGIESBELOW300KGMONLYINEXCEPTIONALCASES,FOREXAMPLE,INSMASHINGBOULDERS,DOWEUSERUBBLEHAMMERSWITHIMPACTENERGIESOF1500KGMHYDRAULIC/PNEUMATICHAMMERSUSEDATTHEFACECLEARLYHAVEINSUFFICIENTPOWERTOGIVEANYADVANTAGEOVERDRILLINGANDBLASTINGINROCKBREAKINGTHISISBECAUSEOFTHEHIGHPOWERCONINSTITUTEOFHYDRODYNAMICSSIBERIANBRANCH,ACADEMYOFSCIENCESOFTHEUSSR,NOVOSIBLRSKTRANSLATEDFROMFIZIKOTEKHNICHESKIEPROBLEMYRAZRABOTKIPOLEZNYKHISKOPAEMYKH,NO5,PP8289,SEPTEMBEROCTOBER,1974ORIGINALARTICLESUBMITTEDMAY31,197491975PLENUMPUBLISHINGCORPORATION,227WEST17RHSTREET,NEWYORK,NY10011NOPARTOFTHISPUBLICATIONMAYBEREPRODUCED,STOREDINARETRIEVALSYSTEM,ORTRANSMITTED,INANYFORMORBYANYMEANS,ELECTRONIC,MECHANICAL,PHOTOCOPYING,MICROFILMING,RECORDINGOROTHERWISE,WITHOUTWRITTENPERMISSIONOFTHEPUBLISHERACOPYOFTHISARTICLEISAVAILABLEFROMTHEPUBLISHERFOR15OO599EKG/CMZOXNOIIIF,CM2FIG1FIG2FIG,1ILLUSTRATIVEGRAPHOFMICROHARDNESSALONGXDIRECTIONCURVECMICROHARDNESSOFROCK;CURVEDMICROHARDNESSOFSTEELFIG,2BREAKINGSTRESSOBVSLOADINGAREAFAFORROCK;BFORTOOLMETALSUMPDONANDCOSTOFTHETOOLSPERCUBICMETEROFBROKENROCK,BECAUSEBLUNTINGOFTHECUTTINGEDGELEADSTOCESSATIONOFBREAKINGATTHESAMETIME,INDUSTRYNEEDSPERCUSSIVEMACHINESFORCUTTINGTUNNELSINHARDROCKS,BREAKINGUPROCKOBSTACLESINPITS,ETC\2,3\FORAHYDRAULICDRILLWITHANIMPACTENERGYABOVE5000KGMBLUNTINGOFTHECUTTINGEDGEHASLITTLEEFFECTONTHEEFFICIENCYOFROCKBREAKINGTHESERESULTSWEREOBTAINEDWITHTHEAIDOFANEWLYDESIGNEDHYDRAULICDRILLINDEVELOPINGITWECAMETOTHECONCLUSIONTHATFORPERCUSSIVEMACHINESWITHIMPACTENERGIESABOVE5000KGMITISNECESSARYTOJOINTHESTRIKERTOTHETOO1THISPERMITSUSTOELIMINATECOLLISIONBETWEENTHEMASSES,TOSIMPLIFYTHEDESIGN,ANDTOGREATLYINCREASETHEIMPACTENERGYASARESULTTHEENERGYPERCUBICMETEROFBROKENROCKISREDUCEDTO115111OOFTHATFORPREVIOUSHYDROPNEUMADCDRILLSFROMTHEEXPERIMENTALDATAWESEETHATTHEMEANSPECIFICENERGYCONSUMPTIONOFBREAKING,TAKENASTHERATIOOFTHEKINETICENERGYOFTHEIMPACTMASSTOTHEMEANVOLUMEOFBROKENROCKFROMONEIMPACTOFENERGY4000KGM,ISEQUALTO5KWH/MS;IFTHEIMPACTENERGYIS12,000KGM,THEENERGYCONSUMPTIONIS29KWH/M3INALTERINGTHEDESIGNOFTHETOOL,THEWORKERSATTHEINSTITUTEOFHYDRODYNAMICSOFTHESIBERIANBRANCHOFTHEACADEMYOFSCIENCESOFTHEUSSRHAVETRIEDTOREALIZETHEPRINCIPLEOFSELFSHARPENING,INWHICHTHETOOLASITWEARSKEEPSITSCROSSSECTIONWHILEITSENDACQUIRESASTEADYROUNDEDSHAPEASSUCHASTRIKERWEARS,ITISONLYNECESSARYTOADVANCEITFROMTHECOLLIDINGMASSSTARTINGIN1966,WEPLANNEDANDBUILTSEVERALMODIFICATIONSTOTHEBUSINESSENDSOFPERCUSSIVEMACHINESTHEYWERETESTEDINTHEBUTOVSKAYAPITOFTHEKEMEROVOREGIONANDMORERECENTLYATTHETYRNYAUZPITOFTHEKABARDINOBALKARASSR,WHERETHEHARDNESSOFTHEROCKSREACHES14ONTHEPROTODYAKONOVSCALEOURDESIGNFORAHYDRAULICDRILLWASBASEDONTHEATTEMPTTOMAXIMIZETHEIMPACTENERGYWITHAHIGHEFFICIENCYTHISPROBLEMWASSOLVEDMAINLYBYUSINGANENERGYACCUMULATORAIRRESERVOIRS,BYFEEDINGENERGYDIRECTLYROTHEIMPACTMASS,ANDBYUSINGFLOATINGSEALSADIFFICULTYINDESIGN/NGAHYDRAULICDRILLWITHHIGHIMPACTENERGYISTHENECESSITYOFAVOIDINGTHEDISRUPTIVEACTIONOFTHEREBOUNDINGROCK\48\TECHNICALCHARACTERISTICSOFPERCUSSIVEDRILLHEADHYDRAULICDRILLSIZEOFDRILL,M45X07X07WEIGHTOFDRILL,KG4500WEIGHTOFMOVINGPARTS,KG1500IMPACTENERGY,KG/M10,00015,000ENERGYCONSUMPTION,KWH/MS5E14MEANROCKSPALLATLONPERIMPACT,LITERS610F14AIRCHARGINGPRESSURE,ATM4050TENIMPACTSPERMINUTEAREPOSSIBLEUNDERMANUALCONTROL60018I7,516B519104LZI157EXKZ;Z///212022;5I4I129//2ZFIG3UNITB/192OFCD2224;378//////_2/\\K\\/A\,J1II1K\\\\\/\\\\\,\\\\\\\\\/FIG4FIGURE3SHOWSADIAGRAMOFTHEHYDRAULICDRILLTHEIMPACTMASS17ISSITEDWITHAGAPINSIDEELASTICGUIDES16FIXEDTOTHEFRAME,WHICHISFORMEDFROMTUBULARRECEIVERS4JOINEDBYFACEPLATES3FRONTAND2BACKINSIDETHEFRAMEISFORCECYLINDER1ANDTHEMOVINGSYSTEMOFTHEPISTON,ROD,ANDIMPACTMASSTHEROD5HASARTICULATEDJOINTSATEACHEND;ONEOFTHESE6LIESWITHINTHEIMPACTMASS,ANDTHEOTHER,THEPISTONJOINT7,ISWITHINTHEPISTONCUP8THISSYSTEMGIVESALLDEGREESOFFREEDOMANDDAMPINGTOTHEIMPACTMASSTHEPISTONCUPDIVIDESTHEFORCECYLINDERINTOANAIRCAVITY11ANDAWATERCAVITY12WATERENTERSTHELATTERFROMPUMPSATABOVETHEPRESSUREOFTHEAIRWATERENTERSCAVITY12VIAANNULARGAP6FIG4FORMEDBYTHEEXTERNALSURFACEOFTHESLIDER13WHICHCLOSESPORT10THENPISTON8COMPRESSESTHEPNEUMATICSPRINGANDDISPLACESAIRINTOTHERECEIVERSASWATERISEJECTEDFROMCAVITY12,THEPISTONMDIMPACTMASSSYSTEMACCELERATES,ANDTHEBLOWISINFLICTEDONTHEROCKPOTENTIALENERGYACCUMULATESINTHEAIRRECEIVERTHELOSSOFENERGYSTOREDINTHEAIRRECEIVERISCHARACTERIZEDBYTHEEFFICIENCYOFTHEPNEUMATICSPRING,WHICHISDEFINEDASTHERATIOOFTHEKINETICENERGYOFTHEIMPACTMASSATTHEENDOFITSACCELERATIONTOTHEWORKDONEINCOMPRESSINGTHEGASE/A,WHEREEMU2MAX2ASSUMINGTHATTHEGASISCOMPRESSEDADIABATICALLY,WEHAVEVQ_,,_VO,APIN11WHEREV0VRVC,MISTHEWEIGHTOFTHEIMPACTMASS,UMAXISTHEMAXIMUMVELOCITYOFTHEIMPACTMASS,VRISTHEVOLUMEOFTHEAIRRECEIVER,VCISTHEVOLUMEOFTHEAIRCAVITYOFTHECYLINDERATTHEMOMENTWHENTHEIMPACT601T,SEE4LO2O5VR45M/SEC/III\II10152025JO35,04550556OS57O75EOCCMFIG5RECORDOFMOVEMENTSOFIMPACTMASSOFHYDRAULICDRILLFIG6MASSREACHESTHEVELOCITYUREAX,ANDPINISTHEAIRPRESSUREBEFORETHESTARTOFBACKWARDTRAVELOFTHEIMPACTMASSEQUATION1ISONLYAPPROXIMATE,BECAUSEDURINGCOMPRESSIONOFTHEAIRPARTOFTHEHEATINTHERECEIVERTUBESHASTIMETOLEAKAWAYWITHANAUTOMATICRECORDINGDEVICEWERECORDEDTHEACCELERATIONOFTHEIMPACTMASSFIGURE5SHOWSAGRAPHOFTHETIMEDEPENDENCEOFTHEMOVEMENTOFTHEIMPACTMASSSECTIONAASHOWSTHERETARDATIONOFTHEIMPACTMASSFROMTHEGRAPHWEDETERMINEDTHEVELOCITYOFTHEIMPAETMASSALONGTHEACCELERATIONPATHFROMEQ1WEFOUNDTHEEFFICIENCYOFTHEPNEUMATICSPRINGINOUREXPERIMENTSTHISWAS7578DURINGACCELERATIONOFTHEIMPACTMASS,INTHEABSENCEOFOBSTACLES,ITSKINETICENERGYISQUENCHEDBYTHEBRAKINGDEVICETHISISACHIEVEDBYINCREASINGTHEPRESSUREAHEADOFTHEPISTONCUPTHEENDOFTHEPISTONCUPBEGINSTOCLOSEPORT10ANYFURTHERDANGEROUSRISEINPRESSUREISLIMITEDBYFLOWOFWATERTHROUGHTHEGAPBETWEENTHEEXTERNALSURFACEOFTHEPISTONCUPANDTHEINTERNALSURFACEOFTHEFORCECYLINDERTHECONDITIONOFFLOATINGOFTHEPISTONCUPISDETERMINEDBYTHEEQUATIONPBSPPASBWHEREPBISTHEBRAKINGPRESSURE,SPISTHECROSSSECTIONALAREAOFTHETUBEOFTHEPISTONCUP,PAISTHEAIRPRESSURE,ANDSBISTHEAREAOFTHEBASEOFTHEPISTONCUP602
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