外文翻译--单螺杆和双螺杆挤压机中混合元件的混合性能.doc外文翻译--单螺杆和双螺杆挤压机中混合元件的混合性能.doc

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英文原文MIXINGEFFECTSOFCONSTITUTINGELEMENTSOFMIXINGSCREWSINSINGLEANDTWINSCREWEXTRUDERSDJVANZUILICHEM,EKUIPER,WSTOLP,TJAGERDEPARTMENTOFFOODTECHNOLOGYANDNUTRITIONALSCIENCES,WAGENINGENAGRICULTURALUNIERSITY,FOODANDBIOPROCESSENGINEERINGGROUP,POBOX8129,BOMENWEG2,6700EVWAGENINGEN,NETHERLANDSRECEIVED21APRIL1998;ACCEPTED29MARCH1999ABSTRACTINEXTRUSION,MIXINGOFSOLIDSANDMELTSHASALWAYSBEENPROBLEMATIC,LEADINGTODIVERSEMODELSDESCRIBINGTHEMELTINGPROCESSITISFOUNDTHATFORFOODSBASEDONCEREALS,ONLYAFEWAREVALID,DUETOTHESIMULTANEOUSPRESENCEOFWATERANDHIGHVISCOUSNONNEWTONIANMATERIALMIXINGTRIALSARESUMMARISEDFORSINGLEANDTWINSCREWEXTRUDERS,WITHPARTICULATESOLIDSOFDIFFERENTPARTICLESIZESLIKE,MAIZEGRITS,WHEATFLOUR,SUCROSECRYSTALSANDGLUCOSESYRUPSPECIALMIXINGHEADSFORSINGLESCREWEXTRUDERSLIKE,PINEAPPLEHEADS,ANDSLOTTEDFLIGHTSECTIONSFORCOUNTERROTATINGTWINSCREWEXTRUDERSAREINVESTIGATEDTHEEFFECTSOFSCREWGEOMETRYONMIXINGHASBEENMEASUREDUSINGCOROTATINGTWINSCREWEXTRUDERMODULARELEMENTSLIKESINGLELEADELEMENTS,MIXINGPADDLESANDREVERSEDPITCHELEMENTSINATRANSLUCENTMODELEXTRUDERBYMEANSOFASTUDYOFFLOWPHENOMENAANDRESIDENCETIMEDISTRIBUTIONRTDMEASUREMENTSMIXINGEFFECTSAREREPORTEDANDTHEIRINFLUENCESONVISCOUSDISSIPATION,RESIDENCETIME,CURVESPREADANDSTAGNANCYAREEXPLAINED1999ELSEVIERSCIENCESAALLRIGHTSRESERVEDKEYWORDSSINGLESCREWEXTRUDERS;TWINSCREWEXTRUDERS;MIXING1INTRODUCTIONPARTOFTHEDEFINITIONOFFOODEXTRUSIONCOOKINGISTHATTHEFOODMATERIALONITSWAYTHROUGHTHEOPENCHANNELOFASINGLESCREWEXTRUDERSSE,ISSHEARED,MIXEDANDCOMPRESSEDINTHECASEOFATWINSCREWEXTRUDERTSEWITHCLOSELYINTERMESHINGSCREWS,THEFOODISTRANSPORTEDINSOCALLEDCSHAPEDCHAMBERS,WHICHAREENCLOSEDBYTHENEIGHBOURINGINTERMESHINGSCREWANDTHEBARRELWALLSEEFIG1THEFOODPOWDERISTAKENUPATTHEFEEDPORTINTHECSHAPEDCHAMBEROFONESCREW,ISCONVEYED,INTERNALLYMIXED,FORCEDTHROUGHTHEGAPSANDCLEARANCESOFTHISSCREWOREVENTUALLYTRANSFERREDTOTHENEIGHBOURINGSCREWANDFINALLYTHISCSHAPEDCHAMBERDELIVERSITSCONTENTATWXTHEDIE13,23THEDIFFERENCESINTHEWAYOFOPERATIONBETWEENSSE’SANDTSE’SAREOBVIOUSANDEACHOFTHEMWILLASKFORITSOWNDESIGNOFMODULARSCREWPARTSTHATWILLENHANCEANDIMPROVETHEMIXINGEFFECTSOFTHESCREWSWX14,17MIXINGOPERATIONSINCOOKINGEXTRUDERSCANBEDISTINGUISHEDINTHREEDIFFERENTTYPESTHEFIRSTONEISCOARSEMIXINGORLONGITUDINALRAXIALMIXINGTHESECONDONEISDISPERSIVEMIXINGORCOMMINUTIONOFTHEDISPERSEPHASETHETHIRDONEISDISTRIBUTIVEMIXINGORRADIALMIXINGTHEOPERATIVEMECHANISMTOREALISECOARSEMIXINGISTHEROTATIONALMOVEMENTOFTHESCREWS,CAUSINGRESIDENCETIMEDISTRIBUTIONRTDINCASEOFPLUGFLOWHOWEVER,THEREWILLBENOCOARSEMIXINGTHESEDIFFERENTMECHANISMSARERESPONSIBLEFORTHEMIXINGEFFECTSFORDISPERSIVEMIXINGTHEFUNCTIONOFTHECOMMINUTIONISTOBREAKAGGLOMERATESOFTHEDISPERSEPHASEINTOSMALLERONESTHEOPERATIVEMECHANISMISTHEEXISTENCEOFELONGATIONALFORCESANDRORSHEARSTRESSESDISTRIBUTIVEMIXINGISCAUSEDBYTHEACTIONOFASCREWELEMENT,DISTRIBUTINGTHECONCENTRATIONOFTHEDISPERSEPHASEOVERTHETOTALVOLUMEOFTHECHAMBERORCHANNELOFTHEEXTRUDERCROSSSECTIONINSUCHAWAYTHATTHECONCENTRATIONOFTHEDISPERSEPHASEINEACHVOLUMETRICELEMENTEQUALSTHEAVERAGEDCONCENTRATIONTHISREQUIREMENTISSTRICTERWHENTHEELEMENTARYVOLUMETOBECONSIDEREDISSMALLERALTHOUGHTOTALLYDIFFERENT,THETHREEMECHANISMSDESCRIBEDARENOTINDEPENDENTOFEACHOTHERTHEANISMSDESCRIBEDARENOTINDEPENDENTOFEACHOTHERTHETHREETYPESOFMIXINGSHOULDTHEREFOREBECAREFULLYDISTINGUISHEDITISPOSSIBLETODESIGNSCREWSWITHMIXINGELEMENTSONDIFFERENTLOCATIONS,PROVOKINGACERTAINCOMBINATIONOFTHETHREEMIXINGTYPESATACERTAINAXIALLOCATIONTHEPOSSIBILITIESOFTHESECOMBINATIONSARESTRONGLYDEPENDENTOFEXTRUDERGEOMETRY,PROPERTIESOFFOODMATERIALSANDPROPERTIESUNDEREXTRUSIONCONDITIONSALTHOUGHALOTOFKNOWLEDGEISGATHEREDCONCERNINGTHEUSEOFWELLKNOWNMIXINGELEMENTSFROMTHEPLASTICATINGINDUSTRY,INCORPORATIONOFTHISKNOWLEDGEINTODESIGNSOFSSE’SANDTSE’SARENOTALWAYSSUCCESSFULFORFOODPRODUCTSANDOTHERBIOPOLYMERSTHEREARESEVERALREASONSFORTHISPHENOMENONTHEFIRSTDISTURBINGFACTORWHENCOMPARINGPLASTICPOLYMERSWITHBIOPOLYMERSISTHEDIFFERENCEINFEEDTOTHEEXTRUDER,EG,THEPRESENCEOFMULTIPLESOLIDS,WATERANDEVENTUALLYVEGETABLEOILINTHECASEOFBIOPOLYMERSSECONDLY,BIOPOLYMERSDONOTHAVEAWELLDEFINEDMELTINDEXLIKEMANYCHEMICALPOLYMERSANDINGENERALTHEIRVISCOSITYBEHAVIOURDIFFERSFROMTHATOFCHEMICALPOLYMERSWX1THIRDLY,THEREAREANUMBEROFDEGRADATIONREACTIONSOFIRREVERSIBLENATUREOCCURRINGSIMULTANEOUSLYWHENABIOPOLYMERISSUBJECTEDTOATEMPERATUREANDSTRESSFIELDINANEXTRUDER,CHANGINGTHEPHYSICALANDCHEMICALPROPERTIESWXDRASTICALLYFROMLOCATIONTOLOCATION15INTHISFIELDNUMEROUSPAPERSHAVEBEENPUBLISHEDBYWELLKNOWNAUTHORSFROMRESEARCHINSTITUTIONSLIKECAFTRRUTGERSUNIVERSITY,IFRNORWICH,INRA,CEMEFFRANCETHEAIMOFTHISARTICLEISSUMMARISINGTHEPOSSIBILITIESANDSOLUTIONSFORMIXINGPROBLEMSFORSINGLESCREWANDCOUNTERROTATINGTWINSCREWEXTRUDERSANDGIVINGBETTERINSIGHTINTHEFUNCTIONSOFSCREWELEMENTSINCOROTATINGTWINSCREWEXTRUDERS2MIXINGMECHANISMS21LONGITUDINALORAXIALMIXINGWHENFOODPARTICLESDURINGTHEIRLIFETIMEINANEXTRUDERARESUBJECTEDTOAXIALMIXING,THISCANBESEENANDMEASUREDBYACHANGINGRTDEXTREMESINTHISCASEAREPLUGFLOW,WHEREALLPARTICLESHAVETHESAMERESIDENCETIME,ORAWIDERTDWHICHISCAUSEDBYAXIALMIXINGSOMEPARTICLESWILLSTAYINTHEEXTRUDERCOOKERFORAPROCESSTIMESHORTERTHANTHEAVERAGE,WHILSTOTHERSWILL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