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筑龙网www.zhulong.comPleasecitethisarticleinpressasZhangJ,etal.,SustainableurbanseweragesystemanditsapplicationinChina,ResourcesConservRecycl2007,doi10.1016/j.resconrec.2006.10.001ARTICLEINPRESSRECYCL1897No.ofPages10Resources,ConservationandRecyclingxxx2007xxx–xxxSustainableurbanseweragesystemanditsapplicationinChinaZhangJie,CaoXiangSheng∗,MengXueZhengKeyLaboratoryofBeijingforWaterQualityScienceandWaterEnvironmentRestorationEngineering,SchoolofCivilEngineering,BeijingUniversityofTechnology,Beijing100022,ChinaReceived4August2006receivedinrevisedform30September2006accepted4October2006AbstractChinaisfacingwatercrisis.Morethan400citiesarelackingenoughwaterresourcesandmorethanhalfriversarepolluted.Torealizesustainabledevelopmentinthe21stcentury,weshouldfirstprovideenoughwaterresourcestoeverypersonandkeepafriendly,leisurelywaterenvironment.Undertheideaofsustainability,aconceptforasustainableurbanseweragesystemSUSSisputforwardinthisarticle.Anurbanseweragesystemcannotonlybeabasicfacilityfordrainingrainwaterandwastewatertoprotecttheurbanenvironmentandpublicwaterbodies,butmustalsocontributetotherestorationofthewaterenvironmentinordertomaintainahealthysocialwatercycle.ASUSSshouldbethebasisforurbanwaterreuseandrecyclingaswellasthefocusofwaterresourceregenerationinawatershedandthecentreoftherecyclingofnutrients.SUSSpracticesintheShenzhenSpecialEconomicZoneandtheBeijingregioninChinaareintroduced.©2006ElsevierB.V.Allrightsreserved.KeywordsWaterResourcesWastewaterReuseSustainabilityChina1.IntroductionWaterresourcesinChinaarescarce.AccordingtoChinaBulletinofWaterResourcespublishedbyChinaMinistryofWaterResources,in2004,thetotalamountofwater∗CorrespondingauthoratNo.100,Pingleyuan,ChaoyangDistrict,CollegeofCivilEngineering,BeijingUniversityofTechnology,Beijing100022,China.Tel.861067392579fax861067392579.Emailaddresscao0531bjut.edu.cnX.S.Cao.09213449/–seefrontmatter©2006ElsevierB.V.Allrightsreserved.doi10.1016/j.resconrec.2006.10.001筑龙网www.zhulong.comPleasecitethisarticleinpressasZhangJ,etal.,SustainableurbanseweragesystemanditsapplicationinChina,ResourcesConservRecycl2007,doi10.1016/j.resconrec.2006.10.001ARTICLEINPRESSRECYCL1897No.ofPages102J.Zhangetal./Resources,ConservationandRecyclingxxx2007xxx–xxxresourcesinChinais2.4131013m3.Itisequalto1856m3percapitaperyear.Amongthese,23,thatis5.5481012m3,wasusedforagricultural,industryanddomesticactivities.Atthesametime,6930108m3wastewaterwasdischargedfromChinesecities.Nomorethanhalfamountsweresubjecttothesecondarytreatment.MorethanhalfriversinChinaareterriblypollutedGaoetal.,2006.Totacklethewatercrisis,thegovernmentofChinahadpublishedalotofregulationsresearcheshadsuggestedalotofstrategiesengineershadplannedandconstructedmanywatersuppliesandwastewatertreatmentprojectsBaietal.,2006HeandXing,2006Panetal.,2006.ButwiththedevelopmentofChineseeconomics,waterresourcesisbecomingincreasingdeficientandthequalityofenvironmentconstantlybecomingworseinmostregionsofChina.AnewwateruseandtreatmentstrategymustbeestablishedtotacklethewaterproblemsofChinaandtorealizethesustainabledevelopment.Thefunctioningofurbanseweragesystemsbasedontraditionalconceptsisnotsustainableitneedstobechanged.Anurbanseweragesystemcannotonlybeabasicfacilityfordrainingrainwaterandwastewatertoprotecttheurbanenvironmentandpublicwaterbodies,butmustalsocontributetotherestorationofthewaterenvironmentinordertomaintainahealthysocialwatercycle.Asocialwatercycleisdefinedasasystemthatincludesdrawingwaterfromnaturalbodies,utilizingitanddischargingitbacktothewaterbodiesZhang,2001.Ahealthysocialwatercyclemeansthatweshoulddrawwatermoderately,usewatercarefully,purifyandreusewastewaterdeliberately.Weshouldensurethatthewaterutilizationintheupperreachesoftheriversdoesnotaffectthefunctionofwaterbodiesinthelowerreachesoftherivers.Theultimateaimistorestoreormaintainahealthywaterenvironmentforacityorriverbasinandeventuallyachievethesustainableutilizationofwaterresources.AhealthysocialwatercycleisalsoanessentialcomponentofestablishingacitythatrecyclesGuanetal.,2004.Theaimofthisarticleistodiscussfunctionanddesignconsiderationsforasustainableurbanseweragesystemusingconceptsassociatedwithahealthywatercycle.Inthispaperwewillintroducesomeurbanplanningsuggestionstopromotesuchahealthywatercycle.2.Thedevelopmentofsustainableurbanseweragesystems2.1.HistoryofurbanseweragesystemTheearliesturbanseweragesystemswereconstructedtoonlytransportexcessoverlandrainwaterasquicklyaspossiblefromacitytoriversthatweredownstreamfromthecityAminuddinetal.,2000Angelakisetal.,2005.Theflushtoiletwasinventedinthe18thcenturyandbecamewidespreadthroughoutthecitiesofEuropeinthe19thcentury.Thewidespreaduseofflushtoiletsimprovedthesanitationconditionsofurbanresidents,buttheamountofwatersupplyandseweragerequiredasaresultincreaseddramatically.Atthistime,thesewerandrunoffseweragesystemswereconstructedasacombinedseweragesystem.Thefunctionoftheurbanseweragesystemchangedtothiscombinedsystemtoprotecttheinhabitantsfrombacterialinfectionasthemajorcomponentofsanitaryengineering.However,riversandlakesnearcitiesbecameterriblypollutedduringthisperiodbecauseoflargeamountofuntreatedwastewatercontainingfecesandurine.Thepollutionofthe筑龙网www.zhulong.comPleasecitethisarticleinpressasZhangJ,etal.,SustainableurbanseweragesystemanditsapplicationinChina,ResourcesConservRecycl2007,doi10.1016/j.resconrec.2006.10.001ARTICLEINPRESSRECYCL1897No.ofPages10J.Zhangetal./Resources,ConservationandRecyclingxxx2007xxx–xxx3RhineRiverinthe20thcenturyisatypicalillustrationCarel,1998.Theimprovementsinlivingconditionsofcityinhabitantswereobtainedatthepriceofpollutionofthewaterenvironment.Researchandpracticesofwastewatertreatmenttechnologybeganintheearly20thcenturywithastartingconditioninwhichtheriversandlakeswerebadlypolluted.Duringthepastcentury,thetechnologiesassociatedwithwastewatertreatmentadvanceddramaticallywiththeremovalofpollutants,includingsuspendedsolidsandorganics,subsequentlynitrogenandphosphatesandfinallymicropollutants,suchasdisinfectionbyproductsandhormonelikesubstancesHenze,1997.Currently,thefunctionsofurbanseweragesystemsareasfollows1transportrainwaterandwastewateroutsideacityassoonaspossibletoprotectagainstfloodsandpreventthespreadofepidemics2treatmunicipalwastewatertoreachorexceedthestandardsofstateorlocalregulations.2.2.Thepatternofsustainableurbanseweragesystemsinthe21stcenturyTheabovementionedfunctionsofurbanseweragesystemswereformedunderthehypothesisthatwaterresourceswereabundantenoughtosplurgeandthattheriversorlakesthatwastewaterwasdumpedintohadenoughcapacityforselfpurification.Thishypothesiswassupportedwhenpopulationswerenotverylargeorcentralizedandindustrieswereunderdeveloped.Asindustriesdeveloped,peoplebecameincreasinglycentralizedandmetropolitanareasemerged.Atthistimetraditionalurbanseweragesystemscouldonlyprotecttheareawithincities.Theregionsaroundthecitieswerebadlypollutedbywastewaterandotherwastesproducedbythetownspeople.Fromtheperspectiveoftherestorationofentirewatersheds,urbanseweragesystemsarepartoftheoverallhydrologicalcycle.Thefunctionofurbanseweragesystemsshouldbereevaluatedandnewmissionsshouldbeespoused.Urbanseweragesystemsshouldplayanimportantroleinahealthywatercycleandinsustainableurbanconstruction.Ifwecompareacitytoahumanbody,watercanbethoughtofasblood.Thewatersupplysystemisanalogoustothearteriesandthewastewatersystemisanalogoustotheveins.Awastewatertreatmentplantcouldbeconsideredasanalogoustotheliverbecauseoftheplantsroleinpurifyingurbanwastewater.Urbanseweragesystemsareofnecessityresponsibleforwastewatercollection,transportation,purificationandreclamation.Anurbanseweragesystemisthekeyfactorforclosingtheurbanwatercycle.Thefunctionofanurbanseweragesysteminthe21stcenturyshouldshiftfromtraditionalwaterloggingpreventiontotheestablishmentofwastewaterrecycling,sustainableutilizationofwaterresourcesandwatershedrestoration.ThisnewurbanseweragesystemiscalledasustainableurbanseweragesystemSUSSinthisarticleandasketchofitskeyfeaturesisshowninFig.1.AtypicalSUSShasfourmodernfeaturesdescribedasfollows1Itisthebasisforurbanwaterreuseandrecycling.ASUSShasthedutyofproducingreclaimedwastewaterasasteadysecondaryurbanwaterresource.Reclaimedwastewatercanbeusedascoolingwaterforindustry,irrigationwaterforlandscaping,flowingwaterforrivuletregenerationandforanyotherapplicationwherenonpotablewatermaybeused.Alargevolumeofreclaimedwastewatercouldreducefreshwaterexploitation,andthuspromoteahealthywatercycle.筑龙网www.zhulong.comPleasecitethisarticleinpressasZhangJ,etal.,SustainableurbanseweragesystemanditsapplicationinChina,ResourcesConservRecycl2007,doi10.1016/j.resconrec.2006.10.001ARTICLEINPRESSRECYCL1897No.ofPages104J.Zhangetal./Resources,ConservationandRecyclingxxx2007xxx–xxxFig.1.Sketchofasustainableurbanseweragesystem.2WaterresourceregenerationinawatershedhingesonSUSS.Inawatershed,wastewaterdrainedfromuprivercitiesflowsintodownrivercities.OutflowofupriverSUSSwouldbeapartofthewaterresourceofdownrivercitiesthroughoutanentirewatershed.EachSUSSshouldhavethiswaterresourceregenerationcapacity.3SUSSiscentraltonutrientrecycling.Asaproductofwastewatertreatment,sludgeshouldbetreatedproperlyandreturnedtofarmlandasfertilizer.Nitrogenandphosphatesinwastewatershouldberecoveredasfertilizerduringthewastewatercollection,transportationandtreatmentprocess.SUSSplaysanimportantroleinthereparationofnaturalnutrientcycles.NoteChineselawstatesthatindustrialwastewatermustbepretreatedfortheremovalofheavymetalsbeforebeingreleasedintothemunicipalwastewaterstream.4SUSSisthebasisforscarceresourcerecoveryandenergyrecovery.Mostmetabolicproductsofcitydwellersaredischargedintourbanseweragepipelinesystemsandaretransportedtothewastewatertreatmentplant.Thiskindofwastewatercontainsmuchenergy.Anaerobictreatmentofwastewaterorsludgecouldpotentiallyproducemethane,whichcanbeusedasfuelChanetal.,1999.TheenergycontainedinwastewatercouldalsobeextractedbyheatpumptechnologyBaeketal.,2005.Certainvaluablemetalsorotherscarceresourcesarealsofoundinwastewater,particularlyinindustrialseweragepipelines.Recyclingofvaluablesubstancesinindustrialwastewatermaybeanimportantpartofanindustrialcirculareconomy.2.3.Comparisonbetweensustainableandtraditionalurbanseweragesystems2.3.1.PrinciplesofanurbanseweragesystemplanInsustainableurbanseweragesystemplanning,conveniencebothformunicipalwastewaterreclamationandforrainwaterutilizationshouldbeemphasized.Thisisthe
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