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大连交通大学2010届本科生毕业设计(论文)外文翻译1外文原文OPTIONSFORMICROHOLEMAKINGASINTHEMACROSCALEMACHININGWORLD,HOLEMAKINGISONEOFTHEMOSTIFNOTTHEMOSTFREQUENTLYPERFORMEDOPERATIONSFORMICROMACHININGMANYOPTIONSEXISTFORHOWTHOSEHOLESARECREATEDEACHHASITSADVANTAGESANDLIMITATIONS,DEPENDINGONTHEREQUIREDHOLEDIAMETERANDDEPTH,WORKPIECEMATERIALANDEQUIPMENTREQUIREMENTSTHISARTICLECOVERSHOLEMAKINGWITHTHROUGHCOOLANTDRILLSANDTHOSEWITHOUTCOOLANTHOLES,PLUNGEMILLING,MICRODRILLINGUSINGSINKEREDMSANDLASERDRILLINGHELPFULHOLESGETTINGCOOLANTTOTHEDRILLTIPWHILETHETOOLISCUTTINGHELPSREDUCETHEAMOUNTOFHEATATTHETOOL/WORKPIECEINTERFACEANDEVACUATECHIPSREGARDLESSOFHOLEDIAMETERBUTTHROUGHCOOLANTCAPABILITYISESPECIALLYHELPFULWHENDEEPHOLEMICRODRILLINGBECAUSETHETOOLSAREDELICATEANDPRONETOFAILUREWHENEXPERIENCINGRECUTTINGOFCHIPS,CHIPPACKINGANDTOOMUCHEXPOSURETOCARBIDE’SWORSTENEMYHEATWHENAPPLYINGFLOODCOOLANT,THEDRILLITSELFBLOCKSACCESSTOTHECUTTINGACTION“SOMEWHEREABOUT3TO5DIAMETERSDEEP,THECOOLANTHASTROUBLEGETTINGDOWNTOTHETIP,”SAIDJEFFDAVIS,VICEPRESIDENTOFENGINEERINGFORHARVEYTOOLCO,ROWLEY,MASS“ITBECOMESWISETOUSEACOOLANTFEDDRILLATTHATPOINT”INADDITION,FLOODCOOLANTCANCAUSEMOREHARMTHANGOODWHENMICROHOLEMAKING“THEPRESSUREFROMTHEFLOODCOOLANTCANSOMETIMESSNAPFRAGILEDRILLSASTHEYENTERTHEPART,”DAVISSAIDTHETOOLMAKEROFFERSALINEOFTHROUGHCOOLANTDRILLSWITHDIAMETERSFROM0039TO0125THATAREABLETOPRODUCEHOLESUPTO12DIAMETERSDEEP,ASWELLASMICRODRILLSWITHOUTCOOLANTHOLESFROM0002TO0020HAVINGTHROUGHCOOLANTCAPACITYISN’TENOUGH,THOUGHCOOLANTNEEDSTOFLOWATARATETHATENABLESITTOCLEARTHECHIPSOUTOFTHEHOLEDAVISRECOMMENDS,ATAMINIMUM,600TO800PSIOFCOOLANTPRESSURE“ITWORKSMUCHBETTERIFYOUHAVEHIGHERPRESSURETHANTHAT,”HEADDEDTOPREVENTTHOSETINYCOOLANTHOLESFROMBECOMINGCLOGGEDWITHDEBRIS,DAVISALSORECOMMENDSA5ΜMORFINERCOOLANTFILTERANOTHERRECOMMENDATIONISTOMACHINEAPILOT,ORGUIDE,HOLETOPREVENTTHETOOLFROMWANDERINGONTOPOFTHEWORKPIECEANDAIDINPRODUCINGASTRAIGHTHOLEWHENAPPLYINGAPILOTDRILL,IT’SIMPORTANTTOSELECTONEWITHANINCLUDEDANGLEONITSPOINTTHAT’SEQUALTOORLARGERTHANTHEINCLUDEDANGLEONTHETHROUGHCOOLANTDRILLTHATFOLLOWSTHEPILOTDRILL’S大连交通大学2010届本科生毕业设计(论文)外文翻译2DIAMETERSHOULDALSOBESLIGHTLYLARGERFOREXAMPLE,IFTHEPILOTDRILLHASA120INCLUDEDANGLEANDASMALLERDIAMETERTHANATHROUGHCOOLANTDRILLWITHA140INCLUDEDANGLE,“THENYOU’RECATCHINGTHECOOLANTFEDDRILL’SCORNERSANDKNOCKINGTHOSECORNERSOFF,”DAVISSAID,WHICHDAMAGESTHEDRILLALTHOUGHNOTMANDATORY,PECKINGISAGOODPRACTICEWHENMICRODRILLINGDEEPHOLESDAVISSUGGESTSAPECKINGCYCLETHATIS30TO50PERCENTOFTHEDIAMETERPERPECKDEPTH,DEPENDINGONTHEWORKPIECEMATERIALTHISCLEARSTHECHIPS,PREVENTINGTHEMFROMPACKINGINTHEFLUTEVALLEYSLUBRICIOUSCHILLTOFURTHERAIDCHIPEVACUATION,DAVISRECOMMENDSAPPLYINGANOILBASEDMETALWORKINGFLUIDINSTEADOFAWATERBASEDCOOLANTBECAUSEOILPROVIDESGREATERLUBRICITYBUTIFASHOPPREFERSUSINGCOOLANT,THEFLUIDSHOULDINCLUDEEPEXTREMEPRESSUREADDITIVESTOINCREASELUBRICITYANDMINIMIZEFOAMING“IFYOU’VEGOTALOTOFFOAM,”DAVISNOTED,“THECHIPSAREN’TBEINGPULLEDOUTTHEWAYTHEYARESUPPOSEDTOBE”HEADDEDTHATANOTHERWAYTOENHANCEATOOL’SSLIPPERINESSWHILEEXTENDINGITSLIFEISWITHACOATING,SUCHASTITANIUMALUMINUMNITRIDETIALNHASAHIGHHARDNESSANDISANEFFECTIVECOATINGFORREDUCINGHEAT’SIMPACTWHENDRILLINGDIFFICULTTOMACHINEMATERIALS,LIKESTAINLESSSTEELDAVIDBURTON,GENERALMANAGEROFPERFORMANCEMICROTOOL,JANESVILLE,WIS,DISAGREESWITHTHEIDEAOFCOATINGMICROTOOLSONTHESMALLERENDOFTHESPECTRUM“COATINGSONTOOLSBELOW0020TYPICALLYHAVEANEGATIVEEFFECTONEVERYMACHININGASPECT,FROMTHEQUALITYOFTHEINITIALCUTTOTOOLLIFE,”HESAIDTHAT’SBECAUSECOATINGSARENOTTHINENOUGHANDNEGATIVELYALTERTHERAKEANDRELIEFANGLESWHENAPPLIEDTOTINYTOOLSHOWEVER,WORKCONTINUESONTHEDEVELOPMENTOFTHINNERCOATINGS,ANDBURTONINDICATEDTHATPERFORMANCEMICROTOOL,WHICHPRODUCESMICROENDMILLSANDMICROROUTERSANDRESELLSMICRODRILLS,ISWORKINGONAPROJECTWITHOTHERSTOCREATEASUBMICRONTHICKNESSCOATING“WE’REPROBABLY6MONTHSTO1YEARFROMTESTINGITINTHEMARKET,”BURTONSAIDTHEMICRODRILLSPERFORMANCEOFFERSAREBASICALLYCIRCUITBOARDDRILLS,WHICHAREALSOEFFECTIVEFORCUTTINGMETALALLTHETOOLSAREWITHOUTTHROUGHCOOLANTCAPABILITY“IHADACUSTOMERDRILLA0004DIAHOLEINSTAINLESSSTEEL,ANDHEWASAMAZEDHECOULDDOITWITHACIRCUITBOARDDRILL,”BURTONNOTED,ADDINGTHATPECKINGANDRUNNINGATAHIGHSPINDLESPEEDINCREASETHEDRILL’SEFFECTIVENESSTHEREQUIREMENTSFORHOWFASTMICROTOOLSSHOULDROTATEDEPENDONTHETYPEOFCNCMACHINESASHOPUSESANDTHETOOLDIAMETER,WITHHIGHERSPEEDSNEEDEDASTHEDIAMETERDECREASESNOTETHEEQUATIONFORCUTTINGSPEEDISSFMTOOLDIAMETER026SPINDLE大连交通大学2010届本科生毕业设计(论文)外文翻译3SPEEDALTHOUGHRELATIVELYLOW,5,000RPMHASBEENUSEDSUCCESSFULLYBYBURTON’SCUSTOMERS“WERECOMMENDTHATOURCUSTOMERSFINDTHEHIGHESTRPMATTHELOWESTPOSSIBLEVIBRATIONTHESWEETSPOT,”HESAIDINADDITIONTOMINIMIZINGVIBRATION,ACONSTANTANDADEQUATECHIPLOADISREQUIREDTOPENETRATETHEWORKPIECEWHILEEXERTINGLOWCUTTINGFORCESANDTOALLOWTHERAKETOREMOVETHEAPPROPRIATEAMOUNTOFMATERIALIFTHEDRILLTAKESTOOLIGHTOFACHIPLOAD,THERAKEFACEWEARSQUICKLY,BECOMINGNEGATIVE,ANDTOOLLIFESUFFERSTHISAPPROACHISOFTENTEMPTINGWHENDRILLINGWITHDELICATETOOLS“IFTHECUSTOMERDECIDESHEWANTSTOBABYTHETOOL,HETAKESALIGHTERCHIPLOAD,”BURTONSAID,“AND,TYPICALLY,THECUTTINGEDGEWEARSMUCHQUICKERANDCREATESARADIUSWHERETHELANDOFTHATRADIUSISWIDERTHANTHECHIPBEINGCUTHEENDSUPUSINGITASAGRINDINGTOOL,TRYINGTOBUMPMATERIALAWAY”FORTOOLSLARGERTHAN0001,BURTONCONSIDERSACHIPLOADUNDER00001TOBE“BABYING”IFTHEDRILLDOESN’TSNAP,PREMATUREWEARCANRESULTINABYSMALTOOLLIFETOOMUCHRUNOUTCANALSOBEDESTRUCTIVE,BUTHOWMUCHISDEBATABLEBURTONPOINTEDOUTTHATPERFORMANCEPURPOSELYDESIGNEDAMACHINETOHAVE00003TIRTOCONDUCTINHOUSE,WORSTCASEMILLINGSCENARIOS,ADDINGTHATTHECOMPANYISSTILLABLETOMILLA0004WIDESLOT“DAYINANDDAYOUT”HEADDED“YOUWOULDTHINKWITH00003RUNOUTANDACHIPLOADATHIRDTHAT,SAY,00001TO000015,THETOOLWOULDBREAKIMMEDIATELYBECAUSEONEFLUTEWOULDBETAKINGTHEENTIRELOADANDTHENTHEBACKENDOFTHEFLUTEWOULDBERUBBINGWHENDRILLING,HEINDICATEDTHATUPTO00003TIRSHOULDBEACCEPTABLEBECAUSEONCETHEDRILLISINSIDETHEHOLE,THECUTTINGEDGESONTHEENDOFTHEDRILLCONTINUECUTTINGWHILETHENONCUTTINGLANDSONTHEODGUIDETHETOOLINTHESAMEDIRECTIONMINIMIZINGRUNOUTBECOMESMORECRITICALASTHEDEPTHTODIAMETERRATIOINCREASESTHISISBECAUSETHEFLUTESARENOTABLETOABSORBASMUCHDEFLECTIONASTHEYBECOMEMOREENGAGEDINTHEWORKPIECEULTIMATELY,TOOMUCHRUNOUTCAUSESTHETOOLSHANKTOORBITAROUNDTHETOOL’SCENTERWHILETHETOOLTIPISHELDSTEADY,CREATINGASTRESSPOINTWHERETHETOOLWILLEVENTUALLYBREAKTAKINGAPLUNGEALTHOUGHSTANDARDMICRODRILLSAREN’TGENERALLYAVAILABLEBELOW0002,MICROENDMILLSTHATCANBEUSEDTO“PLUNGE”AHOLEARE“WHENPEOPLEWANTTODRILLSMALLERTHANTHAT,THEYUSEOURENDMILLSANDAREPRETTYSUCCESSFUL,”BURTONSAIDHOWEVER,THEHOLESCAN’TBEVERYDEEPBECAUSETHETOOLSDON’THAVELONGASPECT,ORDEPTHTODIAMETER,RATIOSTHEREFORE,A0001DIAENDMILLMIGHTBEABLETOONLYMAKEAHOLEUPTO0020DEEPWHEREASADRILLOFTHESAMESIZE大连交通大学2010届本科生毕业设计(论文)外文翻译4CANGODEEPERBECAUSEIT’SDESIGNEDTOPLACETHELOADONITSTIPWHENDRILLINGTHISTRANSFERSTHEPRESSUREINTOTHESHANK,WHICHABSORBSITPERFORMANCEOFFERSENDMILLSASSMALLAS5MICRONS00002BUTISN’TKEENONINCREASINGTHATLINE’SSALES“WHENPEOPLETRYTOBUYTHEM,IVERYSERIOUSLYTRYTOTALKTHEMOUTOFITBECAUSEWEDON’TLIKEMAKINGTHEM,”BURTONSAIDPARTOFTHEPROBLEMWITHTOOLSTHATSMALLISTHECARBIDEGRAINSNOTONLYNEEDTOBESUBMICRONINSIZEBUTTHESIZEALSONEEDSTOBECONSISTENT,INPARTBECAUSESUCHATOOLISCOMPRISEDOFFEWERGRAINS“THE5MICRONENDMILLPROBABLYHAS10GRAINSHOLDINGTHECORETOGETHER,”BURTONNOTEDHEADDEDTHATHEHASSEENCARBIDEPOWDERCONTAINING02MICRONGRAINS,WHICHISABOUTHALFTHESIZEOFWHAT’SCOMMERCIALLYAVAILABLE,BUTITALSOCONTAINEDGRAINSMEASURING05AND06MICRONS“ITJUSTDOESN’THELPTOHAVESMALLGRAINSIFTHEY’RENOTUNIFORM”MICROVAPORIZATIONELECTRICALDISCHARGEMACHININGUSINGASINKEREDMISANOTHERMICROHOLEMAKINGOPTIONUNLIKE,WHICHCREATESMALLHOLESFORTHREADINGWIRETHROUGHTHEWORKPIECEWHENWIREEDMING,EDMSFORPRODUCINGMICROHOLESARECONSIDERABLYMORESOPHISTICATED,ACCURATEAND,OFCOURSE,EXPENSIVEFORPRODUCINGDEEPMICROHOLES,ATUBEISAPPLIEDASTHEELECTRODEFOREDMINGSMALLERBUTSHALLOWERHOLES,ASOLIDELECTRODEWIRE,ORROD,ISNEEDED“WETRYTOUSETUBESASMUCHASPOSSIBLE,”SAIDJEFFKISZONAS,EDMPRODUCTMANAGERFORMAKINOINC,AUBURNHILLS,MICH“BUTATSOMEPOINT,NOBODYCANMAKEATUBEBELOWACERTAINDIAMETER”HEADDEDTHATSOMESUPPLIERSOFFERTUBESDOWNTO0003INDIAMETERFORMAKINGHOLESASSMALLAS00038THETUBE’SFLUSHINGHOLEENABLESCREATINGAHOLEWITHAHIGHDEPTHTODIAMETERRATIOANDHELPSTOEVACUATEDEBRISFROMTHEBOTTOMOFTHEHOLEDURINGMACHININGONESUCHSINKEREDMFORPRODUCINGHOLESASSMALLAS00004411ΜMISMAKINO’SEDGE2SINKEREDMWITHFINEHOLEOPTIONINJAPAN,THEMACHINETOOLBUILDERRECENTLYPRODUCEDEIGHTSUCHHOLESIN2MINUTESAND40SECONDSTHROUGH00010THICKTUNGSTENCARBIDEATTHEHOLELOCATIONSTHEELECTRODEWASASILVERTUNGSTENROD000020SMALLERTHANTHEHOLEBEINGPRODUCED,TOACCOUNTFORSPARKACTIVITYINTHEGAPWHENPRODUCINGHOLESOFTHATSIZE,THEROD,WHILEROTATING,ISDRESSEDWITHACHARGEDEDMWIRETHEFINEHOLEOPTIONINCLUDESAWAXISATTACHMENT,WHICHHOLDSADIETHATGUIDESTHEELECTRODE,ASWELLASAMIDDLEGUIDETHATPREVENTSTHEELECTRODEFROMBENDINGORWOBBLINGASITSPINSWITHTHEOPTION,THEMACHINEISAPPROPRIATEFORDRILLINGHOLEDIAMETERSLESSTHAN0005ANOTHERSINKEREDMFORMICROHOLEMAKINGISTHEMITSUBISHIVA10WITHAFINEHOLEJIGATTACHMENTTOCHUCKANDGUIDETHEFINEWIREAPPLIEDTOERODETHEMATERIAL“IT’SASTANDARD
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