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翻译部分英文部分Thehydraulicactuatoristhehydraulicpumpprovideshydraulicenergyintomechanicalenergyconversiondevice,whichcompriseshydrauliccylindersandhydraulicmotors.Outputrotationalmovementofthehydraulicactuatorisahydraulicmotorhabits,whiletheoutputofthelinearmovementincludingoutputswingmovementofthehydraulicactuatorelementisreferredtoasthehydrauliccylinder.AhydraulicmotorcharacteristicsandclassificationThehydraulicpumpandthehydraulicmotorisareversiblehydrauliccomponents,fromtheviewpointofenergyconversioncanbeinputtoanyoneofthehydraulicpumpworkingfluid,itbecomesahydraulicmotorworkingconditionsConversely,whenthemainshaftofthehydraulicmotorbytheouterthetorquedriventorotate,butalsobecomeshydraulicpumpconditions.Becausetheyhavethesamebasicstructuralelementssealedandmayperiodicallychangethevolumeandcorrespondingwiththeoilbodies.However,duetodifferentoperatingconditionsofthehydraulicmotorandahydraulicpump,theperformancerequirementsarenotthesame,sotherearestillmanydifferencesbetweenthehydraulicmotorandahydraulicpumpofthesametype.Firsthydraulicmotorshouldbecapableofbeingreversedandthusrequiresthatitsinternalstructuresymmetryhydraulicmotorspeedrangeneedstobelargeenoughtohavecertainrequirements,inparticularitsminimumsteadyspeed.Therefore,itisusuallytheuseofrollingbearingsorhydrostaticbearingssecondhydraulicmotorduetoanoilundertheconditionsoftheinputpressure,andthusdonotneedtohaveaselfprimingability,butneededthecertaininitialsealingperformance,inordertoprovidethenecessarystartingtorque.Duetotheexistenceofthesedifferences,sothatthehydraulicmotorandthehydraulicpumpisrelativelysimilarinstructure,butnotreversible.Hydraulicmotorinaccordancewithknotplumtypecanbedividedintogear,vane,piston,andothertypes.Dividedintohighandlowspeedtwocategoriesaccordingtothehydraulicmotorratedspeed.Higherthantheratedspeed500r/minisahighspeedhydraulicmotor,ratedspeedlessthan500r/minisalowspeedhydraulicmotor.Thebasictypesofhighspeedhydraulicmotorgear,screw,vaneandaxialpiston.Theirmaincharacteristicsisthehighspeed,smallmomentofinertia,easystartingandbraking,adjusthighsensitivityspeedandcommutation.Often,speedhydraulicmotoroutputtorqueNmofonlytenstohundredsofNm,itisalsoknownasahighspeedlowtorquehydraulicmotor.Basictypesoflowspeedhydraulicmotorisaradialpistontype,inadditiontolowspeedaxialpiston,vaneandgearstructuretype,themainfeaturesofthelowspeedhydraulicmotorislargedisplacementvolumelowspeedsometimesuptoafewturnsperminuteorevenafewtenthsofturn,itcanbedirectlyconnectedwiththeworkingbodiesdonotneedtoslowdownthedevice,thetransmissionmechanismgreatlysimplified,usuallylowspeedhydraulicmotoroutputtorqueuptoseveralthousandNmtensofthousandsNm,itisalsoknownasthelowspeedhightorquehydraulicmotor.Second,thehydraulicmotoroperatingprinciple1VanehydraulicmotorDuetotheroleofpressureoil,theunevenrotortorque.Vanehydraulicmotoroutputtorqueandthedisplacementofthehydraulicmotorandthehydraulicmotorandoutofthepressuredifferentialbetweentheports,itsspeedisdeterminedbythesizeoftheinputflowrateofthehydraulicmotor.Hydraulicmotorsaregenerallyrequiredtoreversingradialvanehydraulicmotorsleavesplaced.InordertomakethebladerootalwaysthroughtheoilpressureinthebackpressurechamberWalterbladerootpathshouldbesettoaonewayvalve,inordertoensurethatthevanehydraulicmotorinthenormalpressureoilWalter,thetopofthebladeandTheinnersurfaceofthestatorinclosecontactinordertoensureagoodseal,andthereforeshouldbesettothebladeroottothepreloadspring.Vanehydraulicmotorsmallsize,smallmomentofinertia,quickaction,applicabletothecommutationfrequencyishigher,butthelargeamountofleakage,lowspeedoperationisunstable.Vanehydraulicmotorsaregenerallyusedforhighspeed,torqueissmallandtheoperationalrequirementsofsensitiveoccasions.2radialpistonhydraulicmotorFigure32radialpistonhydraulicmotorschematicwhenpressureoilfixedoildistributionshaft4windowintothebottomofthecylinderinnerplunger1,theplungerextendsoutwardlytightlytopliveintheinnerwallofthestator2andtheeccentricitye,duetothepresenceofthestatorandthecylinderblock.Theplungerincontactwiththestator,thestatorofthereactionforceoftheplunger.Theforcecanbedecomposedintotwocomponents.Whenthefluidpressureactingonthebottomoftheplungerp,plungerdiameterD,theanglebetweentheforceandDuration,theywereandproduceatorqueforceonthecylinder,thecylinderrotation.Cylinderandthenconnectedtothedriveshaftthroughtheendfaceoutwardoutputtorqueandspeed.Theaboveanalysisofatorquegeneratedbytheplungerroleinthepressurechamberthereareseveralplunger,theplungertorquegeneratedbyrotationofthecylinder,andtheoutputtorque.Radialpistonhydraulicmotorisusedforlowspeedandhightorque.3axialpistonmotorAxialpistonpumpvalvewithflow,otherformsofprinciplecanbeusedasahydraulicmotor,axialpistonpumpsandaxialpistonmotorisreversible.Axialpistonmotorworksasshown,withtheoilpanandtheswashplatefixedand5andthecylinderofthemotorshaftconnectedtorotatetogether.Whenthepressureoilthroughtheoilpanwindowintothecylinderplungerhole,theplunger3inthepressureoilundertheoverhang,theplungeragainsttheswashplateswashplate3generatesamethodtothereactionpThisforcecanbedecomposedintoaxialandverticalcomponentwhere.Whereandplungerhydraulicpressurephaseequilibrium,wheretheplungercreatesatorqueonthecenterofthecylinder,drivenbythemotorshaftrotatescounterclockwise.Axialpistonmotorinstantaneoustorquepulsation.Ifyouchangethemotoroilpressureinputdirection,themotorshaft5rotatesclockwise.Theinclinationoftheswashplateisachange,i.e.thechangeofthedisplacement,notonlyaffectsthetorqueofthemotor,butalsoaffectsitsspeedanddirection.Thegreatertheinclinationangleoftheswashplate,thegreaterthetorqueisgenerated,thelowerthespeed.4.GearhydraulicmotorGearmotoronthestructureinordertoadapttoreversingrequirementsoutoftheoilportequaltothesymmetryhaveseparateexternalcasedrainthebearingportionoftheleakageofoilleadstotheoutsideofthehousingusesrollinginordertoreducethestartfrictiontorquetorqueinordertoreducetheThepulsatinghydraulicgearmotorTeethmorethanthenumberofteethofthepump.Gearhydraulicmotorworsebythedrytightness,Yungrentlessefficientinputpressureisnottoohigh,youcannothaveagreatertorque.Withthechangeofpositionoftheengagementpointandtheinstantaneousspeedandtorquevaries,thehydraulicgearmotorthereforeonlysuitablefortheoccasionofthehighspeedandsmalltorque.Generalwithadryconstructionmachinery,agriculturalmachinery,andmachineryandequipmentlessdemandingtorqueuniformity.1.Thedisplacementofthehydraulicmotor,thedisplacementandtorquerelationshipTheoutputtorqueofthehydraulicmotorworkinginsizeisdeterminedbytheloadtorque.However,topromotethesamesizeoftheload,theworkingcavityofthepressureofthemotorislowerthanthepressureoftheworkingcavitysmallmotor,sothatthesizeoftheworkingcavityisanimportantsymbolofthehydraulicmotorabilitytowork.Representationofthesizeoftheworkingcavityofthehydraulicmotorandthehydraulicpump,whichmeansthatCCV.Thedisplacementofthehydraulicmotorisanimportantparameter.Canbecalculatedatagivenpressure,thesizeofthehydraulicmotorcanoutputtorque,thesizeoftheworkingpressureunderagivenloadtorquemotormayalsobecalculatedaccordingtothesizeoftheCC.Whenthehydraulicmotorintothepressuredifferencebetweentheoiloutletfortheinputofthehydraulicmotorflowrateq,thetheoreticaltorqueofthehydraulicmotoroutput,theangularvelocity,ifnottakingintoaccountthelossofhydraulichydraulicpumpoutputpowershouldbeallconvertedtohydraulicthemechanicalpowerofthemotoroutput,i.e.Because,sothetheoreticaltorqueofthehydraulicmotor2.ThemechanicalefficiencyofthehydraulicmotorandstartthemechanicalefficiencyHydraulicmotorinternalinevitablythepresenceofavarietyoffriction,theactualoutputtorquethanthetheoreticaltorquesmaller,i.e.Wherethemechanicalefficiencyofthehydraulicmotor.Inaddition,underthesamepressure,theoutputtorqueofthehydraulicmotorbeginstoturnfromresttostartupstatetorquethantheoperatingloadtothehydraulicmotortostartthecausedifficulties,sothestartupperformanceofthehydraulicmotorisveryimportant.Thestartingtorqueisreducedbecausethemaximumcoefficientoffrictioninastationarystate,appearsonthefrictionsurfacetherelativeslidingcoefficientoffrictionissignificantlyreduced,whichisthegeneralnatureofthemechanicalfriction.Hydraulicmotor,thestationarystatelubricantfilmissqueezedout,basicallybecomesdryfriction.Andthemotorbeginstomove,withtheestablishmentofthelubricantfilm,frictionimmediatelydropandreducedincreaseswiththeslidingvelocityandfilmthickening.Hydraulicmotorstartupperformanceindicatorsstartmechanicalefficiency,whichwasexpressedaswhereinthestartingtorqueofthehydraulicmotor.Differenttypesofhydraulicmotors,internalforcecomponentsoftheforcebalanceisdifferent,thesizeofthefriction,andsoarenotthesame.Thesametypeofhydraulicmotor,theforceoffrictionpairbalanceddesign,itshighandlowpoints.Forexample,somegeartypehydraulicmotoronlyabout0.6,andthehighperformancelowspeedhightorquehydraulicmotorcanbeachieved0.90,varyconsiderably.So,ifthehydraulicmotorloadstart,itmustbenotedthatthestartupperformanceoftheselectedhydraulicmotor.3.HydraulicmotorspeedandlowspeedstabilityTherotationalspeedofthehydraulicmotorvarydependingonthedisplacementVoftheliquidsupplyflowrateq,andthehydraulicmotoritself.Sincethehydraulicmotorinternalleakage,notalltheliquidintothemotordrivingthehydraulicmotoracting,asmallportionoftheliquidislostduetoleakagelosses,sotheactualmotorspeedthanIdeallylow.whereinthevolumetricefficiencyofthehydraulicmotor.Inengineeringpractice,thespeedofthehydraulicmotorandhydraulicpumpspeed,measuredinunitsofmultipurposer/minr/min.Whentheoperatingspeedofthehydraulicmotoristoolow,oftentomaintainnotuniformspeed,theunstablestateofthedynamicstop,whichiscalledcreepingphenomenon.Requirehighspeedhydraulicmotordoesnotexceedtheto10r/minlowspeedhightorquehydraulicmotordoesnotexceedspeedworkof3r/min,notallofthehydraulicmotorcanmeettherequirementsof.Generallyspeaking,lowspeedlowspeedtorquehydraulicmotorstabilitythanthehighspeedmotoraswell.Thelargedisplacementofthelowspeedhightorquemotor,andthusthesizeislarge,andnotcausedbytoolowevenatlowspeedstheslidingspeedofthefrictionpairs,coupledwiththemotordisplacement,theeffectofleakageisrelativelysmall,themomentofinertiaofthemotoritself,,soeasytogetgoodlowspeedstabilityreturntothemaindirectory4.SpeedrangeWhentheworkloadwithinaverywiderangefromlowspeedtohighspeed,thehydraulicmotorisalsorequiredtobeabletoworkunderalargespeedrange,orneedtobeabletoshiftthetransmissionmechanism,thetransmissionmechanismiscomplicated.Hydraulicmotorspeedrangetoallowmaximumspeedandminimumsteadyspeedratio,Obviously,thewiderangeofspeedhydraulicmotorshouldbebothgoodhighspeedperformanceandagoodlowspeedstability.Thehydrauliccylinderofthehydraulicpumpoutputpressurecanbeconvertedtomechanicalenergyoftheactuator,itismainlyusedtooutputthelinearmotionoscillatingmotion.ClassificationofahydrauliccylinderHydrauliccylinderaccordingtothestructurecanbedividedintothreecategoriesofthepistoncylinder,pistoncylinderandswingcylinder.Pistoncylinderandpistoncylinderreciprocatingmotion,theoutputthrustandspeed,swingcylinderisabletoswingbackandforthlessthan360degrees,theoutputtorqueandangularvelocity.Inadditiontotheuseofasinglehydrauliccylindercanalsoseveralcombinationorincombinationwithotherbodies,tocompletea
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