外文翻译风力发电中的自我激励与谐波.pdf外文翻译风力发电中的自我激励与谐波.pdf

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RUGGED,EGENERATIONCURRGUIDELINES2POWERSYSTEMNETWORKDESCRIPTIONBINECANENTERSELFEXCITATIONOPERATIONTHEVOLTAGEANDFREQUENCYDURINGOFFGRIDOPERATIONAREDETERMINEDBYTHEBALANCEBETWEENTHESYSTEM’SREACTIVEANDREALPOWERDOWNLOADED28MAR2008TO2118210020REDISTRIBUTIONSUBJECTTOASMELICENSEORCOPYRIGHT;SEEHTTP//WWWASMEORG/TERMS/TERMS_USECFMWEINVESTIGATEAVERYSIMPLEPOWERSYSTEMNETWORKCONSISTINGOFONE15MW,FIXEDSPEEDWINDTURBINEWITHANINDUCTIONGENERATORCONNECTEDTOALINEFEEDERVIAATRANSFORMERH208492MVA,3PHASE,60HZ,690V/12KVH20850THELOWSPEEDSHAFTOPERATESAT225RPM,ANDTHEGENERATORROTORSPEEDIS1200RPMATITSSYNCHRONOUSSPEEDADIAGRAMREPRESENTINGTHISSYSTEMISSHOWNINFIG1THEPOWERSYSTEMCOMPONENTSANALYZEDINCLUDETHEFOLLOWINGANINFINITEBUSANDALONGLINECONNECTINGTHEWINDTURBINETOTHESUBSTATIONATRANSFORMERATTHEPADMOUNTONEPOTENTIALPROBLEMARISINGFROMSELFEXCITATIONISTHESAFETYASPECTBECAUSETHEGENERATORISSTILLGENERATINGVOLTAGE,ITMAYCOMPROMISETHESAFETYOFTHEPERSONNELINSPECTINGORREPAIRINGTHELINEORGENERATORANOTHERPOTENTIALPROBLEMISTHATTHEGENERATOR’SOPERATINGVOLTAGEANDFREQUENCYMAYVARYTHUS,IFSENSITIVEEQUIPMENTISCONNECTEDTOTHEGENERATORDURINGSELFEXCITATION,THATEQUIPMENTMAYBEDAMAGEDBYOVER/UNDERVOLTAGEANDOVER/UNDERFREQUENCYOPERATIONINSPITEOFTHEDISADVANTAGESOFOPERATINGTHEINDUCTIONGENERATORINSELFEXCITATION,SOMEPEOPLEUSETHISMODEFORDYNAMICBRAKINGTOHELPCONTROLTHEROTORSPEEDDURINGANEMERGENCYSUCHASAGRIDLOSSCONDITIONWITHTHEPROPERCHOICEOFCAPACITANCEANDRESISTORLOADH20849TODUMPTHEENERGYFROMTHEWINDTURBINEH20850,SELFEXCITATIONCANBEUSEDTOMAINTAINTHEWINDTURBINEATASAFEOPERATINGSPEEDDURINGGRIDLOSSANDMECHANICALBRAKEMALFUNCTIONSTHEEQUATIONSGOVERNINGTHESYSTEMCANBESIMPLIFIEDBYLOOKINGATTHEIMPEDANCEORADMITTANCEOFTHEINDUCTIONMACHINETOCONTRIBUTEDBYTHESOLARENERGYDIVISIONOFTHEAMERICANSOCIETYOFMECHANICALENGINEERSFORPUBLICATIONINTHEASMEJOURNALOFSOLARENERGYENGINEERINGMANUSCRIPTRECEIVEDFEBRUARY28,2005;REVISEDRECEIVEDJULY22,2005ASSOCIATEEDITORDALEBERGJOURNALOFSOLARENERGYENGINEERINGNOVEMBER2005,VOL127/581COPYRIGHT2005BYASMEEMULJADICPBUTTERFIELDNATIONALRENEWABLEENERGYLABORATORY,GOLDEN,COLORADO80401HROMANOWITZOAKCREEKENERGYSYSTEMSINC,MOJAVE,CALIFORNIA93501RYINGERSOUTHERNCALIFORNIAEDISON,ROSEMEAD,CALIFORNIA91770SELFEXCITATIONWINDPOWERTRADITIONALWINDTURBINESTHEYAREINEXPENSIVE,TIONGENERATORSREQUIRISOFTENUSEDBECAUSETHECAPACITORCOMPENSATIONAMONGTHEWINDTURBINE,TANTASPECTSOFWINDCONTENTINTHEOUTPUTENAANDGIVESSOMEH20851DOI101115/120475901INTRODUCTIONMANYOFTODAY’SOPERATINGWINDTURBINESHAVEFIXEDSPEEDINDUCTIONGENERATORSTHATAREVERYRELIABLE,RUGGED,ANDLOWCOSTDURINGNORMALOPERATION,ANINDUCTIONMACHINEREQUIRESREACTIVEPOWERFROMTHEGRIDATALLTIMESTHUS,THEGENERALPRACTICEISTOCOMPENSATEREACTIVEPOWERLOCALLYATTHEWINDTURBINEANDATTHEPOINTOFCOMMONCOUPLINGWHERETHEWINDFARMINTERFACESWITHTHEOUTSIDEWORLDTHEMOSTCOMMONLYUSEDREACTIVEPOWERCOMPENSATIONISCAPACITORCOMPENSATIONITISSTATIC,LOWCOST,ANDREADILYAVAILABLEINDIFFERENTSIZESDIFFERENTSIZESOFCAPACITORSAREGENERALLYNEEDEDFORDIFFERENTLEVELSOFGENERATIONABANKOFPARALLELCAPACITORSISSWITCHEDINANDOUTTOADJUSTTHELEVELOFCOMPENSATIONWITHPROPERCOMPENSATION,THEPOWERFACTOROFTHEWINDTURBINECANBEIMPROVEDSIGNIFICANTLY,THUSIMPROVINGOVERALLEFFICIENCYANDVOLTAGEREGULATIONONTHEOTHERHAND,INSUFFICIENTREACTIVEPOWERCOMPENSATIONCANLEADTOVOLTAGECOLLAPSEANDINSTABILITYOFTHEPOWERSYSTEM,ESPECIALLYINAWEAKGRIDENVIRONMENTALTHOUGHREACTIVEPOWERCOMPENSATIONCANBEBENEFICIALTOTHEOVERALLOPERATIONOFWINDTURBINES,WESHOULDBESURETHECOMPENSATIONISTHEPROPERSIZEANDPROVIDESPROPERCONTROLTWOIMPORTANTASPECTSOFCAPACITORCOMPENSATION,SELFEXCITATIONH208511,2H20852ANDHARMONICSH208513,4H20852,ARETHESUBJECTSOFTHISPAPERINSEC2,WEDESCRIBETHEPOWERSYSTEMNETWORK;INSEC3,WEDISCUSSTHESELFEXCITATIONINAFIXEDSPEEDWINDTURBINE;ANDINSEC4,WEDISCUSSHARMONICSFINALLY,OURCONCLUSIONSAREPRESENTEDINSEC5ANDHARMONICSINGENERATIONARECOMMONLYEQUIPPEDWITHINDUCTIONGENERATORSBECAUSEANDREQUIREVERYLITTLEMAINTENANCEUNFORTUNATELY,INDUCREACTIVEPOWERFROMTHEGRIDTOOPERATE;CAPACITORCOMPENSATIONTHELEVELOFREQUIREDREACTIVEPOWERVARIESWITHTHEOUTPUTPOWER,MUSTBEADJUSTEDASTHEOUTPUTPOWERVARIESTHEINTERACTIONSTHEPOWERNETWORK,ANDTHECAPACITORCOMPENSATIONAREIMPORTHATMAYRESULTINSELFEXCITATIONANDHIGHERHARMONICENTTHISPAPEREXAMINESTHEFACTORSTHATCONTROLTHESEPHENOMONHOWTHEYCANBECONTROLLEDORELIMINATEDH20852CAPACITORSCONNECTEDINTHELOWVOLTAGESIDEOFTHETRANSFORMERANINDUCTIONGENERATORFORTHESELFEXCITATION,WEFOCUSONTHETURBINEANDTHECAPACITORCOMPENSATIONONLYH20849THERIGHTHALFOFFIG1H20850FORHARMONICANALYSIS,WECONSIDERTHEENTIRENETWORKSHOWNINFIG13SELFEXCITATION31THENATUREOFSELFEXCITATIONINANINDUCTIONGENERATORSELFEXCITATIONISARESULTOFTHEINTERACTIONSAMONGTHEINDUCTIONGENERATOR,CAPACITORCOMPENSATION,ELECTRICALLOAD,ANDMAGNETICSATURATIONTHISSECTIONINVESTIGATESTHESELFEXCITATIONPROCESSINANOFFGRIDINDUCTIONGENERATOR;KNOWINGTHELIMITSANDTHEBOUNDARIESOFSELFEXCITATIONOPERATIONWILLHELPUSTOEITHERUTILIZEORTOAVOIDSELFEXCITATIONFIXEDCAPACITORSARETHEMOSTCOMMONLYUSEDMETHODOFREACTIVEPOWERCOMPENSATIONINAFIXEDSPEEDWINDTURBINEANINDUCTIONGENERATORALONECANNOTGENERATEITSOWNREACTIVEPOWER;ITREQUIRESREACTIVEPOWERFROMTHEGRIDTOOPERATENORMALLY,ANDTHEGRIDDICTATESTHEVOLTAGEAN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