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7外文翻译第一部分Suspension1Theautomaticgearbox5第二部分汽车悬架„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„7自动变速器„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„SuspensionThemodernofinthecarhastwokindsofsuspension,akindofsuspensionisfrommove,anotherakindofsuspensionisactiveof.Frommoveanafunctionfor,isfromspringcoil,reducingflappingmachinereducetotheflap,leadingtoorganizationetc.constituting,itisvibrationthatimpacttodiesdownroadecausethiskindofcanproducethefunctiondintbyoneself,thereforecallactiveof.Theactiveofismorethantenyearstodevelopof,fromakindofnewofthatcomputercontrol,havethreeterms1havetocanproducethemotivesourceofthefunctiondint2carryoutapiececandeliverthiskindoffunctiondintcombinesitcancontinuethework3havethevarietyspreadstofeelthemachinecombinestoconcentratestherelevantdatatomicrocomputertoproceedtocarrytocalculatetocombinethedecisioncontrolstheway.Therefore,activeatechniqueforgatheringtogethermechanicswithelectronicsknowledge,isakindofhightechniquethatcomparetpassthecarriagedint,thereducesfromtheimpactdintbutcausableloadingsystem.Amongthemthespringcoilrisesprimarilythefunctionthatdecelerationpoundatdint,reducethemainfunctionthatflapthemachineisatoreducethevibration.Becausethiskindofbedrivenbyoutsidedintbutrisefunctionof,socallfrommove.Butactiveadeviceforofinthecontrollinkinstallingcanproducingtakeoutmoving,adoptakindofrepressinsuppressingthedintbydinttheroadfacetheimpactdintofthecarriageandtheinclinationdintofthecarriage.Bosophisticatetoequip.ForexampleequipactiveanaxisforofFrancesnowirondragonmulberry,thecarsasystemisspeed,carriagethatamicrocomputer,haveontheofthe5kindsofspreadingfeelsmachine,distinguishtodelivertomicrocomputerthecarsoon,theexroundsystemmovesthepressureandsteptomovetheacceleratorpedalperpendicularflapandfrequencies,changedirectionthedishangleandchangedirectionflatoutetc.datadirectionally.Thecomputerreceivesthesedatasescontinuouslyandwithinadvancethecriticalvaluethatsetupproceedsthecomparison,choosingthehomologousanappearance.Atthesametime,onmicrocomputerindependencecontroleachacarwheelofcarryoutadollarafor,passingthecontrolreducetoflapthemachineinsidehydraulicpneumaticvarietycreationtakeoutmoving,frombutcanonanytime,anycarwheelcreationmeetingrequestasport.Therefore,themulberrybridgecarhasvariousdriversmodeschooses,drivingaslongaspulltomovetolocatethevicethenormalontheinstrumentpanelorsportbutton,carwillestablishesautomaticallyinthebestanappearance,inordertobestandcomfortablefunction.Moreover,activeafunctionforhavingcarriagesportofcontrol.WhenthecarsystemmovesorturnsacornerofinertialcauseWhenthespringcoiltransform,activeadintforwouldproducingfirstandoppositeantiinthedintof,reducethevarietyofthecarriageposition.ForexampleGermanyspeeds2000CLstypesportcar,be,thevehicleturnsacorneraninclinationforspreadingfeelingmachinewouldimmediatelyexaminingcarriagewithhorizontalacceleration,computeraccordingtoinformationthatspreadingandfeelingmachine,withinadvancethecriticalvaluethatsetupproceedsthecomparisoncomputes,immediatelycertainatwherefullgeneralhowbigofloadingandaddingto.TheactiveincaraliquidpresseswiththeairtypeFromtheangledemarcationofthecontroldint,theofcanisdividedintopassiveof,activeofinhalfwithactiveof.Current,theautomotiveasystemhasthespringcoilwithreducetoflapthemachinemostly,the8incapablesourceinsideasysteminsuppliesthedevice,itsflexibilitycantchangewiththeexteriorworkwiththe,thereforecallingthatthiskindofispassiveof.Activeanactionfortheringisdirectdintinconductandactionstakingplacemachine,canaccordingtoinputandoutputthesuperiorfeedbackofproceedingcontrol,makingatheofhastoreducetoshakethecharacteristicbestly,toingincreasetheautomotiveandgoingsmoothlywithmanipulatethestability.ItconstituteswithadintoccurrencemachineFefromtheflexibilityaC.Halfactiveaspringcoilforcanseeingmakingfromvariablecharacteristicwithmachinethatreducingandflappingtheasystemconstitutes,althoughitcantproceedthesuperiorcontrolwithregulatewiththeoutsiderimportation,itcanpresssavingundereverykindoftermofthecalculatorsuperiorspringcoilwithreducetoflapthemachineexcellenttoturntheparameterinstructiontoregulatethespringcoiljustatheappearanceofforwithreducingflappingmachine.ItfromflexibilityaCwithapercoefficientcanthemachineofregulatedwithinthescopeofbigconstitute.TheelectronicstechniquecontrolcarasystemismainfromthecarishighandchangedirectiontheCape,acceleration,roadtheestimatespreadtofeelthemachine,electronicscontrolECU,ofcontrolofcarryoutmachineetc.constitute.Thecontrolfunctionofthesystemusuallyhasbelowthree1thecarishightoadjusttobethecaratriseandfallWhentheunevenroaddrive,canmakecarriagejackedup,inordertoinpassWhenthegoodroadmadesgoodtime,canlowerthecarriage,toreducetheairhelp,increasetomanipulatethestability.2dintcontrolsisusedtoincreasetomanipulatethestabilityautomotively,intheflashbackcurved,nastyacceleratestomovewiththeurgentsystemcircumstancenext,canrristotheside,horizontalputtheflutterwiththecontrolofthecarriagecanmorequick,precision,thecarmadesgoodtimewiththestabilityexaltationoftheturn,carriagesidereduce.Theexincarriageissmallwhensystemmove,startingwithnastyacceleratecanafterreducing仰.Eveninthebadroad,theflutterofthecarriagetooless,thetireincreasestotheadhesivestrengthoftheground.One.TheactivetypeliquidpressesofTheactivetypeliquidthatelectronicscontrolpressesaquantityforcanaccordingtoofwithaccelerationetc.,makinguseoftheliquidpressthepartsactivelyautomotivevibrationincontrol.Theactivetypeliquidpressesatheofarrangetoissepressthevarietyofthecarriage.3springcoiljustacontrolchangesspringcoiljustdegree,makeacontentedsportorcomfortablerequest.Adoptanempress,cahownasdiagramonthecar,havinginthenearbygearingincenterofgravityincarlengthways,horizontalaccelerationwithhorizontalputthetoppreadstofeelmachine,usetocollectthecarriagethevibration,thecarwheeljumpsabout,carriagehighdegreewithtilttoonesideappearanceetc.signal,thesesignalsesisinputedcontrolunitECU,ECUaccordingtoinputsignalwithinadvancetheprocedurethatsetupissuestocontroltheinstruction,controlingtheservoelectricalengineeringcombinestomanipulateinfrontandbackfourcarryoutawork.Two.ActivetypeairInelectronicscontrolofactivetypeairasystem,tinymachineaccordingtospreadtofeelthemachinechangesestoaninstructionforissuingtheinstruction,theofcangiveaccordingtothetinymachineafterdeliveringofthesignalwiththecontrolmodethatpilotgivehasbeencarriestocalculatetheanalysisofjustdegreewiththecoefficientof,isacarriagewithinthescopeofdrivestokeepsintheprocessgoodandstablefunction,andrespondtothevibrationofthecarriagetocontrolatallowof.Saygenerally,thecontrolcontentsoftheactivetypeairincludesthecarriagehighdegreeandreducetoflapthemachinereducesthedint,springcoilflexibilitycoefficientwaitsthreeitem1、highcontrolincarCentstandard,goupwithonlyaftergoingupathreekindsofworksappearance2、reducethethatshakethemachinereducethedintcontrolthecentlow,inside,highthreefile3、thecentofflexibilitycoefficientofairspringcoilsesaresoftandhardtwofile.TheairanelectronicscontrolstheworkprincipleofthesystemUsetheaircompressorformationcompressedair,combinetogivethecompressedairtospringcoilwiththeairroomthatreducingandshakingthemachineinside,changeswiththisthehighdegreeofthevehicle.Foreaneighborhoodforwithempressroundestablishesthecarthehighspreadingfeelsmachine,presscarthehighspreadingtheexportationsignalthatfeelsthemachine,thetinymachinejudgesthevehiclethehighdegree,thencontrolcompressorwithlineupthespiritvalve,makespringcoilcompressionorelongation,frombut9controlvehiclehighdegree.Establishtheelectricmotorinreduceshookmachine,theelectricmotorsuffersthesignalcontrolofthetinymachine.Makinguseoftheelectricmotorcanchangethesizeoftheairhole.Sayinaspecificway,switchinlastfreespiritininstrumentpanelincarasystem,makeuseoftheswitchcanbecome6kindsofdifferentworksmethod.TheautomaticgearboxTheautomaticgearboxchoosestoblockthepoletheequaltomovingthestickshiftofthegearbox,havinggenerallybelowseveralblocksPparking,Rpourtoblock,Ngetemptytoblock,Dgoforward,Sor2,namelyfor2blocksoon,L.or1,namelyfor1blocksoonThisseveralanusageforblockingarightusagescomingdrivertheautomaticgearboxisautomotiveofpersontosayparticularlyimportant,underneathletusverymuchfamiliarwithonceautomaticgearboxeachlyblockingsmaintheme.●TheusageofthePtheparkingblocksThelaunchestheluckturnsaslongaschoosetoblockthepoleindrivingtheposition,automaticgearboxcarrunaboutveryeasily.Butpark,choosetoblockthepolemustpullintoofP,frombutpasstheinternalparkingsystemingearboxmovesthedevicewilloutputthestalklocklives,combiningtotensethehandsystemmove,preventingthecarambulation.Theusageofthe●TheusageoftheRpourtoblockRacontrolforispouringblocking,usinginsidewantingslicingrecording,automaticgearboxcarunlikemovinggearboxcarsocanusinghalfmoving,sowhilereversingthecarwantingspecialattentionacceleratingpedal.Theusageofthe●TheusageoftheNgetemptytoblockTheNisequaltogetemptytoblock,canwhilestartingorhouroftrailerusage.AtwaitforthesignalorblockupthecarwilloftenoftenchoosetoblockthepolekeepsintheofD,tramplingatthesametimethenextsystemmove.Iftimeisveryshort,dolikethisisanadmissionof,butifstopthetimelongtimehadbetterchangeintoofN,combinetotensethehandsystemmoves.Becausechoosetoblockthepoleindrivingtheposition,theautomaticgearboxcarhasgenerallyandalltodrivethetrendfaintly,longhourstramplethesystemmovesameasadeterrentthiskindoftrend,makegearboxoilgoneup,theoilliquidchangesincharactereasily.Particularlyintheairconditionmachinework,launchthesoonhighercircumstanceinmachinebottommoredisadvantageous.Somepilotsforthesakeofstanzaoil,atmadegoodtimeorgodownslopewillchoosetoblockthepolepulltheofNskids,thisburnthebadgearboxveryeasily,launchingthemachinetorevolvessooninthehoweverbecausethegearboxoutputsatthistimethestalkturnssoonveryhigh,,theoilpumpprovidestheoilshortage,lubricatingtheconditionworsen,burnthebadgearboxeasily.Theusageofthe●TheusageoftheDgoforwardtoblockWillchoosetoblockwhenisnormaltodrivethepoleputintheofD,carcanat1~4blockor3blockitschangetoblockautomatically.TheofDdrivesthepositionmostincommonusely.WhatdemandcontrolisBecausetheautomaticgearboxissoonhighandlowwithcartocometomakesuretoblockaccordingtotheacceleratorsizea,soacceleratethepedaloperationmethodisdifferent,changingtoblockthehourofthecarissoontoonotsamealike.Ifstarthourquickacceleratethepedaltramplesthebottom,risingtoblockthenight,acceleratingtheabilityisstrong,arrivingcertaincarsoonbehind,thenwillacceleratethepedalloosentoopenveryquickly,carcanrisetoblockimmediately,launchlikethisthemachinevoiceissmall,comfortablegood.TheanothercharacteristicsoftheDisacompulsorylowblocking,easytohighspeedthehourovertakesacar,willacceleratequicklyinofDdrovethepedaltrampleafterall,connectthecompulsorylowfendoffthepassandthencanreducetoblockautomatically,thecaracceleratesveryquickly,afterovertakingacarloosentoopenthepedalofaccelerationtocanrisetoblockautomaticallyagain.10●TheusageoftheS,ofLlowtheusagethatblockTheautomaticgearboxininisplacedinthelowblockingthescopeonofSorofLs,canusageunderanetc.circumstance.ItchangetocanmakeuseoftolaunchwellintoofSorofLsthemechanismmove,avoidingthecarwheelsystemmovethemachineoverhot,causethesystemmovetheeffectdescentwhilegoingdownslope.ButchangeintofromtheofDofSorofL,carsooncanthigherthanrisetoblockthecarhomologouslysoon,otherwisestrongvibrationinopportunitytolaunch,makegearboxoilhoicked,evenwilldamagethegearbox.Theisanotheratrainfogweatherhour,iftheroadadherestothetermbad,canchangeintoapositionfororofL,fixingatsomelyfirstlowlyblockingdriving,doingnotusecanautomaticallychangingblocking,inordertopreventthecarbeatsslippery.Mustkeepfirmlyinmindatthesametime,beattheslipperyhourcanwillchoosetoblockthepolepushesintoamotivefor,cuttingofflaunchingmachine,toingguaranteeacarthesafety.汽车悬架现代汽车中的悬架有两种,一种是从动悬架,另一种是主动悬架。从动悬架即传统式的悬架,是由弹簧、减振器(减振筒)、导向机构等组成,它的功能是减弱路面传给车身的冲击力,衰减由冲击力而引起的承载系统的振动。其中弹簧主要起减缓冲击力的作用,减振器的主要作用是衰减振动。由于这种悬架是由外力驱动而起作用的,所以称为从动悬架。而主动悬架的控制环节中安装了能够产生抽动的装置,采用一种以力抑力的方式来抑制路面对车身的冲击力及车身的倾斜力。由于这种悬架能够自行产生作用力,因此称为主动悬架。主动悬架是近十几年发展起来的,由电脑控制的一种新型悬架,具备三个条件(1)具有能够产生作用力的动力源(2)执行元件能够传递这种作用力并能连续工作(3)具有多种传感器并将有关数据集中到微电脑进行运算并决定控制方式。因此,主动悬架汇集了力学和电子学的技术知识,是一种比较复杂的高技术装置。例如装置了主动悬架的法国雪铁龙桑蒂雅,该车悬架系统的中枢是一个微电脑,悬架上有5种传感器,分别向微电脑传送车速、前轮制动压力、踏动油门踏板的速度、车身垂直方向的振幅及频率、转向盘角度及转向速度等数据。电脑不断接收这些数据并与预先设定的临界值进行比较,选择相应的悬架状态。同时,微电脑独立控制每一只车轮上的执行元件,通过控制减振器内油压的变化产生抽动,从而能在任何时候、任何车轮上产生符合要求的悬架运动。因此,桑蒂雅桥车备有多种驾驶模式选择,驾车者只要扳动位于副仪表板上的正常或运动按钮,轿车就会自动设置在最佳的悬架状态,以求最好的舒适性能。另外,主动悬架具有控制车身运动的功能。当汽车制动或拐弯时的惯性引起弹簧变形时,主动悬架会产生一个与惯力相对抗的力,减少车身位置的变化。例如德国奔驰2000款CL型跑车,当车辆拐弯时悬架传感器会立即检测出车身的倾斜和横向加速度,电脑根据传感器的信息,与预先设定的临界值进行比较计算,立即确定在什么位置上将多大的负载加到悬架上,使车身的倾斜减到最小。汽车主动悬架液压和空气式从控制力的角度划分,悬架可分为被动悬架,半主动悬架和主动悬架。目前,大多数汽车的悬架系统装有弹簧和减振器,悬架系统内无能源供给装置,其弹性和阻尼不能随外部工况变化,因此称这种悬架是被动悬架。主动悬架有作为直接力发生器的动作器,可以根据输入与输出进行最优的反馈控制,使悬架有最好的减震特性,以提高汽车的平顺性和操纵稳定性。它由弹性元件C和一个力发生器Fe组成。半主动悬架可看作由可变特性的弹簧和减振器组成的悬架系统,虽然它不能随外界的输入进行最优的控制和调节,但它可按存储在计算机的各种条件下最优弹簧和减振器的优化参数指令来调节弹簧的刚度和减振器的阻尼状态。它由弹性元件C和一个一个阻尼系数能在较大范围内调
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