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ISSN1068798X,RussianEngineeringResearch,2008,Vol.28,No.1,pp.74–78.©AllertonPress,Inc.,2008.OriginalRussianText©R.G.Kudoyarov,E.M.Durko,D.V.Ivanov,2007,publishedinSTIN,2007,No.10,pp.16–21.74Thedevelopmentofmanufacturingentailsimprovingproductperformanceanddependssignificantlyonthecapabilitiesandqualityofthemachinetoolemployed.Inthiscontext,itispromisingtousemechatronicmachinetoolsystems,inwhichmanufacturingconsistsofcontrollableprocesses.Inmachiningblanks,inpractice,itisnecessarytotakeaccountofprocessesoccurringinmachinetooldrives,thestateofthesupportingsystem,andphysicalphenomenaaccompanyingthecuttingprocess.Inordertoimprovemanufacturingefficiency,methodsofdesigningmechatronicmachinetoolsmustberefined.Modulardesignprinciplesarewidelyusedtodayincreatingmachinetools.Atechnologicalmoduleisastructuralunitrequiredtoperformshapingoperations1.Atechnologicalorproductionmoduleismoregenerallyacomponentofautomatedsystemsorproductionlines.Astructuralmoduleisacommonunitsubsystem,elementofthemachinetool,whichmaybeusedautonomouslyorincombinationwithothermodules.Insystemsanalysis,amoduleisunderstoodasagroupofelementsofthesystemdescribedbyinputsandoutputsandcharacterizedbyacertainintegrity2.Theuseofthisconceptallowsthemechatronicmachinetoolsystemtoberegardedasconsistingofanumberofsubsystemsinfunctionalandstructuraldesign.Amechatronicmachinetoolmoduleconsistsofamechatronicdevicethatisfunctionallyandstructurallyindependentandperformscontrollableexecutivemotioninmanufacturing.Thebasicfunctionofthemechatronicmachinetoolmoduleinthemachinetoolsystemistoensuretherequiredmachiningconditionsorparametersoftheexecutivemotioninordertocreateparticulartechnologicalconditionsandtoundertakediagnosticsandmonitoring.Thedefinitionofamechatronicmachinetoolmodulepresentedhereisconsistentwiththeconceptofakinematicgroupofamachinetool3andtakesaccountofthecapabilitiesofmodernelectricdrivesandcontroldevices.Thekinematicgroupensuringcomplexexecutivemotionmaybeformedbymeansoftwoormoresimplemodulesorrepresentedasacombinedmodule,withinwhichthecomponentsofthemotionarematchedbyacontrolsystem.Inthisrespect,themechatronicmachinetoolsystemormechatronicmachinetoolisasetofmechatronicmachinetoolmodulesordevicesforperformingcertainfunctionsinthemanufacturingprocess,takingaccountoftherealconditions.AcertainsequencemayexpedientlybeadoptedinthedevelopmentofmechatronicmachinetoolsystemsandmodulesFig.1.ThetechnicalspecificationTSinthedesignofamachinetoolorcorrespondingmechatronicmodulemustprovideasetofinformationonthepartstobemachinedandthemanufacturingrequirements.TakingaccountofthenecessaryefficiencyandreliabilityofthetechnologicalprocessTP,therequiredmachinetoolcharacteristicsMCareestablished.Reliabilityofthetechnologicalprocessisassumedtomeanguaranteedprovisionoftherequiredmachiningparameters.InautomateddesignADofthetechnologicalprocessoperation,thegoalistorefinethemanufacturingpathofarepresentativepartanddeveloptheoperationstobeperformedbythemachinetoolunderdesign.Resultsobtainedindevelopingprospectivecontrollablemanufacturingprocessesforanalogouspartsmustbetakenintoaccounthere.ItisexpedienttodevelopthetechnologicaldocumentationbymeansofmoderncomputerassisteddesignsystemsfortechnologicalprocessesandappropriatesoftwareSolidWorks,SmarTeam,Stalker,TekhnoPro,ADEM,PowerMill,etc..Inestablishingthebasictechnologicalprinciples,thetypicaloperatingconditionsofthemachinetoolinthemanufactureofspecifiedpartsmustbedetermined.Modelingofthedrives,thesupportingsystem,andthecomponentsofthemachinetoolcallsforthedevelopmentandinvestigationofsimulational,structural,anddynamicmodels,inordertodeterminetheexpecteddeviationsintherelativepositionofthetoolandblankduringproductiveandeconomicalmachinetooloperations.DesignofMechatronicMachineToolEquipmentR.G.Kudoyarov,E.M.Durko,andD.V.IvanovDOI10.3103/S1068798X08010176RUSSIANENGINEERINGRESEARCHVol.28No.12008DESIGNOFMECHATRONICMACHINETOOLEQUIPMENT75Onthebasisofthemodelingresults,methodsofimprovingthemachinetoolíscharacteristicsaredeveloped.Methodsofcompensatingimprecisionofthemachinetoolaredetermineditsoperationalalgorithmsandstructurearerefinedandblockdiagramsoftheloopsintheadaptiveorsmartcontrolsystemaredeveloped.Preliminaryautomateddesignofthemechatronicmachinetool,takingaccountofthemodelingresults,permitstheselectionofthemechatronicmodulesfromthoseavailableandthedesignofnewmodulesorthemachinetoolasawhole.Thesedevelopmentsareformalizedinregulatorydocumentationforeachstageofthedesignengineeringpreparationsandthedraft,engineering,andworkingdesigns.Onthebasisofthedataobtained,themachinetoolcharacteristicsarecalculatedandcomparedwiththespecifications.Thiscreatesthebasisforrefiningthemachinetoolstructure,organizingthetechnologicalpreparationsforproductionTPP,andmanufacturingandtestingaprototypemachinetool.Ininvestigatingthecharacteristics,themodelsarerefined,andmethodsofimprovingthemachinetoolísabilitytoguaranteetherequiredoperationalparametersinautomatedproductionaredetermined.Whethertherequiredcharacteristicsareensuredwilllargelydependonthestructureofthemachinetool.Thefunctionalsubsystemsofthemechatronicsystemmaybedividedintofourlevels,inaccordancewiththeclassificationin4,5.ThesubsystemsateachpreviouslevelaresystemswithrespecttothesubsystemsofthesubsequentlevelFig.2.SubsystemsoflevelIensuretherequiredexecutivemotionandconsistofmechatronicmachinetoolmodules,includingbasicandauxiliarymodulesandsimpleandcombinedmodules.ThesubsystemsoflevelIIdependontheparametersoftheexecutivemotions.AnalysisofthefunctionsperformedinautomatedmanufacturingindicatesthatthesubsystemsatlevelIIareresponsibleforthestarting,stopping,andreversingofthedrivesandforensuringtherequiredspeed,displacement,andtrajectoryoftheexecutivemotion.ThesubsystemsoflevelIIIensuretherequiredoperationalandauxiliarymotion.SubsystemsoflevelIVareassociatedwiththetypesofregulatoryactions,categorizedasthoseperformedinaccordancewiththeprogram,adaptiveactions,andintellectualactions.Inmechatronicmachinetools,thesubsystemsoflevelsIIIandIV,producingsmoothadaptivechangeintheaccelerationandvelocity,areofparticularimportance.Intheanalysisofmachiningprocedures,amethodofshapingthepartmustbeestablished,aswellasthesetofexecutivemotionsandtheparticulartechnologicaltransitions.Thesetransitions,intheformoftheoperationalalgorithmofthemechatronicmachinetoolmodule,maybeidentifiedonthebasisofoptimizationofthecuttingprocessandthemachinetooldynamics.Forexample,itisexpedienttoadjustthecuttingspeedinthecourseofmachining,takingaccountofthecuttingtemperature,inordertoensurehigherproductivityandaccuracyofrelativemotionofthetoolandblankandlowermachiningcost,asshownin6.Theappropriatefunctionalsubsystemsmustbechosentoimplementtherequiredtechnologicaltransitionsandoperationalalgorithmsofthemechatronicmachinetoolmodule4,5.Thechosensubsystemsdeterminethesensorsrequired.Onthebasisofthesedata,theblockdiagramandstructureofthenewmoduleareselectedordeveloped.ThedesignofthesupplymoduleforamultipurposemachinetoolisillustratedinFig.3.Takingaccountofthepossibleoperationalpatternsofthemoduleandthenecessaryfunctionalsubsystems,structuralvariantsaredeveloped.TSADofTP,establishingPreliminaryADDotheMCRefinementoftheTPP,manufacturing,DotheMCobtainedManufactureInformationonthepartDeterminingthetypicalDevelopmentofSimulationofdrives,InvestigationofMCYesNoformachinetooldesignbasictechnologicalprinciplesofmachinetoolobtainedcorrespondtothespecificationsYesNomachinetoolstructureandthecontrolalgorithmstestsofprototypecorrespondtothespecificationsofmassproducedmachinetooltobemanufacturedandtheMC,takingaccountofmanufacturingrequirementsoperatingconditionsofthemachinetoolanditstechnicalcharacteristicsmethodsofimprovingtheMCsupportingstructure,componentsFig.1.Sequenceadoptedindevelopingmechatronicmachinetools.76RUSSIANENGINEERINGRESEARCHVol.28No.12008KUDOYAROVetal.Inthefirststage,theparametersofthemechatronicmachinetoolmodulearedeterminedsoastoensuretherequiredtotalrigidity7.Thenarefinedmodelofthesupplydriveisformed,theexpectedoperationalcharacteristicsofthemodulearedetermined,anditsdesigniscorrected.Notethat,withdifferentmachiningconditionsinthesamemachinetool,partsofdifferentqualitymaybeobtained.Ifthespecifiedrequirementsonthequalityarenotmetforthemachiningsysteminitiallyselected,itischanged,orelsethetypeanddesignofthemoduledriveischanged,withsubsequentverification.Animportantmeansofimprovingmachiningiscorrectionofthecontrolprogramonthebasisofsimulationdata,takingaccountoftherequiredreliabilityofthemodule.Indevelopingthemodelofthesupplydrive,thefollowingfactorsmustbetakenintoaccounttheregulatoryactiontoensuresmoothermotionthevariationintheforcesinthecourseofoperationandthemethodsemployedtoincreasethevibrationalstability.Notealsothat,atthebeginningofmotion,thefrictionalforcedoesnotincreaseinstantaneouslytothesteadyvaluethereisatransientprocesswithoverregulation8.Thisaffectsthedynamiccharacteristicsofthedrive,especiallywithasmalltractionalforce.InthecalculationschemeofthesupplydriveFig.4,threepointmassesaretakenintoaccountm1isthearmatureoftheelectricmotor,togetherwithpartofthedrivescrewm2istheotherpartofthescrewm3istheexecutiveorgantablethatistobemoved.AlsoinFig.4,K1andh1arethetorsionalrigidityanddampingcoefficientofthearmatureandpartofthedrivescrewK2,h2andK4,h4aretheaxialrigidityanddampingcoefficientsofsectionsofthedrivescrewK3,h3andK5,h5arethesamequantitiesfortherollerbearingsK6andh6arethesamequantitiesforthescrew–nutjunctionK7andh7aretherigidityanddampingcoefficientforthefrictionalprocessesintheguidepieces.Thetopologicalequationsforsectionsofthemodeltaketheform1MAMe1–Md1–Mi1–0Me1Md1Me2–Md2–Mi2–0Fe3Fd3Fda–Ffr–Px–Fi3–,⎭⎪⎬⎪⎫Informationonthepart,MaingoalBasicStructureofMMSCompositionCompositionCompositionofCompositionofCompositionofTargetVariationSetTypesofrequirementsontheTPandproductandfunctionsofMMScharacteristicsofMMSsubsystemsoffunctionalsubsystemsIIIIIIIVofMMSthesubsystemsensuringthemotionparametersthesubsystemsensuringparticularfeaturesofthemotionparametersthesubsystemsensuringthecontrolfunctionsfunctionsofcontrolofmotionparametersmechatronicmodulesandconsistencyofthemotionparametersFig.2.RelationbetweenthesubsystemsofthemechatronicmachinetoolsystemMMSI–IVlevelsTP,technologicalprocess.InitialdataDevelopmentandselectionDrawingsoftheparts,DatabaseofoperationalCalculationofSelectionofthetypesDatabaseofelectricmotors,SimulationEvaluationofdriveAgreementwithNoYesRefinementofstructuraloptionsmachiningsystems,cuttingconditions,productionrequirementssystemsandalgorithmsofmechatronicmachinetoolmodulesandtheirfunctionalsubsystemstheforcesinthedriveofcomponentsandthedesignmechanisms,bearings,andguidepiecesofdesignofdrivecharacteristicsandmachiningparametersthespecificationsFig.3.Automateddesignofamechatronicsupplymodule.RUSSIANENGINEERINGRESEARCHVol.28No.12008DESIGNOFMECHATRONICMACHINETOOLEQUIPMENT77whereMAusthetorqueatthemotorarmatureMe1,Md1,Mi1areelastic,dissipative,andinertialtorquesatthedrivescrewMe2,Md2,andMi2arethesametorquesonthenutinthescrewtransmissionFe3,Fd3,Fi3aretheelastic,dissipative,andinertialforcesontheexecutiveorganFda,FfrarethedampingandfrictionalforcesintheguidepiecesPxistheaxialcomponentofthecuttingforce.OnthebasisofEq.1,wemaywritethemoregeneraltopologicalequationwhered0isthediameterofthecircumferenceofthecentersoftheballsinthescrewtransmissiontheplussigncorrespondstoaccelerationoftheexecutiveorgan,andtheminussigntodeceleration.Themodelofthesupplydriveisdevelopedasageneralizedstructuralsystem,whichmaybeimplementedandinvestigatedusingSimulinksoftwareintheMATLABsystem.Wenowconsidertheresultsofsimulatingthedriveofthemechatronicsupplymoduleofamultipurpose250VmachinetoolproducedbySterlitamakmachinetoolplant.Sinceautomaticreversalofthemotionbythedrivemayaccompanycontourmachiningofthepart,itisofgreatinteresttodeterminetheoperatingconditionsofthedriveforfastandsmoothreversingoftablemotioninthemodule.Itisfoundthatthetransientprocessdependsmainlyonthecharacterandtimeofvariationofthecontrolsignal,thetablemass,thedragforce,andthedampingofdrivecomponents.ThevariationintablevelocityvasafunctionofthestartingtimetsisshowninFig.5.Thepositioningaccuracyoftheexecutiveorganmayexpedientlybeincreasedbyregulationoftheacceleration,takingaccountofthechangeinvelocity.Theresultsobtainedprovidethebasisforrecommendationsregardingtheimprovementinstructureofthemechatronicsupplymoduleofthe250Vmachinetoolandcontrolofitsoperation.2MAMi1±Mi2±/d0Fi3Fda–Ffr–Px–±0,Refinementofthemethodofanalysisofthemachinetoolstructuretakesaccountoftheresultsin3,9.AutomatedcalculationofthesystemcomponentsisbasedonBorlandDelphi6.0softwarepermittingcomputationoftheprecisionandpliabilityofvariousconfigurationsoflathesandmultipurposemachinetools.Calculationofgeneralizedcharacteristicspermitsanalysisofthemachinetoolconfiguration.Oncallinguptheprogram,theprimarywindowasksfortheselectionofoneofthepossiblemachinetoolconfigurationsandtheintroductionoftheworkingzonecoordinates.Thecoordinatesofthecalculationpointsoftheworkingzonemustalsobespecifiedtheyarepreliminarilydeterminedfromthetechnologicaloperatingconditionsofthemachinetool.Thecalculationsareperformedindialogmode.Theprogramprovidestheuserwiththeoptionofselectingconfigurationswithdifferentcombinationsofguidepiecesslip,orrollingwithsmallbearingsorwithdistributedrollerbodiesfordifferentparts,differenttypesofguidepiecemaybeadopted.Inselectingtheguidepieces,wemustconsiderthegeometricparameters,thetolerances,thepliability,andotherdata.Thecalculationisconductedinthelocalcoordinatesofthemachinetoolcomponentthen,thecalculationresultsareautomaticallyconvertedtothemachinetoolglobalcoordinatesystem.Inderivingtheresults,theprecisionandpliabilityoflongitudinalandtransverseguidepiecesatthecalculationpointsaredetermined.Asanexample,thechangeingeometricaccuracyofthelatheconfigurationatdifferentcalculationpointsoftheworkingzoneisshowninFig.6.Theproposedmethodpermitsanalysisandcomparisonofthegeometricaccuracyandpliabilityofthemechatronicmachinetoolsystemwithrespecttoindim3m2m1K1K6K7h1h6h7K3K2K4K5h3h2h4h5Fig.4.Calculationschemeforsupplydrive.0.1500.20.30.40.50.60.70100150200250300350v,mm/mint,sts0.1sts0.4sts0.2sFig.5.Influenceofthestartingtimetsonthetablevelocityvtisthetime.
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