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英文原文RobothandmodeldesignandproductionScientificconceptofdevelopmentofengineeringtechnologyhasopenedupabroadroad,whiletherobotasahightechautomatedproductionequipment,hasbeenwidelyusedinvariousfieldsofnationaleconomy,whichtheeducationandtrainingsectorofourproposednewrequirements.Therefore,inordertoadapttothesituationofsocialdevelopment,basedonexistingtechnologytodesignateachingtyperobotsciencehasfarreachingsignificance.Thesubjectofdesignforteachinghandlingrobots,mainlyconsistsofrobotsoveralldesign,robotmechanicalstructuredesign,aswellasdrive,controlsystemdesign,implementationofthemanipulatorhandsoffourdegreesoffreedomthearmmovements,stretchingandwrist,arm,rotary.Thedesignoftheteachingfunctionofmechanicalhandrequirementsandpracticalsignificance,achievedbypneumaticcylinderspushthearmmovementsandstretching,rotarypneumaticcylindersusedtoachievearmandwristrotation.Manipulatordesignsimple,easytooperate,underthecontroloftheMCUtocompletethedesiredaction,givingthestudentsavisualimpression,toachievethepurposeofteachingdemonstration.KeywordsManipulatorTeachingtypeFourDegreesofFreedomSCM1.AnoverviewofindustrialmanipulatorMachinehandisakindofpositioningcontrolwhichcanbeautomatedandcanbereprogrammedtochangeinmultifunctionalmachine,whichhasmultipledegreesoffreedomcanbeusedtocarryanobjectinordertocompletetheworkindifferentenvironments.LowwagesinChina,plasticproductsindustry,althoughstillalaborintensive,mechanicalhandusehasbecomeincreasinglypopular.ElectronicsandautomotiveindustriesthatEuropeandtheUnitesStatesmultinationalcompaniesveryearlyintheirfactoriesinChina,theintroductionofautomatedproduction.ButnowthechangesarethosefoundinindustrialintensiveSouthChina,EastChinascoastalareas,localplasticprocessingplantshavealsoemergedinmechanicalwatchesbegantobecomeincreasinglyinterestedin,becausetheyhavetofaceahighturnoverrateofworkers,aswellasfortheworkerstopayworkrelatedinjuriesfeechallenges.WiththerapiddevelopmentofChinasindustrialproduction,especiallythereformandopeningupaftertherapidincreaseinthedegreeofautomationtoachievetheworkpiecehandling,steering,transmissionoroperationofbrazing,spraygun,wrenchesandothertoolsforprocessingandassemblyoperationssince,whichhasmoreandmoreattractedourattention.Machinehandistoimitatethemanualpartoftheaction,accordingtoagivenprogram,trackandrequirementsforautomaticcapture,handlingoroperationoftheautomaticmechanicaldevices.Inreallife,youwillfindthisaproblem.Inthemachineshop,theprocessingofpartsloadingtimeisnotannoying,andlaborproductivityisnothigh,thecostofproductionmajor,andsometimesmanmadeincidentswilloccur,resultinginprocessingwereinjures.Thinkaboutwhatcouldreplaceitwiththeprocessingtimeofatouraslongasthereareafewpeople,andcanoperate24hourssaturatedhumanrightTheanswerisyes,butthemachinehandcancometoreplaceit.Productionofmechanicalhandcanincreasetheautomationlevelofproductionandlaborproductivitycanreducelaborintensity,ensuringproductquality,toachievesafeproductionparticularlyinthehightemperature,highpressure,lowtemperature,lowpressure,dust,explosive,toxicandradioactivegasessuchaspoorenvironmentcanreplacethenormalworkingpeople.HereIwouldliketothinkofdesigningamachinehandtobeusedinactualproduction.Whywouldamachinehanddesignedtoprovideapneumaticpowerpneumaticmachinehandreferstothecompressedairaspowersourcedrivenmachinehand.Withpressuredrivenandotherenergydrivencomparisonhavethefollowingadvantages1.Airinexhaustible,usedlaterdischargedintotheatmosphere,doesnotrequirerecyclinganddisposal,donotpollutetheenvironment.Conceptofenvironmentalprotection2.Airstickissmall,thepipelinepressurelossissmalltypicallylessthanasphaltgaspathpressuredropofonethousandth,tofacilitatelongdistancetransport.3.Compressedairoftheworkingpressureislowusually4to8kg/persquarecentimeter,andthereforemovingthematerialcomponentsandmanufacturingaccuracyrequirementscanbelowered.4.Withthehydraulictransmission,comparedtoitsfasteractionandreaction,whichisoneoftheadvantagespneumaticoutstanding.5.Theaircleanermedia,itwillnotdegenerate,noteasytoplugthepipeline.Buttherearealsoplaceswhereitfliesintheointment1.Asthecompressibilityofair,resultinginpooraerodynamicstabilityofthework,resultingintheimplementingagenciesastheprecisionofthevelocityandnoteasilycontrolled.2.Astheuseoflowatmosphericpressure,theoutputpowercannotbetoolargeinordertoincreasetheoutputpowerisboundtothestructureoftheentirepneumaticsystemsizeincreased.2.Thecomposition,mechanicalhandMachinehandintheformofavarietyofforms,somerelativelysimple,somemorecomplicated,butthebasicformisthesameasthecompositionofthe,usuallybytheimplementingagencies,transmissionsystems,controlsystemsandauxiliarydevicescomposed.1.ImplementingagenciesManipulatorexecutingagencybythehands,wrists,arm,pillars.Handsarecrawlinginstitutions,isusedtoclampandreleasetheworkpiece,andsimilartohumanfingers,tocompletethestaffingofsimilaractions.Wristandfingersandthearmconnectingthecomponentscanbeupanddown,left,androtarymovement.Asimplemechanicalhandcannotwrist.Pillarsusedtosupportthearmcanalsobemademobileasneeded.2.TransmissionTheactuatortobeachievedbythetransmissionsystem.Subtransmissionsystemcommonlyusedmanipulatormechanicaltransmission,hydraulictransmission,pneumaticandelectricpowertransmissionandotherdriveseveralforms.3.ControlSystemManipulatorcontrolsystemsmainroleistocontrolthemachinehandaccordingtocertainprocedures,direction,position,speedofaction,asimplemechanicalhandisgenerallynotsetupadedicatedcontrolsystem,usingonlytripswitches,relays,controlvalvesandcircuitscanbeachieveddynamicdrivesystemcontrol,sothatimplementingagenciesaccordingtotherequirementsofaction.Actionwillhavetousecomplexprogrammablemachinehandcontroller,themicrocomputercontrol..3.MechanicalhandclassificationandcharacteristicsMachinehandsaregenerallydividedintothreecategoriesthefirstisthegeneralmachinerydoesnotrequiremanualhand.Itisanindependentnotaffiliatedwithaparticularhostdevice.Itcanbeprogrammedaccordingtotheneedsofthetasktocompletetheoperationoftheprovisions.Itischaracterizedwithordinarymechanicalperformance,alsohasgeneralmachinery,memory,intelligenceternarymachinery.Thesecondcategoryistheneedtomanuallydoit,calledtheoperationofaircraft.Itoriginatedintheatom,militaryindustry,firstthroughtheoperationofmachinestocompleteaparticularjob,andlaterdevelopedtooperateusingradiosignalstocarryoutdetectingmachinessuchastheMoon.Usedinindustrialmanipulatoralsofallintothiscategory.Thethirdcategoryisdedicatedmanipulator,themainsubsidiaryoftheautomaticmachinesorautomaticlines,tosolvethemachineupanddowntheworkpiecematerialanddelivery.ThismechanicalhandinforeigncountriesknownastheMechanicalHand,whichisthehostofservices,fromthehostdrivenexceptionofafewoutsidetheworkingproceduresaregenerallyfixed,andthereforespecial.MainfeaturesFirst,mechanicalhandtheupperandlowermaterialmachinehand,assemblymachinehand,handlingmachinehand,stackingmachinehand,helpmachinehand,vacuumhandlingmachines,vacuumsuctioncrane,laborsavingspreader,pneumaticbalancer,etc.Second,cantilevercranescantilevercrane,electricchainhoistcrane,airbalancethehanging,etc.Third,railtypetransportsystemhangingrail,lightrail,singlegirdercranes,doublebeamcraneFour,industrialmachinery,applicationofhandManipulatorinthemechanizationandautomationoftheproductionprocessdevelopedanewtypeofdevice.Inrecentyears,aselectronictechnology,especiallycomputerextensiveuseofmachinehanddevelopmentandproductionofhightechfieldshasbecomearapidlydevelopedanewtechnology,whichfurtherpromotedthedevelopmentofmachinehand,allowingmachinehandtobetterachievedwiththecombinationofmechanizationandautomation.Althoughthemachinehandisnotasflexibleasstaff,butithastothecontinuousduplicationofworkandlabor,Idonotknowfatigue,notafraidofdanger,thepowersnatchweightcharacteristicswhencomparedwithmanuallarge,therefore,mechanicalhandhasbeenappliedwidely,forexampleaMachiningtheworkpieceloadingandunloading,especiallyintheautomaticlathe,combinationmachinetooluseismorecommon.bIntheassemblyoperationsarewidelyusedintheelectronicsindustry,itcanbeusedtoassembleprintedcircuitboards,inthemachineryindustry.Itcanbeusedtoassemblepartsandcomponents.cTheworkingconditionsmaybepoor,monotonous,repetitiveeasytosubfatigueworkingenvironmenttoreplacehumanlabor.dMaybeindangeroussituations,suchasmilitarygoodshandling,dangerousgoodsandhazardousmaterialremovalandsoon.eUniverseandoceandevelopment.fMilitaryengineeringandbiomedicalresearchandtesting.Helpmechanicalhandallknowasthebalancer,balancesuspended,laborsavingspreader,manualTransfermachineisakindofweightlessnessofmanualloadsystem,anovel,timesavingtechnologyformaterialhandlingoperationsboosterequipment,belongingtokindsofnonstandarddesignofseriesproducts.Customerapplicationsneeds,creatingcustomizedcases.Manualoperationofasimulationoftheautomaticmachinery,itcanbeafixedprogramdraws,handlingobjectionsorperformhouseholdtoolstoaccomplishcertainspecificactions.Applicationofmachinehandcanreplacethepeopleengagedinmonotonous,repetitiveorheavymanuallabor,themechanizationandautomationofproduction,insteadofpeopleinhazardousenvironmentsmanualoperation,improvingworkingconditionsandensurepersonalsafely.Thelate20thcentury,40,theUnitedStatedatomicenergyexperiment,thefirstuseofradioactivematerialhandlingmachinehand,humanmachinehandinasaferoomtomanipulatorandgraduallyextendedtoindustrialproductionsector,forthetemperatures,pollutedareas,andloadingandunloadingtotakeplacetheworkpiecematerial,butalsoasanauxiliarydeviceinautomaticmachinetools,machinetools,automaticproductionlinesandprocessingcenter
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