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THISPAPERTOBEPUBLISHEDINTHEPROCEEDINGSOFTHE1996IEEEINTERNATIONALCONFERENCEONROBOTICSANDAUTOMATIONFORMOREINFORMATION,CONTACTROGERQUINN,ASSOCIATEPROFESSORMECHANICALENGINEERINGCASEWESTERNRESERVEUNIVERSITY,2163683222DESIGNOFANAGILEMANUFACTURINGWORKCELLFORLIGHTMECHANICALAPPLICATIONSROGERDQUINN,GREGCCAUSEYDEPARTMENTOFMECHANICALANDAEROSPACEENGINEERINGFRANKLMERAT,DAVIDMSARGENT,NICHOLASABARENDTWYATTSNEWMAN,VIRGILIOBVELASCOJRDEPARTMENTOFELECTRICALENGINEERINGANDAPPLIEDPHYSICSANDYPODGURSKI,JUYEONJOLEONSSTERLING,YOOHWANKIMDEPARTMENTOFCOMPUTERENGINEERINGANDSCIENCECASEWESTERNRESERVEUNIVERSITYCWRUCLEVELANDOHIO,44106ABSTRACTTHISPAPERINTRODUCESADESIGNFORAGILEMANUFACTURINGWORKCELLSINTENDEDFORLIGHTMECHANICALASSEMBLYOFPRODUCTSMADEFROMSIMILARCOMPONENTSIEPARTSFAMILIESWEDEFINEAGILEMANUFACTURINGASTHEABILITYTOACCOMPLISHRAPIDCHANGEOVERFROMTHEASSEMBLYOFONEPRODUCTTOTHEASSEMBLYOFANOTHERPRODUCTRAPIDHARDWARECHANGEOVERISMADEPOSSIBLETHROUGHTHEUSEOFROBOTS,FLEXIBLEPARTFEEDERS,MODULARGRIPPERSANDMODULARASSEMBLYHARDWARETHEFLEXIBLEFEEDERSRELYONBELTFEEDINGANDBINARYCOMPUTERVISIONFORPOSEESTIMATIONTHISHASADISTINCTADVANTAGEOVERNONFLEXIBLEFEEDINGSCHEMESSUCHASBOWLFEEDERSWHICHREQUIRECONSIDERABLEADJUSTMENTTOCHANGEOVERFROMONEPARTTOANOTHERRAPIDSOFTWARECHANGEOVERISBEINGFACILITATEDBYTHEUSEOFAREALTIME,OBJECTORIENTEDSOFTWAREENVIRONMENT,MODULARSOFTWARE,GRAPHICALSIMULATIONSFOROFFLINESOFTWAREDEVELOPMENT,ANDANINNOVATIVEDUALVMEBUSCONTROLLERARCHITECTURETHESEAGILEFEATURESPERMITNEWPRODUCTSTOBEINTRODUCEDWITHMINIMALDOWNTIMEANDSYSTEMRECONFIGURATION1INTRODUCTION11WHATISAGILEMANUFACTURINGAGILEMANUFACTURINGISATERMTHATHASSEENINCREASEDUSEININDUSTRYOVERTHEPASTSEVERALYEARSTHEDEFINITIONOF“AGILE”,HOWEVER,ISNOTCLEAR,NORISITCONSISTENT“AGILITYTHEMEASUREOFAMANUFACTURER’SABILITYTOREACTTOSUDDEN,UNPREDICTABLECHANGEINCUSTOMERDEMANDFORITSPRODUCTSANDSERVICESANDMAKEAPROFIT”1“TODAYFACTORIESARECOMINGONLINETHATAREAGILEATTAILORINGGOODSTOACUSTOMERSREQUIREMENTS,WITHOUTHALTINGPRODUCTION”2“AGILEMANUFACTURINGASSIMILATESTHEFULLRANGEOFFLEXIBLEPRODUCTIONTECHNOLOGIES,ALONGWITHTHELESSONSLEARNEDFROMTOTALQUALITYMANAGEMENT,‘JUSTINTIME’PRODUCTIONAND‘LEAN’PRODUCTION”3THEONLYCOMMONTHREADAMONGTHEVARIOUSDEFINITIONSISTHEABILITYTOMANUFACTUREAVARIETYOFSIMILARPRODUCTSBASEDONWHATMAYBERAPIDLYCHANGINGCUSTOMERNEEDSINTHEPAST,PRODUCTIONWASGEAREDTOWARDHIGHVOLUMEPRODUCTIONOFASINGLEPRODUCTINTODAY’SMARKET,HOWEVER,THEEMPHASISISMOVINGTOWARDSMALLLOTSIZESFROMANEVERCHANGING,CUSTOMERDRIVENPRODUCTLINEFIGURE1AGILEWORKCELLADEFINITIONOF“AGILE”MANUFACTURINGHASBEENADOPTEDWHICHAPPLIESTOLIGHTMECHANICALASSEMBLYOFPRODUCTSAGILEMANUFACTURINGISTHEABILITYTOACCOMPLISHRAPIDCHANGEOVERBETWEENTHEMANUFACTUREOFDIFFERENTASSEMBLIESUTILIZINGESSENTIALLYTHESAMEWORKCELLRAPIDCHANGEOVERMEASUREDINHOURS,FURTHER,ISDEFINEDASTHEABILITYTOMOVEFROMTHEASSEMBLYOFONEPRODUCTTOTHETHISPAPERTOBEPUBLISHEDINTHEPROCEEDINGSOFTHE1996IEEEINTERNATIONALCONFERENCEONROBOTICSANDAUTOMATIONFORMOREINFORMATION,CONTACTROGERQUINN,ASSOCIATEPROFESSORMECHANICALENGINEERINGCASEWESTERNRESERVEUNIVERSITY,2163683222ASSEMBLYOFANOTHERPRODUCTWITHAMINIMUMOFCHANGEINTOOLINGANDSOFTWARERAPIDCHANGEOVERENABLESTHEPRODUCTIONOFSMALLLOTSIZES,ALLOWINGFOR‘JUSTINTIME’PRODUCTIONACENTRALTHEMEOFOURDEFINITIONOF“AGILE”MANUFACTURINGISTHEABILITYTORAPIDLYINTRODUCEMEASUREDINWEEKSNEWASSEMBLIESANDCOMPONENTSINTOTHESYSTEMINTHISSYSTEM,RAPIDCHANGEOVERISACCOMPLISHEDTHROUGHTHEUSEOFREUSABLESOFTWARE,QUICKCHANGEGRIPPERSFORTHEROBOTICMANIPULATORS,MODULARWORKTABLES,ANDPARTSFEEDERSWHICHAREFLEXIBLEENOUGHTOHANDLESEVERALTYPESOFPARTSWITHOUTNEEDINGMECHANICALADJUSTMENTTHESEFEEDERSUSEVISION,INPLACEOFHARDFIXTURING,TODETERMINETHEPOSITIONANDORIENTATIONOFPARTSGENERIC,REUSABLEVISIONROUTINESPERMITNEWPARTSTOBEADDEDTOTHESYSTEMWITHAMINIMUMOFEFFORTATESTBEDIMPLEMENTATIONOFANAGILEMANUFACTURINGWORKCELLHASBEENDEVELOPEDFIGURE1THISINCLUDESMECHANICALMANIPULATORS,FLEXIBLEPARTFEEDERS,AVISIONSYSTEMCAMERAS,FRAMEGRABBER,ANDALIBRARYOFIMAGEPROCESSINGROUTINES,ASWELLASALIMITEDNUMBEROFDEDICATEDSENSORSANDACTUATORSNEEDEDTOCOMPLETEAGIVENASSEMBLYTHECENTRALFEATUREOFSUCHAWORKCELLISACONTROLLERCAPABLEOFCONTROLLINGEACHOFTHEAFOREMENTIONEDCOMPONENTS12RELEVANCEOFCWRUWORKSEVERALCOMPANIESHAVEIMPLEMENTEDWHATMAYBECONSIDERED“AGILE”MANUFACTURINGMOTOROLAHASDEVELOPEDANAUTOMATEDFACTORYWITHTHEABILITYTOPRODUCEPHYSICALLYDIFFERENTPAGERSONTHESAMEPRODUCTIONLINE4ATPANASONIC,ACOMBINATIONOFFLEXIBLEMANUFACTURINGANDJUSTINTIMEPROCESSINGISBEINGUSEDTOMANUFACTUREBICYCLESFROMCOMBINATIONSOFAGROUPOFCOREPARTS5AGAINSTTHEBACKDROPOFSUCHWORK,THECWRUWORKCELLISINNOVATIVEINSEVERALWAYSTHEUSEOFVISIONGUIDED,FLEXIBLEPARTSFEEDERSISONEEXAMPLEANOTHERISTHEDEVELOPMENTOFSOFTWAREDESIGNPATTERNSFORAGILEMANUFACTURINGTHEOVERARCHINGDESIGNPHILOSOPHYOFQUICKCHANGEOVER,HOWEVER,ISWHATMAKESTHISWORKCELLPARTICULARLYNOVELTHECWRUWORKCELLHASBEENDESIGNEDTOBEAVERSATILEPRODUCTIONFACILITY,AMENABLETOAWIDERANGEOFAPPLICATIONSANDANENABLINGTECHNOLOGYFORFACTORYWIDEAGILEMANUFACTURING2WORKCELLHARDWARETHEAGILEWORKCELLDEVELOPEDATCWRUCONSISTSOFABOSCHFLEXIBLEAUTOMATIONSYSTEM,MULTIPLEADEPTSCARAROBOTS,ASMANYASFOURFLEXIBLEPARTSFEEDERSPERROBOT,ANDANADEPTMVCONTROLLERA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