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英文原文ROBOTHANDMODELDESIGNANDPRODUCTIONSCIENTIFICCONCEPTOFDEVELOPMENTOFENGINEERINGTECHNOLOGYHASOPENEDUPABROADROAD,WHILETHEROBOTASAHIGHTECHAUTOMATEDPRODUCTIONEQUIPMENT,HASBEENWIDELYUSEDINVARIOUSFIELDSOFNATIONALECONOMY,WHICHTHEEDUCATIONANDTRAININGSECTOROFOURPROPOSEDNEWREQUIREMENTSTHEREFORE,INORDERTOADAPTTOTHESITUATIONOFSOCIALDEVELOPMENT,BASEDONEXISTINGTECHNOLOGYTODESIGNATEACHINGTYPEROBOTSCIENCEHASFARREACHINGSIGNIFICANCETHESUBJECTOFDESIGNFORTEACHINGHANDLINGROBOTS,MAINLYCONSISTSOFROBOTSOVERALLDESIGN,ROBOTMECHANICALSTRUCTUREDESIGN,ASWELLASDRIVE,CONTROLSYSTEMDESIGN,IMPLEMENTATIONOFTHEMANIPULATORHANDSOFFOURDEGREESOFFREEDOMTHEARMMOVEMENTS,STRETCHINGANDWRIST,ARM,ROTARYTHEDESIGNOFTHETEACHINGFUNCTIONOFMECHANICALHANDREQUIREMENTSANDPRACTICALSIGNIFICANCE,ACHIEVEDBYPNEUMATICCYLINDERSPUSHTHEARMMOVEMENTSANDSTRETCHING,ROTARYPNEUMATICCYLINDERSUSEDTOACHIEVEARMANDWRISTROTATIONMANIPULATORDESIGNSIMPLE,EASYTOOPERATE,UNDERTHECONTROLOFTHEMCUTOCOMPLETETHEDESIREDACTION,GIVINGTHESTUDENTSAVISUALIMPRESSION,TOACHIEVETHEPURPOSEOFTEACHINGDEMONSTRATIONKEYWORDSMANIPULATORTEACHINGTYPEFOURDEGREESOFFREEDOMSCM1ANOVERVIEWOFINDUSTRIALMANIPULATORMACHINEHANDISAKINDOFPOSITIONINGCONTROLWHICHCANBEAUTOMATEDANDCANBEREPROGRAMMEDTOCHANGEINMULTIFUNCTIONALMACHINE,WHICHHASMULTIPLEDEGREESOFFREEDOMCANBEUSEDTOCARRYANOBJECTINORDERTOCOMPLETETHEWORKINDIFFERENTENVIRONMENTSLOWWAGESINCHINA,PLASTICPRODUCTSINDUSTRY,ALTHOUGHSTILLALABORINTENSIVE,MECHANICALHANDUSEHASBECOMEINCREASINGLYPOPULARELECTRONICSANDAUTOMOTIVEINDUSTRIESTHATEUROPEANDTHEUNITESSTATESMULTINATIONALCOMPANIESVERYEARLYINTHEIRFACTORIESINCHINA,THEINTRODUCTIONOFAUTOMATEDPRODUCTIONBUTNOWTHECHANGESARETHOSEFOUNDININDUSTRIALINTENSIVESOUTHCHINA,EASTCHINA’SCOASTALAREAS,LOCALPLASTICPROCESSINGPLANTSHAVEALSOEMERGEDINMECHANICALWATCHESBEGANTOBECOMEINCREASINGLYINTERESTEDIN,BECAUSETHEYHAVETOFACEAHIGHTURNOVERRATEOFWORKERS,ASWELLASFORTHEWORKERSTOPAYWORKRELATEDINJURIESFEECHALLENGESWITHTHERAPIDDEVELOPMENTOFCHINA’SINDUSTRIALPRODUCTION,ESPECIALLYTHEREFORMANDOPENINGUPAFTERTHERAPIDINCREASEINTHEDEGREEOFAUTOMATIONTOACHIEVETHEWORKPIECEHANDLING,STEERING,TRANSMISSIONOROPERATIONOFBRAZING,SPRAYGUN,WRENCHESANDOTHERTOOLSFORPROCESSINGANDASSEMBLYOPERATIONSSINCE,WHICHHASMOREANDMOREATTRACTEDOURATTENTIONMACHINEHANDISTOIMITATETHEMANUALPARTOFTHEACTION,ACCORDINGTOAGIVENPROGRAM,TRACKANDREQUIREMENTSFORAUTOMATICCAPTURE,HANDLINGOROPERATIONOFTHEAUTOMATICMECHANICALDEVICESINREALLIFE,YOUWILLFINDTHISAPROBLEMINTHEMACHINESHOP,THEPROCESSINGOFPARTSLOADINGTIMEISNOTANNOYING,ANDLABORPRODUCTIVITYISNOTHIGH,THECOSTOFPRODUCTIONMAJOR,ANDSOMETIMESMANMADEINCIDENTSWILLOCCUR,RESULTINGINPROCESSINGWEREINJURESTHINKABOUTWHATCOULDREPLACEITWITHTHEPROCESSINGTIMEOFATOURASLONGASTHEREAREAFEWPEOPLE,ANDCANOPERATE24HOURSSATURATEDHUMANRIGHTTHEANSWERISYES,BUTTHEMACHINEHANDCANCOMETOREPLACEITPRODUCTIONOFMECHANICALHANDCANINCREASETHEAUTOMATIONLEVELOFPRODUCTIONANDLABORPRODUCTIVITY;CANREDUCELABORINTENSITY,ENSURINGPRODUCTQUALITY,TOACHIEVESAFEPRODUCTION;PARTICULARLYINTHEHIGHTEMPERATURE,HIGHPRESSURE,LOWTEMPERATURE,LOWPRESSURE,DUST,EXPLOSIVE,TOXICANDRADIOACTIVEGASESSUCHASPOORENVIRONMENTCANREPLACETHENORMALWORKINGPEOPLEHEREIWOULDLIKETOTHINKOFDESIGNINGAMACHINEHANDTOBEUSEDINACTUALPRODUCTIONWHYWOULDAMACHINEHANDDESIGNEDTOPROVIDEAPNEUMATICPOWERPNEUMATICMACHINEHANDREFERSTOTHECOMPRESSEDAIRASPOWERSOURCEDRIVENMACHINEHANDWITHPRESSUREDRIVENANDOTHERENERGYDRIVENCOMPARISONHAVETHEFOLLOWINGADVANTAGES1AIRINEXHAUSTIBLE,USEDLATERDISCHARGEDINTOTHEATMOSPHERE,DOESNOTREQUIRERECYCLINGANDDISPOSAL,DONOTPOLLUTETHEENVIRONMENTCONCEPTOFENVIRONMENTALPROTECTION2AIRSTICKISSMALL,THEPIPELINEPRESSURELOSSISSMALLTYPICALLYLESSTHANASPHALTGASPATHPRESSUREDROPOFONETHOUSANDTH,TOFACILITATELONGDISTANCETRANSPORT3COMPRESSEDAIROFTHEWORKINGPRESSUREISLOWUSUALLY4TO8KG/PERSQUARECENTIMETER,ANDTHEREFOREMOVINGTHEMATERIALCOMPONENTSANDMANUFACTURINGACCURACYREQUIREMENTSCANBELOWERED4WITHTHEHYDRAULICTRANSMISSION,COMPAREDTOITSFASTERACTIONANDREACTION,WHICHISONEOFTHEADVANTAGESPNEUMATICOUTSTANDING5THEAIRCLEANERMEDIA,ITWILLNOTDEGENERATE,NOTEASYTOPLUGTHEPIPELINEBUTTHEREAREALSOPLACESWHEREITFLIESINTHEOINTMENT1ASTHECOMPRESSIBILITYOFAIR,RESULTINGINPOORAERODYNAMICSTABILITYOFTHEWORK,RESULTINGINTHEIMPLEMENTINGAGENCIESASTHEPRECISIONOFTHEVELOCITYANDNOTEASILYCONTROLLED2ASTHEUSEOFLOWATMOSPHERICPRESSURE,THEOUTPUTPOWERCANNOTBETOOLARGE;INORDERTOINCREASETHEOUTPUTPOWERISBOUNDTOTHESTRUCTUREOFTHEENTIREPNEUMATICSYSTEMSIZEINCREASED2THECOMPOSITION,MECHANICALHANDMACHINEHANDINTHEFORMOFAVARIETYOFFORMS,SOMERELATIVELYSIMPLE,SOMEMORECOMPLICATED,BUTTHEBASICFORMISTHESAMEASTHECOMPOSITIONOFTHE,USUALLYBYTHEIMPLEMENTINGAGENCIES,TRANSMISSIONSYSTEMS,CONTROLSYSTEMSANDAUXILIARYDEVICESCOMPOSED1IMPLEMENTINGAGENCIESMANIPULATOREXECUTINGAGENCYBYTHEHANDS,WRISTS,ARM,PILLARSHANDSARECRAWLINGINSTITUTIONS,ISUSEDTOCLAMPANDRELEASETHEWORKPIECE,ANDSIMILARTOHUMANFINGERS,TOCOMPLETETHESTAFFINGOFSIMILARACTIONSWRISTANDFINGERSANDTHEARMCONNECTINGTHECOMPONENTSCANBEUPANDDOWN,LEFT,ANDROTARYMOVEMENTASIMPLEMECHANICALHANDCANNOTWRISTPILLARSUSEDTOSUPPORTTHEARMCANALSOBEMADEMOBILEASNEEDED2TRANSMISSIONTHEACTUATORTOBEACHIEVEDBYTHETRANSMISSIONSYSTEMSUBTRANSMISSIONSYSTEMCOMMONLYUSEDMANIPULATORMECHANICALTRANSMISSION,HYDRAULICTRANSMISSION,PNEUMATICANDELECTRICPOWERTRANSMISSIONANDOTHERDRIVESEVERALFORMS3CONTROLSYSTEMMANIPULATORCONTROLSYSTEM’SMAINROLEISTOCONTROLTHEMACHINEHANDACCORDINGTOCERTAINPROCEDURES,DIRECTION,POSITION,SPEEDOFACTION,ASIMPLEMECHANICALHANDISGENERALLYNOTSETUPADEDICATEDCONTROLSYSTEM,USINGONLYTRIPSWITCHES,RELAYS,CONTROLVALVESANDCIRCUITSCANBEACHIEVEDDYNAMICDRIVESYSTEMCONTROL,SOTHATIMPLEMENTINGAGENCIESACCORDINGTOTHEREQUIREMENTSOFACTIONACTIONWILLHAVETOUSECOMPLEXPROGRAMMABLEMACHINEHANDCONTROLLER,THEMICROCOMPUTERCONTROL3MECHANICALHANDCLASSIFICATIONANDCHARACTERISTICSMACHINEHANDSAREGENERALLYDIVIDEDINTOTHREECATEGORIESTHEFIRSTISTHEGENERALMACHINERYDOESNOTREQUIREMANUALHANDITISANINDEPENDENTNOTAFFILIATEDWITHAPARTICULARHOSTDEVICEITCANBEPROGRAMMEDACCORDINGTOTHENEEDSOFTHETASKTOCOMPLETETHEOPERATIONOFTHEPROVISIONSITISCHARACTERIZEDWITHORDINARYMECHANICALPERFORMANCE,ALSOHASGENERALMACHINERY,MEMORY,INTELLIGENCETERNARYMACHINERYTHESECONDCATEGORYISTHENEEDTOMANUALLYDOIT,CALLEDTHEOPERATIONOFAIRCRAFTITORIGINATEDINTHEATOM,MILITARYINDUSTRY,FIRSTTHROUGHTHEOPERATIONOFMACHINESTOCOMPLETEAPARTICULARJOB,ANDLATERDEVELOPEDTOOPERATEUSINGRADIOSIGNALSTOCARRYOUTDETECTINGMACHINESSUCHASTHEMOONUSEDININDUSTRIALMANIPULATORALSOFALLINTOTHISCATEGORYTHETHIRDCATEGORYISDEDICATEDMANIPULATOR,THEMAINSUBSIDIARYOFTHEAUTOMATICMACHINESORAUTOMATICLINES,TOSOLVETHEMACHINEUPANDDOWNTHEWORKPIECEMATERIALANDDELIVERYTHISMECHANICALHANDINFOREIGNCOUNTRIESKNOWNASTHE“MECHANICALHAND”,WHICHISTHEHOSTOFSERVICES,FROMTHEHOSTDRIVEN;EXCEPTIONOFAFEWOUTSIDETHEWORKINGPROCEDURESAREGENERALLYFIXED,ANDTHEREFORESPECIALMAINFEATURESFIRST,MECHANICALHANDTHEUPPERANDLOWERMATERIALMACHINEHAND,ASSEMBLYMACHINEHAND,HANDLINGMACHINEHAND,STACKINGMACHINEHAND,HELPMACHINEHAND,VACUUMHANDLINGMACHINES,VACUUMSUCTIONCRANE,LABORSAVINGSPREADER,PNEUMATICBALANCER,ETCSECOND,CANTILEVERCRANESCANTILEVERCRANE,ELECTRICCHAINHOISTCRANE,AIRBALANCETHEHANGING,ETCTHIRD,RAILTYPETRANSPORTSYSTEMHANGINGRAIL,LIGHTRAIL,SINGLEGIRDERCRANES,DOUBLEBEAMCRANEFOUR,INDUSTRIALMACHINERY,APPLICATIONOFHANDMANIPULATORINTHEMECHANIZATIONANDAUTOMATIONOFTHEPRODUCTIONPROCESSDEVELOPEDANEWTYPEOFDEVICEINRECENTYEARS,ASELECTRONICTECHNOLOGY,ESPECIALLYCOMPUTEREXTENSIVEUSEOFMACHINEHANDDEVELOPMENTANDPRODUCTIONOFHIGHTECHFIELDSHASBECOMEARAPIDLYDEVELOPEDANEWTECHNOLOGY,WHICHFURTHERPROMOTEDTHEDEVELOPMENTOFMACHINEHAND,ALLOWINGMACHINEHANDTOBETTERACHIEVEDWITHTHECOMBINATIONOFMECHANIZATIONANDAUTOMATIONALTHOUGHTHEMACHINEHANDISNOTASFLEXIBLEASSTAFF,BUTITHASTOTHECONTINUOUSDUPLICATIONOFWORKANDLABOR,IDONOTKNOWFATIGUE,NOTAFRAIDOFDANGER,THEPOWERSNATCHWEIGHTCHARACTERISTICSWHENCOMPAREDWITHMANUALLARGE,THEREFORE,MECHANICALHANDHASBEENAPPLIEDWIDELY,FOREXAMPLEAMACHININGTHEWORKPIECELOADINGANDUNLOADING,ESPECIALLYINTHEAUTOMATICLATHE,COMBINATIONMACHINETOOLUSEISMORECOMMONBINTHEASSEMBLYOPERATIONSAREWIDELYUSEDINTHEELECTRONICSINDUSTRY,ITCANBEUSEDTOASSEMBLEPRINTEDCIRCUITBOARDS,INTHEMACHINERYINDUSTRYITCANBEUSEDTOASSEMBLEPARTSANDCOMPONENTSCTHEWORKINGCONDITIONSMAYBEPOOR,MONOTONOUS,REPETITIVEEASYTOSUBFATIGUEWORKINGENVIRONMENTTOREPLACEHUMANLABORDMAYBEINDANGEROUSSITUATIONS,SUCHASMILITARYGOODSHANDLING,DANGEROUSGOODSANDHAZARDOUSMATERIALREMOVALANDSOONEUNIVERSEANDOCEANDEVELOPMENTFMILITARYENGINEERINGANDBIOMEDICALRESEARCHANDTESTINGHELPMECHANICALHANDALLKNOWASTHEBALANCER,BALANCESUSPENDED,LABORSAVINGSPREADER,MANUALTRANSFERMACHINEISAKINDOFWEIGHTLESSNESSOFMANUALLOADSYSTEM,ANOVEL,TIMESAVINGTECHNOLOGYFORMATERIALHANDLINGOPERATIONSBOOSTEREQUIPMENT,BELONGINGTOKINDSOFNONSTANDARDDESIGNOFSERIESPRODUCTSCUSTOMERAPPLICATIONSNEEDS,CREATINGCUSTOMIZEDCASESMANUALOPERATIONOFASIMULATIONOFTHEAUTOMATICMACHINERY,ITCANBEAFIXEDPROGRAMDRAWS,HANDLINGOBJECTIONSORPERFORMHOUSEHOLDTOOLSTOACCOMPLISHCERTAINSPECIFICACTIONSAPPLICATIONOFMACHINEHANDCANREPLACETHEPEOPLEENGAGEDINMONOTONOUS,REPETITIVEORHEAVYMANUALLABOR,THEMECHANIZATIONANDAUTOMATIONOFPRODUCTION,INSTEADOFPEOPLEINHAZARDOUSENVIRONMENTSMANUALOPERATION,IMPROVINGWORKINGCONDITIONSANDENSUREPERSONALSAFELYTHELATE20THCENTURY,40,THEUNITEDSTATEDATOMICENERGYEXPERIMENT,THEFIRSTUSEOFRADIOACTIVEMATERIALHANDLINGMACHINEHAND,HUMANMACHINEHANDINASAFEROOMTOMANIPULATORANDGRADUALLYEXTENDEDTOINDUSTRIALPRODUCTIONSECTOR,FORTHETEMPERATURES,POLLUTEDAREAS,ANDLOADINGANDUNLOADINGTOTAKEPLACETHEWORKPIECEMATERIAL,BUTALSOASANAUXILIARYDEVICEINAUTOMATICMACHINETOOLS,MACHINETOOLS,AUTOMATICPRODUCTIONLINESANDPROCESSINGCENTER
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