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InternationalJournalofMachineToolsManufacEngineerinaccepted5Decembeinflationwasdesigned,analyzed,builtandtested.ParametricFEanalyseswereconductedtoinvestigatetheeffectsofprocessanddesignparameters,suchasrubbermaterial,pressure,initialjawdisplacementandfriction.BasedontheFEAresults,asimple,singlerubbermaterialswhenevertheyarenotprocessed.Humanhandshavebeenthemostcommon,versatile,effectiveandthecostofgrippersmaybeashighas20ofarobotscost,dependingontheapplicationandpartcomplexity1.Formanufacturingsystemswhereflexibilityisdesired,themanufacturingcompaniesarerequiredtomeetcontinuouslychangingdemandsintermsofproductvolume,mostgrippersweredesignedfordedicatedtasks,andcouldnotberevisedforothershape,sizeandweightconditions.Lateron,avarietyofflexiblegripperdesignswereARTICLEINPRESSsuggestedtoovercomesuchdrawbacks.Buttheirhighcostwasabarrierinadditiontomaintenanceissuesandlimitationstofewmaterialsandapplications.Despitesuch08906955/seefrontmatterr2005ElsevierLtd.Allrightsreserved.doi10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2005.10.009C3Correspondingauthor.Tel.7347637119fax6465147590.Emailaddressmkocumich.eduM.Koc.delicateformofmaterialhandling.But,forrepetitivecycles,heavyloadsandunderextremeenvironments,grippershadtobedevelopedtosubstituteforhumanhands.Inthe1960s,aftertheemergenceofmodernrobots,grippersreplacedhumanhandsonnumerousoccasions.Robotgrippersystemsarefoundtobeeffectiveforrepetitivematerialhandlingfunctionsinspiteoftheirinitialcapitalandongoingmaintenanceexpensesbecauseoftheirreliability,enduranceandproductivity.However,varietyandrapidresponse.flexibleandreconfigurablemanufacturingsystemsFMSandRMShaveemergedasascienceandindustrialpracticetobringaboutsolutionsforunpredictableandfrequentlychangingmarketconditions2.InordertofullyrealizethebenefitsofRMSandFMS,thegrippers,beingoneofthefewdirectcontactswiththeproductattheverybottomofthemanufacturingchain,mustalsobedesignedforflexibility.Intheearlydaysofrobotictechnologyapplications,understandingaboutthecapabilityandlimitationsofthegripper.Itwasfoundthatobjectswithdifferentshapescylindrical,prismaticandcomplex,weight50g–20kg.,andtypesegg,steelhemispheres,waxcylinders,etc.couldbepickedandplacedwithoutanylossofcontroloftheobject.Therangeofpositioningerrorfortwodifferentpartshapesi.e.,prismaticorcylindricalwasfoundtobe20–90mmtranslationaland0.03–0.91rotational.r2005ElsevierLtd.Allrightsreserved.KeywordsGripperdesignStrategiesFlexibleSelectionRoboticRubber1.IntroductionAgripperisanendofarmtoolingusedonrobotsforgrasping,holding,lifting,movingandcontrollingofcostofasuitablegrippermayevengohighersincetheyrequireadditionalcontrols,sensorsanddesignneedswithregardstobeingabletohandledifferentparts.Inthe21stcentury,undertheinfluencesofglobalization,pocketedflexiblegripperwasdesignedandbuilt.FeasibilityexperimentswereperformedtodemonstrateandobtainanoverallDesignandfeasibilitytestsofinflatablerubberHoChoi,MuammerNSFERConReconfigurableManufacturingSystems,CollegeofReceived30January2005AvailableonlineAbstractInthispaper,wepresentfeasibilitytestresultsofaflexiblegrippercontrolstrategiesoftheexistinggrippers.Aflexiblegripperbasedture4620061350–1361aflexiblegripperbasedonpocketsKocC3g,UniversityofMichigan,AnnArbor,MI48109,USA19October2005r2005designfollowingaliteraturesurveyonvarioustypes,designandontheuseofcompliantmaterialsi.e.,rubberwithpneumaticwww.elsevier.com/locate/ijmactoolARTICLEINPRESSdrawbacks,costeffectiveflexiblegripperdesignshavebeenalwayssoughtasaviablesolutionforagilematerialhandlingsystemsasanimportantelementoftheenvisionedFMSandRMS.Forexample,assemblyoperationsinmanyindustriesmakeextensiveuseofdedicatedgrippersandfixtures.Thesearepartspecific,andtherefore,mustbemodifiedorreplacedwhenmodelchangesareintroduced.Thecostofredesigning,manufacturing,andinstallingthesegrippersandfixturesissubstantialontheorderof100millionperplantperyearforautomotivemanufacturersandwouldbesignificantlyreducedifamoreflexiblealternativewasdeveloped.Inthispaper,followinganextensivereviewanddiscussionondifferentgrippertypesanddesignissuesinthefirstsection,aflexiblegripperdesignbasedontheuseofcompliantmaterialsandinternalpressurei.e.,inflatablerubberpocketsapproachisintroducedinthesecondpart.Thistypeofgrippersconformstotheshapeofanobjectbymeansofelasticgrippingelementsandpressurizationwithactivedegreesoffreedom.Inthethirdsection,theresultsofaparametricFEAstudyarepresentedtocharacterizetheperformanceoftheselectedconfigurationsoftheflexiblegripperunderdifferentloadingandpartconditionstodeterminetheproperparameterssettingandthematerial.Finally,inthefourthsection,followingtheprototyping,feasibilitytestsconductedtocharacterizethelimitsandcapabilitiesoftheflexiblegripperareexplained.2.Literaturesurveyongripperdesignandtypes2.1.DesignmethodologyofgrippersWrightetal.3comparedthegripperstothehumangraspingsystem,andcategorizedthedesignrequirementsofgrippersintoacompatibilitywiththerobotarmandcontroller,bsecuregraspingandholdingoftheobjects,andcaccuratecompletionofthehandlingtask.Manyindustrialexamplesofgripperswerealsodescribed,andtheguidelinesforgripperdesignwerepresented.Phametal.1summarizedthestrategiesfordesignandselectionofgrippersindifferentapplicationcases.Intheirstudy,thevariablesaffectingtheselectionofagripperwerelistedasacomponent,btask,cenvironment,drobotarmandcontrolconditions.Thecomponentvariablesincludegeometry,shape,size,weight,surfacequalityandtemperatureofobjectstobehandled.Forreconfigurablesystems,theydividedthesecomponentsintopartfamiliesaccordingtotheirshapeandsize.Forthetaskvariables,typeofgripper,numberofdifferentparts,accuracy,andcyclewereconsideredinadditiontomajorhandlingoperationssuchaspick,hold,moveandplace.Fortherightgripperdesignattherightplace,allaspectsshouldbeconsidered,andmultiplevalidationtestsshouldbeconducted.Toreducethisexhaustiveeffort,Phametal.4developedanexpertsystemforselectingrobotgrippers.TheybuiltaH.Choi,M.Koc/InternationalJournalofMachinehybridexpertsystemthatemploysbothrulebasedandobjectorientedprogrammingapproaches.2.2.GrippertypesandclassificationbydrivingforceGripperscouldbealsoclassifiedwithrespecttotheirpurpose,size,load,anddrivingforce.Typically,grippermechanismsandmajorfeaturesaredefinedbytheirdrivingforces.Thedrivingforcesforrobotgrippersareusuallyelectric,pneumatic,hydraulicorinsomecases,vacuum,magnetorheologicalfluidandshapememory,etc.Gripperswithelectricmotorshavebeenusedsince1960,abreastwithrobottechnology.Manyothergrippersadoptedmotordrivenmechanisms.Basically,thistypeofsystemsincludedstepmotors,ballscrews,encoders,sensorsandcontrollers.Asthearmsapproachtheobject,distance,force,weightandsliparedetectedbysensors.Atthesametime,acontrollerregulatestheforce,speed,positionandmotion.Friedrichetal.5developedsensorygrippingsystemforvariableproducts.Theyusedmultiplesensorstomeasurethegraspingforce,weightandslip.Masonetal.6andKerretal.7presentedthefundamentalsofgraspingwithmultifingeredhands.Leeetal.8comprehensivelyreviewedthefieldoftactilesensing.Forcontactandslip,Tremblayetal.9consideredslipdetection,andHowlegetal.10dividedslipintofourstagespresliptension,slipstart,postmovement,andstoptobetteranalyzegraspingofparts.Anotherwayofactuatingtherobotgripperisthroughpneumaticorhydraulicsystems.Pneumaticsystemshavebeendevelopedbecauseoftheirsimplicity,cleanlinessandcosteffectiveness.Warneckeetal.11andWrightetal.3developedasoftpneumaticgripperwhichcanhandlesoftmaterialssuchaseggs.Ottavianoetal.12developedgraspforcecontrolintwofingergripperswithpneumaticactuation.Theyproposedforcecontrolinatwofingergripperwithasensingsystemusingcommercialforcesensors.Asuitablemodelofthecontrolschemehasbeendesignedtocontrolthegraspingforce.Experimentsshowedthepracticalfeasibilityoftwofingergripperswithforcecontrolledpneumaticactuation12.Laneetal.13usedhydraulicforceforasubsearobothand.Theyofferednaturalpassivecompliancetocorrectforinevitablepositioninginaccuracywithsimpledesignandminimummovingparts.Thegripperfingerreliedontheelasticdeformationofcylindricalmetalbellowswiththinconvolutedwalls.Theconvolutionensuredthattheassemblywassignificantlystifferintheradialdirectionthanthelongitudinalone.Thereforelongitudinalextensionwasmuchgreaterthanradialexpansionwhensubjectedtointernalhydraulicpressure.Themodularfingertipcontainedavarietyofsensorsandinterfaces.Thefingertipcontactzonecontainsbothastraingageandapiezoelectricvibrationsensor.Closedlooppositioncontrolwasused.Itwasdrivenbyhydraulicpressuremeasuredfromsensorswithineachtube13.Grippersbasedonvacuumforcesaredesignedandusedmainlyfordeformableandlightweightparthandling.ToolsManufacture4620061350–13611351Kolluruetal.14–17,forexample,usedsuctionbasedcontrolforhandlinglimpmaterialwithoutdistortion,deformationordamage.Theydevelopedafixedsizedgripperandalsoareconfigurablegrippersystemwithsuctionunits.Asensorbasedcontrolsystembasedonthehierarchicalcontrolarchitecturecontrolledtheoperationoftheroboticgrippersystem.Fixeddimensiongrippersweredevelopedforstackingdissimilarsizedpanelsofclothes.Afuzzycontrollercomputestheneededsuctionandcontroldependingonmaterialporosity,weight,robotspeed,andtraveldistance.Rongetal.18presentedflexiblefixturesbasedontheuseofphasechangingmaterialsthatchangethephasefromliquidtosoliduponapplicationofelectricityorelectromagnetismknownasmagnetorheologicalMRfluid.Bertettoetal.19madeatwodegreeoffreedompassiveclosureandactiveclosure.Passiveclosurewasdividedintopassiveformclosureandpassiveforceclosure.Theystudiedconditionsfortheseclosurestoholdanobjectsecurely21.Wallacketal.22developedanalgorithmforplanningplanargraspconfigurationforthemodularvise.Brownetal.23expandedthatworktoproducea3Dfixtureandgripperdesigntool.Theydescribedseveralanalyses,andaddeda2Dalgorithm,3Dgraspqualityandgeometricloadinganalyses.Theyshowedsomeapplicationsandpotentialusesoftheircodeinanagileassemblyline23.Qianetal.24presentedanefficientalgorithmforcomputingobjectposesinamodularfixturegripper.Theyintroducedefficientalgorithmsforcomputingposesofgivenobjects.ThecomputerprogramARTICLEINPRESSmovableH.Choi,M.Koc/InternationalJournalofMachineToolsManufacture4620061350–13611352gripperactuatedbyshapememoryalloySMAwithaflexurehingeinmicroscale.TheydesignedNi–TiSMAgripperandthetestshowedtobeabletoreachdesignperformance.TheSMAhassomedrawbackwhenitisappliedtohighworkingbandwidth,becauseofitsthermalresponse19.2.3.ControlalgorithmdevelopmentforgrippersAbasicroleofthegripperisgraspinganobjectsecurely.Forthispurpose,manyresearchershaveinvestigatedonconstrainingalgorithms.Asadaetal.20presentedformclosuregraspingbyareconfigurableuniversalgripper.Theyappliedtheformclosureconcepttograspingaworkpiece.Theyanalyzedkinematicconditionsfortotallyconstraininganobjectwhichisassumedtobepiecewisesmooth.Anefficientalgorithmforexaminingthetotalconstraintwasalsodevised.Thegripperhadreconfigurablefingersconsistingofamultidegreeoffreedomlinkmechanism.Ithadthecapabilityofchangingtheconfigurationofindividualfingerssothatthefingertipcouldbelocatedatanappropriatepositiondependingontheshapeoftheworkpiece20.Yoshikawaetal.21providedaunifiedtheoreticalframeworkforgraspingandmanipulationbyroboticgrippersandhandsaswellasforfixingworksbyfixturesandvises.TheyintroducedtheconceptofFig.1.Conceptualmodelsofflexiblegripperdesignswithrubberpockets,verticalrubberpockets,bhemisphericalrubberpockets,andcsinglerubberplate.showeduniversalapplication,runningfastandaccurateresults24.Aftergripping,alignmentofapartforassemblyormachiningpurposeisneeded.Kanetoetal.25showedapracticalprocedureforachievinganenvelopinggrasp.Itconsistsofseveralphasesincludingapproach,lifting,graspingandcoordinatephases.Theexperimentalsoshowedtheeffectivenessoftheproposedgraspingprocedure.Zhangetal.26showedanalignmentofpartsduringgraspingusingastandardparalleljawgripper.Theyusedfourgripperpointcontactsthatwillalignthepartintheverticalplaneasthejawsclose.Thealgorithmforpartalignmentincludestoppling,accessibility,andformclosureanalysis26.Asmentionedinthegripperdesignsection,grippersshouldbecompatiblewiththerobotandcontroller.Thecontrolsystemcouldvaryaccordingtoitspurpose,constrainingalgorithm,environment,andcondition.Itcouldbeanindependentandsubordinatesystembasedonthepurpose.Thecontrolsystemcouldalsovarybasedonthesensorsandactuatorsthatareadopted.Forexample,Kolluruetal.15usedvisionandopticalsensorsforagrippersystem.Intheircase,thegrippingprocessiscomposedoftwosteps.First,thegripperiscoarselypositionedbymeansofavisionsensor.Second,finealignmentismeasuredandcontrolledusinganoptical/adjustablejawsandadditionalpinlocators,etcathreerowsofpocketdesign.Inallcases,notethemultipleholesandpinsontheuppersensorarray.Foranintegratedroboticgrippersystem,theyalsosuggestedhierarchicalcontrolarchitectureandfuzzylogicformulation.Formanipulatingpayloadswithmultiplerobots,Sunetal.27describedanapproachtononmodelbasedcontrolsofmultirobotsystems.2.4.FlexiblegrippingstrategiesIntermsofaccomplishingflexiblegrippingtasks,fivedifferentstrategiesweresuggestedbyPhamandYeo1toachievetheflexibilityinacosteffectivemanner.Thefirstkindofgrippergainsitsflexibilityfromanumberofnotchesonthegrippingsurfacessothatobjectswithvariousshapescanbehandled.Obviously,notchingofgripperfingersisonlysuitableforthepartsofsimilarsizeandweight.Anotherflexiblegripperconceptisbasedoninterchangeablegripperfingers.Thismethodismoreflexibleandreliablethannotchingmethodwhenthegripperisequippedwithafingerchangingapparatusandastandardsetoffingers.Anotherstrategyistochangethegripperitself.Thismethodcanbeusedwhenasinglegrippercannothandleawholesetofpartswithdifferentsizes,geometriesandweights.Thesegrippersneedvariouspayloadapplicationssuchaselectronicsandsmallprecisemachining.Universalgrippersarealsosuggestedtobeaviablewayofhandlingawiderangeofobjectswithdifferentshapesandweight1.Theuniversalgrippersaregroupedintotwocategoriesactiveandpassivegrippers.Passivegrippersautomaticallyconformtotheshapeoftheobjectsbymeansofgrippingelementswhichareelasticorhavepassivedegreesoffreedom.Itwasreportedthat,withpassivegripping,itisdifficulttoensuretheprecisepositionofthegrippedobjectwithrespecttotherobotscoordinateARTICLEINPRESS00.511.522.533.544.550100200300400500600700StrainStressMPa100modulus1.7MPa300modulus2.9MPaFig.3.FlowstresscurveofneoprenerubbermaterialusedintheFEanalyses27.Table1CoefficientoffrictionofneoprenerubberwithdifferentpartmaterialsMaterialCoefficientofstaticfrictiononrubberWax0.5970.01Aluminum0.6670.01Steel0.6970.01H.Choi,M.Koc/InternationalJournalofMachineToolsManufacture4620061350–13611353changingsystemsforlockingandunlockinggrippers.Thismethodismorecomplexandexpensivethanotherstrategies.Finally,useofmultiplegripperswasalsosuggested.Multiplegrippersareattachedonrevolvingorslidingmechanisms.Thistechniquecouldreducetimecomparingtogripperchangingtechnique.But,itisobviousthatthepayloadincreasesinproportiontothenumbersofgrippers.Therefore,itismoresuitableforlightFig.2.FEmodelsoftwoconceptualflexiblegripperdesignsasinglerubberpocketandbmultiplerubberpockets.Fig.4.FEmodel,initialconditionsDDInitialdistancebtwjawsandmeasurementDyverticaldisplacementofpartduringgripping.
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