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ISSN1068-798X,RussianEngineeringResearch,2008,Vol.28,No.1,pp.74–78.AllertonPress,Inc.,2008.OriginalRussianTextR.G.Kudoyarov,E.M.Durko,D.V.Ivanov,2007,publishedinSTIN,2007,No.10,pp.16–21.74Thedevelopmentofmanufacturingentailsimprov-ingproductperformanceanddependssignificantlyonthecapabilitiesandqualityofthemachine-toolemployed.Inthiscontext,itispromisingtousemecha-tronicmachine-toolsystems,inwhichmanufacturingconsistsofcontrollableprocesses.Inmachiningblanks,inpractice,itisnecessarytotakeaccountofprocessesoccurringinmachine-tooldrives,thestateofthesup-portingsystem,andphysicalphenomenaaccompany-ingthecuttingprocess.Inordertoimprovemanufacturingefficiency,meth-odsofdesigningmechatronicmachinetoolsmustberefined.Modulardesignprinciplesarewidelyusedtodayincreatingmachinetools.Atechnologicalmoduleisastructuralunitrequiredtoperformshapingoperations[1].Atechnologicalorproductionmoduleismoregenerallyacomponentofautomatedsystemsorpro-ductionlines.Astructuralmoduleisacommonunitsubsystem,elementofthemachinetool,whichmaybeusedautonomouslyorincombinationwithothermodules.Insystemsanalysis,amoduleisunderstoodasagroupofelementsofthesystemdescribedbyinputsandoutputsandcharacterizedbyacertainintegrity[2].Theuseofthisconceptallowsthemechatronicmachine-toolsystemtoberegardedasconsistingofanumberofsubsystemsinfunctionalandstructuraldesign.Amechatronicmachine-toolmoduleconsistsofamechatronicdevicethatisfunctionallyandstructur-allyindependentandperformscontrollableexecutivemotioninmanufacturing.Thebasicfunctionofthemechatronicmachine-toolmoduleinthemachine-toolsystemistoensuretherequiredmachiningconditionsorparametersoftheexecutivemotioninordertocreateparticulartechno-logicalconditionsandtoundertakediagnosticsandmonitoring.Thedefinitionofamechatronicmachine-toolmodulepresentedhereisconsistentwiththecon-ceptofakinematicgroupofamachinetool[3]andtakesaccountofthecapabilitiesofmodernelectricdrivesandcontroldevices.Thekinematicgroupensuringcomplexexecutivemotionmaybeformedbymeansoftwoormoresimplemodulesorrepresentedasacombinedmodule,withinwhichthecomponentsofthemotionarematchedbyacontrolsystem.Inthisrespect,themechatronicmachine-toolsys-temormechatronicmachinetoolisasetofmecha-tronicmachine-toolmodulesordevicesforperformingcertainfunctionsinthemanufacturingprocess,takingaccountoftherealconditions.Acertainsequencemayexpedientlybeadoptedinthedevelopmentofmechatronicmachine-toolsystemsandmodulesFig.1.ThetechnicalspecificationTSinthedesignofamachinetoolorcorrespondingmechatronicmodulemustprovideasetofinformationonthepartstobemachinedandthemanufacturingrequirements.Takingaccountofthenecessaryeffi-ciencyandreliabilityofthetechnologicalprocessTP,therequiredmachine-toolcharacteristicsMCareestablished.Reliabilityofthetechnologicalprocessisassumedtomeanguaranteedprovisionoftherequiredmachiningparameters.InautomateddesignADofthetechnologicalpro-cessoperation,thegoalistorefinethemanufacturingpathofarepresentativepartanddeveloptheoperationstobeperformedbythemachinetoolunderdesign.Resultsobtainedindevelopingprospectivecontrollablemanufacturingprocessesforanalogouspartsmustbetakenintoaccounthere.Itisexpedienttodevelopthetechnologicaldocu-mentationbymeansofmoderncomputer-assisteddesignsystemsfortechnologicalprocessesandappro-priatesoftwareSolidWorks,SmarTeam,Stalker,Tekh-noPro,ADEM,PowerMill,etc..Inestablishingthebasictechnologicalprinciples,thetypicaloperatingconditionsofthemachinetoolinthemanufactureofspecifiedpartsmustbedetermined.Modelingofthedrives,thesupportingsystem,andthecomponentsofthemachinetoolcallsforthedevel-opmentandinvestigationofsimulational,structural,anddynamicmodels,inordertodeterminetheexpecteddeviationsintherelativepositionofthetoolandblankduringproductiveandeconomicalmachine-tooloperations.DesignofMechatronicMachine-ToolEquipmentR.G.Kudoyarov,E.M.Durko,andD.V.IvanovDOI10.3103/S1068798X08010176RUSSIANENGINEERINGRESEARCHVol.28No.12008DESIGNOFMECHATRONICMACHINE-TOOLEQUIPMENT75Onthebasisofthemodelingresults,methodsofimprovingthemachinetoolscharacteristicsaredevel-oped.Methodsofcompensatingimprecisionofthemachinetoolaredetermined;itsoperationalalgorithmsandstructurearerefined;andblockdiagramsoftheloopsintheadaptiveorsmartcontrolsystemaredevel-oped.Preliminaryautomateddesignofthemechatronicmachinetool,takingaccountofthemodelingresults,permitstheselectionofthemechatronicmodulesfromthoseavailableandthedesignofnewmodulesorthemachinetoolasawhole.Thesedevelopmentsarefor-malizedinregulatorydocumentationforeachstageofthedesignengineeringpreparationsandthedraft,engineering,andworkingdesigns.Onthebasisofthedataobtained,themachinetoolcharacteristicsarecal-culatedandcomparedwiththespecifications.Thiscre-atesthebasisforrefiningthemachinetoolstructure,organizingthetechnologicalpreparationsforproduc-tionTPP,andmanufacturingandtestingaprototypemachinetool.Ininvestigatingthecharacteristics,themodelsarerefined,andmethodsofimprovingthemachinetoolsabilitytoguaranteetherequiredoperationalparametersinautomatedproductionaredetermined.Whethertherequiredcharacteristicsareensuredwilllargelydependonthestructureofthemachinetool.Thefunctionalsubsystemsofthemechatronicsystemmaybedividedintofourlevels,inaccordancewiththeclassificationin[4,5].ThesubsystemsateachpreviouslevelaresystemswithrespecttothesubsystemsofthesubsequentlevelFig.2.SubsystemsoflevelIensuretherequiredexecutivemotionandconsistofmechatronicmachine-toolmod-ules,includingbasicandauxiliarymodulesandsimpleandcombinedmodules.ThesubsystemsoflevelIIdependontheparametersoftheexecutivemotions.Analysisofthefunctionsperformedinautomatedman-ufacturingindicatesthatthesubsystemsatlevelIIareresponsibleforthestarting,stopping,andreversingofthedrivesandforensuringtherequiredspeed,displace-ment,andtrajectoryoftheexecutivemotion.ThesubsystemsoflevelIIIensuretherequiredoper-ationalandauxiliarymotion.SubsystemsoflevelIVareassociatedwiththetypesofregulatoryactions,cat-egorizedasthoseperformedinaccordancewiththeprogram,adaptiveactions,andintellectualactions.Inmechatronicmachinetools,thesubsystemsoflevelsIIIandIV,producingsmoothadaptivechangeintheaccel-erationandvelocity,areofparticularimportance.Intheanalysisofmachiningprocedures,amethodofshapingthepartmustbeestablished,aswellasthesetofexecutivemotionsandtheparticulartechnologi-caltransitions.Thesetransitions,intheformoftheoperationalalgorithmofthemechatronicmachine-toolmodule,maybeidentifiedonthebasisofoptimizationofthecuttingprocessandthemachine-tooldynamics.Forexample,itisexpedienttoadjustthecuttingspeedinthecourseofmachining,takingaccountofthecut-tingtemperature,inordertoensurehigherproductivityandaccuracyofrelativemotionofthetoolandblankandlowermachiningcost,asshownin[6].Theappropriatefunctionalsubsystemsmustbecho-sentoimplementtherequiredtechnologicaltransitionsandoperationalalgorithmsofthemechatronicmachine-toolmodule[4,5].Thechosensubsystemsdeterminethesensorsrequired.Onthebasisofthesedata,theblockdiagramandstructureofthenewmod-uleareselectedordeveloped.ThedesignofthesupplymoduleforamultipurposemachinetoolisillustratedinFig.3.Takingaccountofthepossibleoperationalpatternsofthemoduleandthenecessaryfunctionalsubsystems,structuralvariantsaredeveloped.TSADofTP,establishingPreliminaryADDotheMCRefinementoftheTPP,manufacturing,DotheMCobtainedManufactureInformationonthepartDeterminingthetypicalDevelopmentofSimulationofdrives,InvestigationofMCYesNoformachine-tooldesignbasictechnologicalprinciplesofmachinetoolobtainedcorrespondtothespecificationsYesNomachine-toolstructureandthecontrolalgorithmstestsofprototypecorrespondtothespecificationsofmass-producedmachinetooltobemanufacturedandtheMC,takingaccountofmanufacturingrequirementsoperatingconditionsofthemachinetoolanditstechnicalcharacteristicsmethodsofimprovingtheMCsupportingstructure,componentsFig.1.Sequenceadoptedindevelopingmechatronicmachinetools.76RUSSIANENGINEERINGRESEARCHVol.28No.12008KUDOYAROVetal.Inthefirststage,theparametersofthemechatronicmachine-toolmodulearedeterminedsoastoensuretherequiredtotalrigidity[7].Thenarefinedmodelofthesupplydriveisformed,theexpectedoperationalchar-acteristicsofthemodulearedetermined,anditsdesigniscorrected.Notethat,withdifferentmachiningconditionsinthesamemachinetool,partsofdifferentqualitymaybeobtained.Ifthespecifiedrequirementsonthequalityarenotmetforthemachiningsysteminitiallyselected,itischanged,orelsethetypeanddesignofthemoduledriveischanged,withsubsequentverification.Animportantmeansofimprovingmachiningiscor-rectionofthecontrolprogramonthebasisofsimula-tiondata,takingaccountoftherequiredreliabilityofthemodule.Indevelopingthemodelofthesupplydrive,thefol-lowingfactorsmustbetakenintoaccounttheregula-toryactiontoensuresmoothermotion;thevariationintheforcesinthecourseofoperation;andthemethodsemployedtoincreasethevibrationalstability.Notealsothat,atthebeginningofmotion,thefrictionalforcedoesnotincreaseinstantaneouslytothesteadyvalue;thereisatransientprocesswithoverregulation[8].Thisaffectsthedynamiccharacteristicsofthedrive,espe-ciallywithasmalltractionalforce.InthecalculationschemeofthesupplydriveFig.4,threepointmassesaretakenintoaccountm1isthearmatureoftheelectricmotor,togetherwithpartofthedrivescrew;m2istheotherpartofthescrew;m3istheexecutiveorgantablethatistobemoved.AlsoinFig.4,K1andh1arethetorsionalrigidityanddamp-ingcoefficientofthearmatureandpartofthedrivescrew;K2,h2andK4,h4aretheaxialrigidityanddamp-ingcoefficientsofsectionsofthedrivescrew;K3,h3andK5,h5arethesamequantitiesfortherollerbear-ings;K6andh6arethesamequantitiesforthescrew–nutjunction;K7andh7aretherigidityanddampingcoefficientforthefrictionalprocessesintheguidepieces.Thetopologicalequationsforsectionsofthemodeltaketheform1MAMe1–Md1–Mi1–0;Me1Md1Me2–Md2–Mi2–0Fe3Fd3Fda–Ffr–Px–Fi3–,⎭⎪⎬⎪⎫Informationonthepart,MaingoalBasicStructureofMMSCompositionCompositionCompositionofCompositionofCompositionofTargetVariationSetTypesofrequirementsontheTPandproductandfunctionsofMMScharacteristicsofMMSsubsystemsoffunctionalsubsystemsIIIIIIIVofMMSthesubsystemsensuringthemotionparametersthesubsystemsensuringparticularfeaturesofthemotionparametersthesubsystemsensuringthecontrolfunctionsfunctionsofcontrolofmotionparametersmechatronicmodulesandconsistencyofthemotionparametersFig.2.Relationbetweenthesubsystemsofthemechatronicmachine-toolsystemMMSI–IVlevels;TP,technologicalprocess.InitialdataDevelopmentandselectionDrawingsoftheparts,DatabaseofoperationalCalculationofSelectionofthetypesDatabaseofelectricmotors,SimulationEvaluationofdriveAgreementwithNoYesRefinementofstructuraloptionsmachiningsystems,cuttingconditions,productionrequirementssystemsandalgorithmsofmechatronicmachine-toolmodulesandtheirfunctionalsubsystemstheforcesinthedriveofcomponentsandthedesignmechanisms,bearings,andguidepiecesofdesignofdrivecharacteristicsandmachiningparametersthespecificationsFig.3.Automateddesignofamechatronicsupplymodule.RUSSIANENGINEERINGRESEARCHVol.28No.12008DESIGNOFMECHATRONICMACHINE-TOOLEQUIPMENT77whereMAusthetorqueatthemotorarmature;Me1,Md1,Mi1areelastic,dissipative,andinertialtorquesatthedrivescrew;Me2,Md2,andMi2arethesametorquesonthenutinthescrewtransmission;Fe3,Fd3,Fi3aretheelastic,dissipative,andinertialforcesontheexecutiveorgan;Fda,Ffrarethedampingandfrictionalforcesintheguidepieces;Pxistheaxialcomponentofthecut-tingforce.OnthebasisofEq.1,wemaywritethemoregen-eraltopologicalequationwhered0isthediameterofthecircumferenceofthecentersoftheballsinthescrewtransmission;theplussigncorrespondstoaccelerationoftheexecutiveorgan,andtheminussigntodeceleration.Themodelofthesupplydriveisdevelopedasagen-eralizedstructuralsystem,whichmaybeimplementedandinvestigatedusingSimulinksoftwareintheMAT-LABsystem.Wenowconsidertheresultsofsimulatingthedriveofthemechatronicsupplymoduleofamultipurpose250VmachinetoolproducedbySterlitamakmachine-toolplant.Sinceautomaticreversalofthemotionbythedrivemayaccompanycontourmachiningofthepart,itisofgreatinteresttodeterminetheoperatingconditionsofthedriveforfastandsmoothreversingoftablemotioninthemodule.Itisfoundthatthetransientprocessdependsmainlyonthecharacterandtimeofvariationofthecontrolsig-nal,thetablemass,thedragforce,andthedampingofdrivecomponents.ThevariationintablevelocityvasafunctionofthestartingtimetsisshowninFig.5.Thepositioningaccuracyoftheexecutiveorganmayexpedientlybeincreasedbyregulationoftheacceleration,takingaccountofthechangeinvelocity.Theresultsobtainedprovidethebasisforrecommenda-tionsregardingtheimprovementinstructureofthemechatronicsupplymoduleofthe250Vmachinetoolandcontrolofitsoperation.2MAMi1Mi2/d0Fi3Fda–Ffr–Px–0,Refinementofthemethodofanalysisofthemachinetoolstructuretakesaccountoftheresultsin[3,9].AutomatedcalculationofthesystemcomponentsisbasedonBorlandDelphi6.0softwarepermittingcom-putationoftheprecisionandpliabilityofvariouscon-figurationsoflathesandmultipurposemachinetools.Calculationofgeneralizedcharacteristicspermitsanal-ysisofthemachine-toolconfiguration.Oncallinguptheprogram,theprimarywindowasksfortheselectionofoneofthepossiblemachine-toolconfigurationsandtheintroductionoftheworking-zonecoordinates.Thecoordinatesofthecalculationpointsoftheworkingzonemustalsobespecified;theyarepreliminarilydeterminedfromthetechnologicaloperatingconditionsofthemachinetool.Thecalculationsareperformedindialogmode.Theprogramprovidestheuserwiththeoptionofselectingconfigurationswithdifferentcombinationsofguidepiecesslip,orrollingwithsmallbearingsorwithdis-tributedrollerbodies;fordifferentparts,differenttypesofguidepiecemaybeadopted.Inselectingtheguidepieces,wemustconsiderthegeometricparameters,thetolerances,thepliability,andotherdata.Thecalculationisconductedinthelocalcoordinatesofthemachine-toolcomponent;then,thecalculationresultsareautomaticallyconvertedtothemachinetoolglobalcoordinatesystem.Inderivingtheresults,theprecisionandpliabilityoflongitudinalandtransverseguidepiecesatthecalcula-tionpointsaredetermined.Asanexample,thechangeingeometricaccuracyofthelatheconfigurationatdif-ferentcalculationpointsoftheworkingzoneisshowninFig.6.Theproposedmethodpermitsanalysisandcompar-isonofthegeometricaccuracyandpliabilityofthemechatronicmachine-toolsystemwithrespecttoindi-m3m2m1K1K6K7h1h6h7K3K2K4K5h3h2h4h5Fig.4.Calculationschemeforsupplydrive.0.1500.20.30.40.50.60.70100150200250300350v,mm/mint,sts0.1sts0.4sts0.2sFig.5.Influenceofthestartingtimetsonthetablevelocityv;tisthetime.
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