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DOI101007/S003390073930ZAPPLPHYSA87,691–6952007MATERIALSSCIENCEPROCESSINGAPPLIEDPHYSICSAYHAYASAKIA117DKAWAMURAHIGHDENSITYBUMPFORMATIONONAGLASSSURFACEUSINGFEMTOSECONDLASERPROCESSINGINWATERDEPARTMENTOFOPTICALSCIENCEANDTECHNOLOGY,FACULTYOFENGINEERING,THEUNIVERSITYOFTOKUSHIMA,21MINAMIJOSANJIMACHO,TOKUSHIMA7708506,JAPANRECEIVED13NOVEMBER2006/ACCEPTED29JANUARY2007PUBLISHEDONLINE29MARCH2007SPRINGERVERLAG2007ABSTRACTMICROMETERSIZEDBUMPSWEREFORMEDONAGLASSSURFACEUSINGAFOCUSEDFEMTOSECONDLASERPROCESSINGINWATERTHEBUMPSWEREFORMEDOVERAWIDERANGESOFPULSEIRRADIATIONPARAMETERS,INCLUDINGIRRADIATIONENERGYANDFOCUSPOSITIONTHEBUMPSEXHIBITEDAWIDEVARIETYOFMORPHOLOGIESANDSIZESDEPENDINGONTHEPARAMETERSTHEUSEOFALIQUID,NAMELYHEAVYWATER,WHICHRETURNSAFTERBREAKDOWNANDCAVITATIONBUBBLEFORMATION,ENABLEDUSTOFABRICATEBUMPSWITHHIGHSPATIALDENSITY,WHICHISNOTPOSSIBLEUSINGASOLIDCOATINGTHATISABLATEDADESIREDARRANGEMENTOFBUMPSONAGLASSSURFACEWASFABRICATEDBYTUNINGTHEPROCESSINGTIMEINTERVALTOBEMORETHANTHEDISAPPEARANCETIMEOFABUBBLE,GENERATEDBYFOCUSINGAFEMTOSECONDLASERPULSENEARTHEWATER/GLASSINTERFACEPACS4262CF;4270CE;5238MF;7847P;7920DS1INTRODUCTIONFEMTOSECONDLASERSAREPOWERFULTOOLSFORMICROANDNANOSTRUCTURINGOFTRANSPARENTMATERIALSBECAUSETHEYCANPROCESSWITHHIGHSPATIALRESOLUTIONRESULTINGFROMMULTIPLEPHOTONABSORPTION,ANDREDUCEDTHERMALDAMAGEDUETOTHEULTRASHORTINTERACTIONTIMEBETWEENTHELASERPULSEANDTHEMATERIAL,ASWELLASVARIOUSPHYSICALPHENOMENACAUSEDBYTHEULTRAHIGHINTENSITYOFTHELASERPULSE1–11FEMTOSECONDLASERPROCESSINGISBEINGINCREASINGLYAPPLIEDTOTHEDEVELOPMENTOFTHREEDIMENSIONALOPTICALANDFLUIDICDEVICES7,8,10–14ASTHEMORPHOLOGYOFTHEPROCESSEDTRANSPARENTMATERIALISRELATEDTOTHETHERMALEFFECTSOFVAPORIZATIONANDDISSOLUTIONDUETOTHERMALDIFFUSION,INTERACTIONWITHTHEHOTVAPORPLUME,ANDALOWENERGYDENSITYREGIONINTHELASERPULSE,ITISHIGHLYSENSITIVETONOTONLYTHEPHYSICALPROPERTIESOFTHEMATERIAL,BUTALSOTOTHELASERIRRADIATIONPARAMETERS,SUCHASTHEWAVELENGTH,PULSEDURATION,PULSEENERGY,NUMERICALAPERTUREOFTHEFOCUSEDBEAM,ANDTHEFOCUSPOSITIONINPARTICULAR,WHENAFEMTOSECONDLASERPULSEISFOCUSEDNEARTHESURFACEOFATRANSPARENTMATERIAL,ADIFFERENCEINTHEFOCUSPOSITIONGIVESRISETOALARGEDIFFERENCEINTHESURFACEMORPHOLOGYA117FAX81886569435,EMAILHAYASAKIOPTTOKUSHIMAUACJPTHETYPICALSURFACEMORPHOLOGYOFGLASSPROCESSEDBYATIGHTLYFOCUSEDFEMTOSECONDLASERPULSE,CHANGESFROMACAVITYTOABUMPWHENTHEFOCUSPOSITIONCHANGESFROMTHEOUTSIDETOTHEINSIDEOFTHEGLASSTHECAVITYISSURROUNDEDBYARINGSHAPEDPROTRUSIONANDSCATTEREDDEBRISTHEIRSIZE,ANDTHEAMOUNTOFDEBRISSTRONGLYDEPENDSONTHEFOCUSPOSITIONALSOABUMPWITHADIAMETERFROMSEVERALHUNDREDNANOMETERSTOSEVERALMICROMETERSISFORMEDBYMELTINGTHEGLASSSURFACEWITHTHEMELTEDGLASSBEINGPUSHEDUPBYAMICROEXPLOSIONINSIDETHEGLASS15–20DUETOTHERANGESOFFOCALPOSITIONANDIRRADIATIONPULSEENERGY,THESURFACEMELTINGANDTHEINTERNALMICROEXPLOSIONOCCURSIMULTANEOUSLYANDTHEBUMPSFORMEDAREVERYNARROWBUMPSTYPICALLYEXHIBITSSMALLVARIATIONINSIZEANDSTRUCTUREINAPREVIOUSSTUDY,WEFOUNDTHATATRANSPARENTCOATINGONTHEGLASSFORDECREASINGTHEAMOUNTOFDEBRISATTACHEDTOTHEGLASSSURFACEALLOWSBUMPFORMATIONOVERASLIGHTLYWIDERRANGEOFFOCALPOSITIONSCOMPAREDTOBAREGLASS,WHENTHECOATINGTHICKNESSISSUFFICIENTLYLARGERTHANTHELENGTHOFTHEFOCALVOLUME19,21FURTHERMORE,WEFOUNDTHATWHENTHECOATINGTHICKNESSISSHORTERTHANTHELENGTHOFTHEFOCALVOLUME,THATIS,WHENTHECOATINGSURFACEISABLATEDBYASINGLELASERPULSEFOCUSEDATTHEBOUNDARYBETWEENTHETRANSPARENTCOATINGANDTHEGLASS,BUMPSWEREPRODUCEDOVERAFAIRLYWIDERANGEOFFOCUSPOSITIONSCOMPAREDTOUSINGATHICKCOATING20FROMTHOSEINVESTIGATIONS,WEBELIEVETHATTHEAMOUNTOFCOATINGMATERIALABLATEDINTHEFOCALVOLUME,WHICHDEPENDSONTHECOATINGTHICKNESS,AFFECTSTHESTRENGTHOFASHIELDINGEFFECTOFTHEPLASMAGENERATEDWHENABLATINGTHECOATINGASARESULT,THESIZEANDSTRUCTUREOFTHEFORMEDBUMPCANBECHANGEDTHETRANSPARENTCOATINGMETHODHASTHEDISADVANTAGETHATTHESPATIALDENSITYOFTHEBUMPSISLIMITEDTOSEVERALMICROMETERSBECAUSEOFABLATIONOFTHETRANSPARENTCOATINGINORDERTOACHIEVECONTROLLABLEFABRICATIONOFBUMPSWITHAHIGHDENSITY,ITISPOSSIBLETOUSELIQUIDONTHETRANSPARENTMATERIALINPLACEOFTHETRANSPARENTCOATINGDURINGFEMTOSECONDLASERPROCESSING,BECAUSETHELIQUIDNATURALLYRETURNSAFTERBREAKDOWNANDBUBBLEFORMATIONFABRICATIONOFCOMPLEXSTRUCTURESONASILICONSURFACEBYFEMTOSECONDLASERPROCESSINGINWATERHASBEENDEMONSTRATED22–24INTHISPAPER,WEDEMONSTRATEFORMATIONOFHIGHDENSITYMICROMETERSIZEDBUMPSBYFEMTOSECONDLASERPROCESSINGINWATERINSECT2,WEDESCRIBETHEEXPERIMENTALSETUPAND692APPLIEDPHYSICSA–MATERIALSSCIENCEPROCESSINGPROCEDUREINSECT3,WEDESCRIBETHEEXPERIMENTALRESULTSWEINVESTIGATEDTHEEFFECTSOFIRRADIATIONPARAMETERS,INCLUDINGENERGYANDFOCALPOSITION,ONTHEMORPHOLOGYANDSIZEOFTHEBUMPSWEDEMONSTRATEDTHAT,BYTUNINGTHEPROCESSINGTIMEINTERVALTOBEMORETHANTHEDISAPPEARANCETIMEOFABUBBLE25–28GENERATEDBYAFEMTOSECONDLASERPULSEFOCUSEDNEARTHEWATER/GLASSINTERFACE,WECOULDFABRICATEADESIREDSTRUCTUREONTHEGLASSSURFACE,COMPOSEDOFHIGHDENSITYBUMPSINSECT4,WECONCLUDEOURSTUDY2EXPERIMENTALSETUPANDPROCEDURETHEEXPERIMENTALSETUPCONSISTEDOFANAMPLIFIEDFEMTOSECONDLASERANDANOPTICALMICROSCOPEANDISSHOWNINFIG1ITWASTHESAMEASTHESETUPUSEDINOURPREVIOUSWORK19,20THEAMPLIFIEDFEMTOSECONDLASERPRODUCEDPULSESWITHAPEAKWAVELENGTHOF800NM,ADURATIONOF∼150FS,ANDAMAXIMUMREPETITIONRATEOF1KHZTHEIRRADIATIONPULSEENERGYEATTHESAMPLEWASCONTROLLEDBYNEUTRALDENSITYFILTERS,ANDISGIVENBYTHEPRODUCTOFTHEENERGYMEASUREDBEFOREINTRODUCINGTHELASERPULSEINTOTHEOPTICALMICROSCOPEOLYMPUS,IX70ANDTHETRANSMITTANCEOFTHEOPTICALMICROSCOPE,INCLUDINGA40OBJECTIVELENSNUMERICALAPERTURE,NA065THETRANSMITTANCEOFTHEMICROSCOPEWAS069THEPROCESSEDAREAWASOBSERVEDUNDERTRANSMITTEDILLUMINATIONBYAUSUALCHARGECOUPLEDDEVICECCDIMAGESENSORWITHTHEFRAMERATEOF30FRAMES/STHEFOCUSPOSITIONZOFTHELASERPULSEWASDEFINEDASTHEDISTANCEMOVEDALONGTHEOPTICALAXISBYTHEMICROSCOPESTAGETHEZEROPOSITIONZ0WASDEFINEDASTHEPOSITIONWHEREASTRUCTUREWASFORMEDONTHEGLASSSURFACEBYIRRADIATIONOFALASERPULSEWITHNEARABLATIONTHRESHOLDENERGYTHESTRUCTUREOFTHESAMPLEISALSOSHOWNINFIG1THESAMPLEWASPREPAREDASFOLLOWSFOURORDINARYMICROSCOPECOVERSLIPSMATSUNAMIWHICHWERESUBJECTEDTOULTRASONICCLEANINGINETHANOLANDPUREWATERWEREPREPAREDTHEYWEREFIGURE1EXPERIMENTALSETUPANDTHESTRUCTUREOFTHESAMPLETHESPACERGLASSESWEREREMOVEDWHENTHEPROCESSINGWASPERFORMEDATARGETGLASS,AWINDOWGLASSFORSANDWICHINGWATER,ANDTWOSPACERGLASSESWITHATHICKNESSOF130MPOLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATEPMMAWITHTOLUENESOLVENTWASUSEDTOFORMWALLSONTHEWINDOWGLASSAFTERSUFFICIENTLYEVAPORATINGTHESOLVENTTHESPACERGLASSESWEREREMOVED,ANDASMALLCHAMBERWITHASIDELENGTHOF10–15MMCOMPOSEDOFTHEPMMAWALLSONTHEGLASSWASFORMEDWATERWASDROPPEDINTHESMALLCHAMBERANDTHETARGETGLASSWASFIXEDONTHECHAMBERWITHASMALLAMOUNTOFTHEPMMATHATWASUSEDASAGLUEINTHISEXPERIMENT,DEUTERIUMOXIDEHEAVYWATER,HEREAFTERREFERREDTOSIMPLYAS“WATER”WASUSEDBECAUSEOFITSLOWLINEARABSORPTIONAROUNDTHEWAVELENGTHOF800NMAFTERPROCESSING,THETARGETGLASSWASREMOVEDFROMTHECHAMBERANDSUBJECTEDTOULTRASONICCLEANINGINPUREWATERANDETHANOLTHESURFACESTRUCTUREOFTHEPROCESSEDAREAWASOBSERVEDWITHANATOMICFORCEMICROSCOPEAFM;DIGITALINSTRUMENTS,DIMENSION30003EXPERIMENTALRESULTSFIGURE2SHOWSSTRUCTURESPROCESSEDINWATEROVERARANGEOFZFROM−40TO120MWHENTHEENERGYEWAS21JFIGURE2AANDBSHOWANAFMIMAGEANDITSCORRESPONDINGPROFILE,WHOSEVERTICALRANGEIS500NMFIGURE2CANDDSHOWTOPANDSIDEVIEWSOFTHEPROCESSEDAREAOBSERVEDWITHTHETRANSMISSIONOPTICALMICROSCOPEFIGURE2ESHOWSTHEDIAMETERANDHEIGHTOFTHEBUMPS,WHICHWEREOBTAINEDFROMTHEAFMOBSERVATION,ANDTHELENGTHOFAVOID,WHICHFIGURE2AAFMIMAGESOFTHEPROCESSEDAREAANDBTHEIRPROFILESTHEIRRADIATIONENERGYWAS21JTHEVERTICALRANGEIS500NMCTOPANDDSIDEVIEWSOBSERVEDWITHATRANSMISSIONOPTICALMICROSCOPEEDIAMETERANDHEIGHTOFBUMPSVERSUSFOCUSPOSITION,ANDTHELENGTHOFVOIDSFORMEDINTHEGLASSVERSUSFOCUSPOSITIONHAYASAKIETALHIGHDENSITYBUMPFORMATIONONAGLASSSURFACEUSINGFEMTOSECONDLASERPROCESSINGINWATER693WASOBTAINEDFROMASIDEVIEWOBSERVATIONTHEBUMPSWEREFORMEDONTHEGLASSSURFACEOVERAWIDERANGEOFZ,FROM−40TO80MASZINCREASED,THEHEIGHTANDDIAMETEROFTHEBUMPSINCREASEDWHENZWAS60M,THEBUMPHADAMAXIMUMHEIGHTOF400NMANDADIAMETEROF36MWHENZWAS80M,ALOWBUMPWITHAHEIGHTOF50NMWASFORMEDWHENZWASGREATERTHAN80M,VOIDSWEREFORMEDINSIDETHEGLASSANDNOSTRUCTUREWASFORMEDONTHEGLASSSURFACETHELENGTHOFTHEVOIDUNDERTHEBUMPALSOINCREASEDASZINCREASEDTHEVOIDSFORMEDWHENZWAS4TO12MWERENEARLYEQUALINLENGTHUNDERMOREDETAILEDOBSERVATIONINTHESIDEVIEWSHOWNINFIG2D,WEFOUNDTHATTHEVOIDSHADDIFFERENTGRAYLEVELSWHENZWASBETWEEN60AND80MTHEDARKHUEOFTHEVOIDSUNDERTHEHIGHBUMPSATZ30MANDZ60MWASDARKERTHANTHOSEOFTHEVOIDSFORMEDCOMPLETELYINSIDETHEGLASSWEEXPECTEDTHEVOIDINTHEHIGHBUMPTOHAVELOWERDENSITYTHANTHEOTHERS,BECAUSEANINTERNALMICROEXPLOSIONDISPLACEDTHEGLASSMATERIALFROMTHEFOCALPOINTANDFORMEDTHEHIGHBUMP,THUSCAUSINGADECREASEINDENSITYTHISBUMPFORMATIONPHENOMENONISTHESAMEASTHATOBSERVEDINOURPREVIOUSSTUDYINWHICHGLASSHAVINGATRANSPARENTPOLYMERCOATINGWASPROCESSEDTHEPRINCIPLEOFBUMPFORMATIONINTHATSTUDYWASBASEDONTHESUPPRESSIONOFTHEMATERIALEMISSIONFROMTHEGLASSSURFACEBYASHIELDINGEFFECTOFPLASMAGENERATEDBYABLATIONOFTHEPOLYMERANDBYPHYSICALBLOCKINGOFTHEPOLYMERONEDIFFERENCEINTHEPRESENTSTUDYISTHATTHEBUMPFORMATIONINTHEGLASSPROCESSEDINWATEROCCURSOVERAWIDERRANGEOFZ,ASSHOWNINFIG3THEIRRADIATIONBEAMPARAMETERSWEREALMOSTTHESAMEASOURPREVIOUSEXPERIMENTSSHOWNINFIG3IN19THEIRRADIATIONENERGYWASE069JWHENPROCESSINGGLASSWITHAPOLYMERCOATING,BUMPFORMATIONWASOBSERVEDWHENZWAS−10TO40M20WHEREASWHENPROCESSINGINWATER,BUMPFORMATIONWASOBSERVEDWHENZWAS−40TO70MTHEMAINREASONFORTHEDIFFERENCEISTHATTHEPHYSICALBLOCKINGOFWATERISWEAKERTHANTHATOFTHEPOLYMERCOATINGTHISISFURTHERSUPPORTEDBYTHERESULTSFORSTRUCTURESPROCESSEDWITHHIGHPULSEENERGIES,ABOVESEVERALMICROJOULES,DISCUSSEDINTHENEXTPARAGRAPHFIGURE4SHOWSAFMIMAGESOFTHEPROCESSEDSTRUCTURESFORVARIOUSENERGIESEWHENZ0BUMPSWEREFORMEDWHENEWAS017TO69J,ANDTHEIRSTRUCTURESDRASTICALLYCHANGEDDEPENDINGONETHEDIAMETERANDHEIGHTOFTHEBUMPINCREASEDASEINCREASEDTO41JWHENEWAS41J,THEDIAMETERWAS51MANDTHEHEIGHTWAS157MWITHFURTHERINCREASEOFE,BOTHDIMENSIONSDECREASEDWHENE21J,THEREWASLITTLEDEBRISAROUNDTHEPERIPHERYOFTHEBUMPALTHOUGH,WHENE≥21J,DEBRISWASDISTRIBUTEDAROUNDTHEPERIPHERY,ANDTHEAMOUNTOFDEBRISINCREASEDASEINCREASEDTHESCATTEREDREGIONOFTHEDEBRISISINDICATEDBYTHESQUARESONTHESOLIDLINESINFIG4PROCESSINGINWATERPRODUCEDMORESCATTEREDDEBRISAROUNDTHEBUMPTHANPROCESSINGWITHANAPPLIEDPOLYMERCOATINGTHISFURTHERSUPPORTSTHEASSERTIONTHATWATERHADWEAKERPHYSICALBLO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