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BENDINGFATIGUETESTSONAMETALLICWIREROPEFORAIRCRAFTRESCUEHOISTSMARCOGIGLIO,ANDREAMANESDEPARTMENTOFMECHANICS,POLITECNICODIMILANO,VIALAMASA34,20158MILAN,ITALYRECEIVED29JULY2002;ACCEPTED24AUGUST2002ABSTRACTDURINGNORMALOPERATION,THEENDSOFHELICOPTERRESCUEHOISTROPES,TOWHICHAHOOKISATTACHED,CANBESUBJECTTOBENDINGSTRESSCAUSEDBYVIBRATIONSTHISHAPPENSINTHEEVENTOFPARTIALORTOTALRECOVERYOFTHEHOOKINTOITSLODGINGWITHOUTASPRINGLOADEDBLOCKINGSYSTEMTHESWINGINGOFTHEROPEENDCONSEQUENTLYCAUSESBENDINGOFTHEROPENEARTHETERMINAL,WITHRESULTANTFATIGUESTRESSTHATCANLEADQUICKLYTOBREAKAGEORDAMAGEOFTHEROPEASERIESOFALTERNATINGBENDINGFATIGUETESTSUSINGACONSTANTLOAD,SIMILARTOTHOSEKNOWNASBOSBENDINGOVERSHEAVETESTS,WERECARRIEDOUTTHESESIMULATETHEEffECTIVEWORKINGCONDITIONSOFARESCUEHOISTTHISPAPERDESCRIBESMODIfiCATIONSTOTESTMACHINERY,THETESTMETHODANDTHEDATAOBTAINED;STATISTICALANALYSISOFTHISDATAENABLEDUSTOMAKEAROPELIFEPREDICTIONWHICHWASTHENEXPERIMENTALLYCONfiRMEDBYRUNOUTSONTESTROPES2002ELSEVIERSCIENCELTDALLRIGHTSRESERVEDKEYWORDSWIREROPES;SHEAVEFATIGUE;HOISTS;AIRCRAFT1INTRODUCTIONWIREROPES,LIKEROPESINGENERALANDALSOCHAINS,ARECOMMONLYUSEDFORTRACTIONLOADTRANSMISSIONDESPITEITSWIDESPREADUSE,WIREROPEREMAINSANEXTREMELYCOMPLEXANDLITTLEKNOWNPIECEOFEQUIPMENTITSCONSTRUCTION,THECONSIDERABLEANDDIVERSEINTERNALCONTACTFORCES,THEWEARDUETOTHESEFORCESANDTOCONTACTWITHDRUMS,PULLEYSORSHEAVES,ALLMAKEACOMPLETELYANALYTICALAPPROACHTORELIABILITYEXTREMELYDIffiCULTEVENTODAY,EXPERIMENTALTESTINGPLAYSANIMPORTANTROLEINTHEANALYSISOFROPESUBJECTEDTOAPARTICULARLOAD,ESPECIALLYASREGARDSFATIGUEANALYSISWHERETHEBREAKINGOFSTRANDSRESULTSFROMVARYINGTYPESOFTESTANDLOADTHEPURPOSEOFTHISPAPERISTOINVESTIGATETHEBEHAVIOUROFROPEUSEDONAHELICOPTERRESCUEHOISTWEANALYSETHECIRCUMSTANCEINWHICHTHEHOOKATTACHEDTOTHEENDOFTHEROPEHASBEENTOTALLYORPARTIALLYRECOVEREDINTOITSLODGINGANDISLEFTFREETOSWINGINCORRECTHOOKLODGINGORINSUffiCIENTPRELOADINGOFTHESPRINGBLOCKINGSYSTEMRESULTINBENDINGOFTHEENDSECTIONOFTHEROPE,WHICHMAYTHENHIT13506307/03/SEEFRONTMATTER2002ELSEVIERSCIENCELTDALLRIGHTSRESERVEDPIIS1350630702000432ENGINEERINGFAILUREANALYSIS102003223–235WWWELSEVIERCOM/LOCATE/ENGFAILANALCORRESPONDINGAUTHORTEL390239947354;FAX39070638377EMAILADDRESSMARCOGIGLIOPOLIMIITMGIGLIOTHEGUIDEWHEELSOFTHEWINCHSEEFIG1BREAKAGEANDDAMAGETOROPEWITHOUTTHEAPPLICATIONOFANYTRACTIONLOAD,ANDTHEREFORENOTOTHERWISEEXPLAINABLE,HAVEBEENATTRIBUTEDTOTHISPARTICULAROPERATINGCONDITIONTHISWIREROPE,LIKEALLAERONAUTICALCOMPONENTS,MUSTBEOPTIMISEDFORWEIGHT;THEROPEHASASAFETYFACTOROF5ONTHESTATICFAILURELOADLESSTHANROPESFORCIVILANDINDUSTRIALUSEBUTMUSTBEREPLACEDAFTER1500COMPLETELOWERRAISECYCLESUNDEROPERATINGLOADSITIS,THEREFORE,REASONABLETOASSUMETHATWEARANDDAMAGEDUETOVIBRATIONALSWINGING,EVENWHENTHEHOISTISNOTINUSE,CANLEADTOPROGRESSIVEANDMARKEDWEAKENINGOFTHERESISTANTSECTIONASSUMINGACONSTANTPRELOADEQUALTOTHEWEIGHTOFTHEHOOKMULTIPLIEDBYANAPPROPRIATEFACTOR,WHICHTAKESINTOACCOUNTINERTIAFORCES,WESTUDIEDTHEBENDINGFATIGUEBEHAVIOUROFWIREROPEDURINGCYCLICALLYREPEATEDSWINGINGONTHEGUIDEWHEELS,ATAfiXEDALTERNATINGANGLE,INORDERTOESTABLISHWHETHERTHEREEXISTSANANGULARVARIATIONBELOWWHICHNODAMAGETOTHEROPEOCCURSTHEINSTRUMENTATIONUSEDWASDESIGNEDANDCONSTRUCTEDSPECIfiCALLYFORTHESETESTSITREPRODUCESTHESWINGINGOFTHEROPEENDANDTHECONSEQUENTALTERNATINGBENDINGFATIGUESTRESSOFTHEROPEATTHESHEAVE2BACKGROUNDWEFOUNDNOPREVIOUSPUBLISHEDSTUDIESCONCERNINGBENDINGTESTSCARRIEDOUTWITHTHEMETHODSUSEDINTHISEXPERIMENTINPUBLISHEDRESEARCHONBENDING,ROPEHASBEENWOUNDOffANDONTOAPULLEYOFAGIVENDIAMETERANDTHUSASSUMESTHEBENDINGRADIUSFORADEfiNEDLENGTHINTHEEXPERIMENTALTESTSPERFORMED,THEBENDINGRADIUSOFTHEROPEONTHESHEAVEDIffERSFROMPOINTTOPOINTMOREOVER,THEALTERNATINGBENDINGOFTHEROPEENDINDUCESAVARIABLESIGNBENDINGLOADINGINEVERYSECTIONOFTHEROPEINEVERYCYCLE,THUSDETERMININGALTERNATINGFATIGUESTRESSOFTHEWIRESINCONTACTWITHTHESHEAVESFATIGUETESTSONPULLEYSAREFORESEENUNDERTHEMILW84140STANDARD1FORHELICOPTERRESCUEHOISTROPESTHEROPEINOURCASE,AROPEWITHANOMINALDIAMETEROF3/16INCHES,SUITABLYCONDITIONED,MUSTFIG1TERMINALBENDING224MGIGLIO,AMANES/ENGINEERINGFAILUREANALYSIS102003223–235PERFORM150,000CYCLESONAPULLEYWITHATHROATDIAMETEROF1781INCHES4523MM,WITHAPRELOADOF225POUNDS10008N,ANDMUSTSUBSEQUENTLYHAVERESIDUALMECHANICALCHARACTERISTICSTOALLOWATENSILESTRENGTHOFOVER2000POUNDS889644NASIMILARTESTINTERMSOFTESTSYSTEM,AIMEDATOBTAININGMOREDETAILEDINFORMATIONONDEFORMATIONSINTHEWIRESMAKINGUPTHEROPE,ISTHATCARRIEDOUTBYRIDGEETAL2,3INTHISARTICLE,MEASUREMENTSARETAKENUSINGSTRAINGAUGESPLACEDONTHEWIRESTHICKERTHAN1MMOFACOMPLEXSECTIONROPEDURINGWINDINGOVERATESTPULLEYTHEDIAMETEROFTHEPULLEYIS18TIMESTHATOFTHEROPEANDTHEPRELOADIS20OFTHETENSILESTRENGTHOFTHEROPEITCANBESEENHOW,INITIALLY,WHENTHEROPEISONLYAXIALLYLOADED,WIRESTHATSHOULDGIVESIMILARMEASUREMENTSACTUALLYDISPLAYDIffERENTSTRAINSPROBABLYDUETOIMPERFECTIONSINTHEROPECONSTRUCTION,ANDHOWTHESEDIffERENCESTENDTODISAPPEARQUICKLYDURINGTHEBENDINGFATIGUETESTSTHEAMPLITUDEANDTHESHAPEOFTHESTRAINCYCLESRECORDEDDONOTCHANGESIGNIfiCANTLYDURINGTHEFATIGUETESTTHEAUTHORSSHOWEXPERIMENTALLYHOWDEGRADATIONANDIMPAIREDQUALITYDUETOWRONGUSE,WEARANDTHEMANUFACTURINGPROCESS,CONSIDER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