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附录AbouthydraulicexcavatorThehydraulicexcavatorplaysagreatroleasrepresentativesofengineeringmachineryproductsinthesocialconstruction,whichiswidelyusedintheworkingstrength,theconstructionqualityandimprovedlaborproductivityhavingaverysignificantrole,especiallyfullyhydraulicexcavator.Itisthekeyfactorthatexcavatorworkingdeviceperformancedecidetoworkefficiency.Itsdesigndirectlydeterminesthelevelofperformanceoftheexcavator.Themachineisatypicalworkdeviceaccordingtomechanicalandhydrauliccomponents.Fromthetwoaspectsofcomprehensiveconsiderationundoubtedly,improvingitsperformanceisreasonableandmethodofwisdom.Hydraulicsystemandpowersystemarethemostimportanthydraulicexcavator,itscoresystemisthebiggestinthecostoftheproportion.Hydraulicsystemisasatransmissionandenergydistributionsystemtodeterminethedrivermostoftheoperatingexperiencedirectly.Currentlymainlyfocuseonindustryinhydraulicsysteminseveralaspectsoftheroleinexcavators1thehandlingcharacteristicsandflowdistribution2savingenergy3theenergydensityandreliability.Acompletehydraulicsystemconsistsoffiveparts,namely,powercomponents,theimplementationofcomponents,controlcomponents,auxiliarycomponentsAnnexandthehydraulicoil.Theroleofdynamiccomponentsistheoriginalmotivationofthemechanicalenergyintofluidpressureenergy,thehydraulicsystemofpumps,whichprovidepowertotheentirehydraulicsystem.Structureofhydraulicpumpsgenerallyhavegearpumps,vanepumpsandpistonpumps.Implementationofcomponentssuchashydrauliccylindersandhydraulicmotorsistopressuretheliquidcanbeconvertedtomechanicalenergytodrivetheloadforalinearreciprocatingmovementorrotationalmovement.Controlcomponentsieallkindsofhydraulicvalvesinthehydraulicsystemcontrolandregulationoffluidpressure,flowanddirection.Accordingtothedifferentcontrolfunctions,hydraulicvalvescanbedividedintopressurecontrolvalves,flowcontrolvalvesanddirectionalcontrolvalve.Pressurecontrolvalveisdividedintobenefitsflowvalvesafetyvalve,pressurereliefvalve,sequencevalve,pressureswitch,etc.flowcontrolvalvesincludingthrottle,adjustingvalves,flowdiversionvalveassemblydirectionalcontrolvalveincludesacheckvalve,checkvalve,shuttlevalve,valveandsoon.Underthecontrolofdifferentways,hydraulicvalvescanbedividedintoswitchingcontrolvalves,controlvalvesandthefixedvalueproportionalcontrolvalve.Auxiliarycomponents,includingfueltanks,filters,tubingandpipejoints,seals,quickcouplings,highpressureballvalve,hoseassembly,pressurefittings,pressuregauge,oillevel,oiltemperaturemeterandsoon.Hydraulicsystemofhydraulicoilistheworkoftheenergytransfermedium,avarietyofmineraloil,emulsion,oilhydraulicmoldingHopcategories.Thequalityofahydraulicsystemdependsnotonlyontherationaldesignandperformanceofthemeritsofsystemcomponents,butalsobecauseofthepollutionpreventionandtreatmentsystem,thesystemofpollutiondirectlyaffectsthereliabilityofhydraulicsystemsandcomponentsofworklife,accordingtoStatistics,thehydraulicsystemfailureathomeandabroadabout70wereduetopollutioncaused.Oilpollutiondamagefollowingmainelementsofthesystem1Thecomponentsofthepollutionofwearandtear,Oilcomponentsofvariouspollutantscausevariousformsofwear,thesolidparticlesintomotionpairgap,cuttingthepartsurfacewearorfatiguewear.Highspeedflowofsolidparticlesonthesurfaceofcomponentscausedbytheimpactoferosion.Oilinthewaterandtheresultantdeteriorationofoiloxidationcorrosionofthecomponentsproduced.Inaddition,thesystemsoilintheaircausedcavitation,resultinginsurfaceerosionanddestructionofcomponents.2Blockandtheclampingdevicefailure,Solidparticlesplugthegapandthehydraulicvalveorifice,causingobstructionandclampingthespoolandaffectperformance,orevenresultinseriousaccidents.3Toacceleratethedeteriorationofoilproperties,Oilinthewaterandairforitsthermaloxidationofthemainconditionsistheoil,andoilintheoxidationofmetalparticlesontheoilplayanimportantcatalyticrole,inaddition,theoilbubblesinthewaterandsuspendeddeputycampaignsignificantlyreducedBetweenthefilmsstrength,thelubricationperformance.Beforeasystemisputintothegeneraltogothroughthewash,rinseaimistoremoveresidualcontaminantsinthesystem,metalscrap,fibercompounds,core,etc.,inthefirsttwohoursofwork,evenifnotcompletelycorruptsystem,alsoCauseaseriesoffailures.Therefore,thefollowingstepsshouldbeoilcleaningsystem1Withaeasytocleandrycleaningsolventtank,andthenfilteredcleanairsolventresidue2Allpipecleaningsystem,insomecasesneedtobeimpregnatedpipeandfittings3Areinstalledwiththeoilfilterinthepipelinetoprotecttheoilpipelinevalvesandpressurelines4Setawashcoatconverterboardtoreplacetheprecisionvalves,suchaselectrohydraulicservovalve5Checkallpipingsizeisappropriate,theconnectioniscorrect.Ifthesystemusedhydraulicservovalve,Imightsayafewwords,theservovalvewaswashedplatetomaketheflowofoilfromtheoilpipelinesetofconverters,anddirectreturntotank,sothatoilcanflowagaintoFlushingsystem,sothattheoilfiltertofilteroutsolidparticles,washingprocess,notevery1to2hourstochecktheoilfilter,oilfiltertopreventcloggingbycontaminants,donotopenthebypassatthistime,ifthestartingblocktofindtheoilfilterFilteroilchangesoon.Rinsecyclebythesystemsstructureandsystemstodeterminethedegreeofpollution,ifthefiltermediaisabsentorveryfewspecimensofexternalcontaminants,theninstalledanewoilfilter,removetheflushplate,fittedwithvalveworkPlannedmaintenanceRegularmaintenanceofthesystemcreateasystemforbettermaintenanceofthehydraulicsystemfollowingrecommendations1upto500hoursorthreemonthswillcheckandreplacefluids.2Regularwashingoftheimportedoilfilterpump.3Checkthehydraulicoilorotherpollutantsbyacidificationofthesituation,thesmellofhydraulicoilcangenerallyidentifywhetherthedeterioration.4Repairleakinyoursystem5ensurethatnoforeignparticlesfromthefueltankbreathercap,oilfilterintheplugseat,returnlinegasket,andotheropeningsintothefueltankfueltank.LeakageofthehydraulicsystemandcontrolofhazardsFirst,thereasonsfortheleakageofhydraulicsystem1designandmanufacturingdefectscausedby2shockandvibrationcausedbyloosefittings3dynamicsealsandweareachotherwiththepiecesparticularlythehydrauliccylinder4highoilandrubbersealdeteriorationandhydraulicoilincompatibility.Thefollowingcombinationoftheaboveaspectstolookatthecontrolofleakagemeasures.Second,controltheleakageofthehydraulicsystemcontrolscheme.Choiceofhydrauliccomponentsoutsidethepackageleakinthehydraulicsystemoftenplaysadecisiveimpact.Thisdeterminesourtechnicalstaffinthenewproductdesign,improvementofoldproducts,totanks,pumps,valves,seals,hydraulicaccessoriessuchasthechoiceofselectingthebesttothespiritofgood,excellentchoiceofcheaperprudentprinciple,Acomparisonto.Intherigidstaticsealstopreventoilleakagebetweenthefixedsurface.Rationaldesignofsealinggroovedimensionsandtolerances,sothatafterinstallationofthesealtobesqueezedinordertostuffwiththedeformationmicrostructureofthesurfacedepression,andtosealtheinternalstressincreasedtohigherthanthepressuretobesealed.Whenthepartstiffnessisnotbigenoughorwhentheboltpreload,withthesurfaceunderpressureintheseparationofoil,causingthesealingsurfaceofthegaporincreasethelevelmaynotexistfromthebeginningtothegap.Aswiththesurfaceofthemovement,becameadynamicsealstaticseal.Roughsurfacewillbewornwiththeseal,thegapchangeswillerodetheedgeseal.Prematuresealdeteriorationmaybecausedbymanyfactors,oneimportantfactoristheoiltemperatureistoohigh.10℃thetemperatureincreasesseallifewillbehalved,itshouldberationalandefficientdesignofhydraulicsystemsorcoolingdevice,theoptimaloiltemperatureiskeptbelow65℃constructionmachineryshouldneverexceed80℃anotherfactorMaybeusedinoilandsealingmaterialcompatibilityissues,shouldbeselectedusingthemanualorthemanualhydraulicoilandsealsofthetypeandmaterial,toaddresscompatibilityissues,extendtheseallife.Thehandlingcharacteristicsandflowdistributionareacoupleofmutualinfluencefactors.Inthepilotfluidcontrolcondition,eachoftheflowofoilindependenceandcontrolpropertieseffecteachother.Thereareoftengeneralrequirementliquidpilothandlewithcorrespondingintuitivefeelingsormotoroilcylinder,whichisthemovementoflinearrelationship,suchoperatorisveryeasytouse.Ontheotherhand,asetofsystemintheimplementationofthenumberaregreaterthanthenumberofindependentoilsource.Connectingthesameoilsourceofactuatorswillhavemutualinfluenceanddestroytheindependentcontrolpropertieswhentheyaremutualmovement.JapanKOMATSU1990shasbeencommittedtothedevelopmentoftheopensystem,usingathreesixwayvalveofthetwostepsoilinletofchannelandbypassoilingofchannelforthrottlingcontrol.Bypassvalvecoredisplacementofthesystemwithactualoutputflow,andalsothecomplexrelationshipbyloadandoilsource,thatcontrolsandmicroperformancearenotgood,andcantsolvetheactualuseofcompositeactionneeds.Becauseoftheinputandoutputflowhandlescannotkeepcertainchangesintheopensystem.Equipmentforexcavatorskilleddriversoperateupisnotaeasything.Duetoopensystemisnotsuitableforexcavator,thenappearclosetypesprinklersystem,whichusepressurecompensationmethodforrealizationofoilpressureandcanuseapooroilsourcetosupplyallactuators.Eachactuatorwiththespeedofonlymanoeuvringvalvestemtravelrelated.Whiletheyarecompositeaction,theyareeachmutualsmallinterference.Intheactuatorflowofoil,fueloilusingsupplementacceleratethespeedofoiltankforoilregeneration.Formoreseniororhavespecialdemand,oftenbyuseofsystem、electromagnetism、pneumaticservocontrol﹑computerprogramcontrolofmoreadvancedcontrolmeanstorealizehydraulicleadinglevelreplacementmoreautomationandmorecomplexoperationneeds.Currentexcavatorhydraulicsystemistoadjustthemainideaoftheenergyflowofthepumpasclosetoloaddemandsothatitisnottoomanyoverflowloss.Typicallyusingloadpressurechangesfeedbacktoadjustthevariablepumpastheangleofincliningdishofpumpflowcontroloutput.ForpumpfromthemouthPactuatorusedshouldbeloadsoffeedbackcontroloilpumppressurepositionforenergysavingsystemalsohaseffectontheperformanceofcommonloadsensorsystem,isdirectlyPumpoutletpressurecontrol,thesystemoftheinclinedplateisveryclosetopumppressurefeedbackfromthefeedbackloopmaybemadewiththepumpof,makespeedthrottlinglossofpressuredifferenceissmall,microtrainPgoodperformance.Anotherkindofpowercontrolfeedbackcontrolvalve,pressurefromfromactuators,representedbyJapanesemanufacturerofnegativeflowsystemisusingthisform,itsadvantageismainlytotheloadquickerresponse,butbecausethefeedbackfromthethrottlepressureisestablishedinlowspeed,whentheresponseissensitive,controllablepoorer.Facingtheincreasinglyhighpowerdemand,duetothelargeflowwillleadtolossofvolumeincreasedandthesystem,hydraulicdrivingsystemistochoosetoflowdirectiondevelopment,highdemandingbymultiplepumpparalleltosolve,foreignadvancedexcavatorhydrauliccomponentsinabout30MPapressureratingfortheseal,andthecleannessoilandputforwardhigherrequest.Inreliability,throughtheoreticalandexperimentalmethodismainlyforpump,valvewithhighinthefacewithfriction.Investigate,basedontheanalysisofoilparticlesconstantlyoptimizethecomponentdesign.Asthehydraulictechnology,the20thcentury,40yearsonatractorequippedwithhydraulicsuspensiontypebackhoeexcavators,the20thcentury,theearlyandmid50shavedevelopedatowedtheentirerotationhydraulicexcavatorsandcrawlerhydraulicminingMachine,theinitialprototypeofthehydraulicexcavatoristheuseofaircraftandmachinetoolshydraulictechnology,thelackofavarietyofworkingconditionsforthehydraulicexcavatorcomponents,manufacturingqualityisnotstableenough,andthesupportingdocumentsarenotcomplete.60sfromthe20thcentury,hydraulicexcavatorsintothepromotionanddynamicdevelopmentstage,andexcavatorsmanufacturingandvarietiesincreasedrapidly,productionsoared.1968to1970,excavatorhydraulicexcavatorproductionaccountedfor83oftotaloutput,hascloseto100.Industrialproductionindevelopedcountriesearlierexcavators,France,Germany,theUnitedStates,Russia,Japan,isabucketcapacityof3.540m3hydraulicexcavatorofthemajorproducingcountries,80fromthe20thcentury,beganproductionoflargeexcavators.Forexample,U.S.ShawnMarionproducedspinoffof50150m3capacitybucketexcavator,bucketcapacityof132m3ofWalkingDraglineexcavatorsBEproducedthebucketcapacityof168.2m3ofpedestrianDraglineexcavator,bucketcapacityof107m3ofstrippingexcavators,etc.,istheworldslargestexcavator.Fromthelate20thcentury,theinternationalproductiontolargescaleexcavators,miniaturization,multifunctional,specialandautomationdirection.
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