外文翻译--破损钢板在热矫直过程中的原理.doc外文翻译--破损钢板在热矫直过程中的原理.doc

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HEATSTRAIGHTENINGDAMAGEDSTEELPLATEELEMENTSBYRRICHARDAVENT,1DAVIDJMUKAI,2PAULFROBINSON,3ANDRANDYJBOUDREAUX4ABSTRACTTHEFUNDAMENTALELEMENTOFANYSTRUCTURALSTEELSHAPEISTHEFLATPLATEDAMAGETOBRIDGESTRUCTURESCONSISTSOFTHESEPLATEELEMENTS,INCOMBINATION,BENTABOUTTHEIRSTRONGAND/ORWEAKAXESTHEPURPOSEOFTHISPAPERISTODESCRIBEEXPERIMENTALANDANALYTICALRESEARCHONHEATSTRAIGHTENINGASAPPLIEDTOPLATESANDTOPRESENTRELATEDENGINEERINGCRITERIAFORITSUSEANEXPERIMENTALPROGRAMWASCONDUCTEDTOEVALUATETHERESPONSEOFPLATESTOHEATSTRAIGHTENINGANDTOIDENTIFYIMPORTANTPARAMETERSINFLUENCINGBEHAVIOROVER300HEATSWEREAPPLIEDTOAVARIETYOFPLATESTHEPRIMARYFACTORSINFLUENCINGSTRAIGHTENINGWERETHEANGLEOFTHEVEEHEAT,STEELTEMPERATUREDURINGHEATING,ANDEXTERNALRESTRAININGFORCESTHEPLASTICROTATIONAFTERHEATINGWASDIRECTLYPROPORTIONALTOTHESEPARAMETERSTOAIDENGINEERSINPREDICTINGPLATEMOVEMENTSDURINGHEATSTRAIGHTENING,ASIMPLEMATHEMATICALFORMULAWASDEVELOPEDTHISEQUATIONRELATESTHEAVERAGEPLASTICROTATIONPERVEEHEATTOVEEANGLE,STEELTEMPERATURE,MAGNITUDEOFRESTRAININGFORCE,COEFFICIENTOFTHERMALEXPANSION,ANDYIELDSTRESSTHEFORMULACOMPARESWELLTOTHEEXPERIMENTALDATAANDISTHEFIRSTSIMPLEFORMULAAVAILABLETHATINCLUDESTHEPARAMETERSOFHEATINGTEMPERATUREANDMAGNITUDEOFRESTRAININGFORCETHEFORMOFTHISANALYTICALAPPROACHALSOWILLLENDITSELFTOWARDEXTENSIONS,INCLUDINGTHEBEHAVIOROFROLLEDSHAPES,AXIALLYLOADEDMEMBERS,ANDCOMPOSITEANDNONCOMPOSITEGIRDERSINTRODUCTIONTHEFUNDAMENTALELEMENTOFANYSTRUCTURALSTEELSHAPEISTHEFLATPLATEDAMAGETOBRIDGESTRUCTURESCONSISTSOFTHESEPLATEELEMENTS,INCOMBINATION,BENTABOUTTHEIRSTRONGAND/ORWEAKAXESTHEPURPOSEOFTHISPAPERISTODESCRIBEEXPERIMENTALANDANALYTICALRESEARCHONHEATSTRAIGHTENINGASAPPLIEDTOPLATESANDTOPRESENTRELATEDENGINEERINGDESIGNCRITERIAFORITSUSETHISWORKFORMSTHEBASISFOREXTENSIONSTOHEATSTRAIGHTENINGOFROLLEDSHAPESSEVERALDETAILEDSTUDIESHAVEBEENCONDUCTEDFORVEEHEATSAPPLIEDTOPLATESTHEVEEHEATISTHEUSUALHEATINGPATTERNFORSTRAIGHTENINGPLATESBENTABOUTTHEIRSTRONGAXISANDISEXPLAINEDINDETAILINALATERSECTIONTHESESTUDIESHAVEATTEMPTEDTOIDENTIFYPARAMETERSTHATINFLUENCEVEEHEATSANDTODEVELOPPREDICTIVEMODELSBASEDONTHISDATANICHOLLSANDWEERTH1972DESCRIBEDTHEBENDSPRODUCEDBY211VEEHEATSWHOSEAPEXANGLEVARIEDFROM247TO607IN67INCREMENTSAPPLIEDTO10MM3/8INTHICKA36STEELPLATETHEVEEDEPTHWASALSOVARIEDOVERFULLDEPTH,THREEFOURTHDEPTH,ANDONEHALFDEPTHNOATTEMPTWASMADETOEVALUATETHEEFFECTOFTHESEPARAMETERSOTHERTHANTHEGENERALRESULTTHATTHEGREATERTHEVEEANGLEANDDEPTH,THEGREATERTHEBENDPRODUCEDROEDER1986ALSOCONDUCTEDASTUDYONUNDAMAGEDVEEHEATEDPLATESHEEMPLOYEDSOPHISTICATEDMONITORINGEQUIPMENTSUCHASTHERMOCOUPLES,CONTACTPYROMETERS,ANDSTRAINGAUGES,ASWELLASMORECONVENTIONALTOOLSSUCHASVERNIERCALIPERANDASTEELRULERHISWORKISPARTICULARLYSIGNIFICANTASTHEFIRSTATTEMPTTOBOTHEXPERIMENTALLYANDANALYTICALLYQUANTIFYHEATSTRAIGHTENINGBEHAVIORFORPLATESOVERAWIDERANGEOFPARAMETERSTHEPARAMETERSINCLUDEDVEEGEOMETRY,SPECIMENGEOMETRY,HEATINGTEMPERATUREANDRATE,STEELGRADE,RESTRAININGFORCE,INITIALRESIDUALSTRESSES,ANDQUENCHINGROEDER’SCONCLUSIONSWEREBASEDONAPPROXIMATELY60HEATSOVERAWIDERANGEOFPARAMETERSASARESULTTHEREWERERELATIVELYFEWREPETITIVEHEATSUSINGIDENTICALPARAMETERSALTHOUGHTRENDSCOULDBEDRAWNFROMTHISDATA,ITSSPARSENESSLIMITEDTHEQUANTITATIVEVALUEOFTHERESULTSHOWEVER,HISRESEARCHPROVIDEDTHEINITIALBASISFORMUCHOFTHEEXPERIMENTALWORKREPORTEDHEREROEDER’SMOSTSIGNIFICANTCONCLUSIONSWEREAPRACTICALANDSAFEUPPERHEATINGTREATMENTLIMITIS6507C1,2007FCHANGESINMATERIALPROPERTIESARESMALLWHENTHEHEATINGTEMPERATUREREMAINSBELOWTHEPHASETRANSITIONTEMPERATUREOFAPPROXIMATELY7207C1,3307FTHEROTATIONPRODUCEDBYAVEEHEATISDIRECTLYPROPORTIONALTOVEEANGLEANDHEATINGTEMPERATURETHEROTATIONPRODUCEDBYAVEEHEATISDIRECTLYPROPORTIONALTORESTRAININGFORCESTHATPRODUCECOMPRESSIONINTHEOPENENDOFTHEVEEDURINGHEATINGQUENCHINGISEFFECTIVEANDMAYINCREASEVEEHEATROTATIONS,BUTHEATINGTEMPERATURESSHOULDBEKEPTBELOWTHEPHASETRANSITIONTEMPERATUREALTHOUGHSOMEPRACTITIONERSRECOMMENDQUENCHINGONLYIFTHESTEELTEMPERATUREISBELOW7007FOR3707CPLASTICSTRAINOCCURSPRIMARILYWITHINTHEVEEHEATREGIONPLASTICSTRAINISSOMEWHATSENSITIVETOGEOMETRYOFTHEPLATEHOWEVER,MUCHOFTHISSENSITIVITYCANBEATTRIBUTEDTODIFFERENCESINRATEOFHEATINGANDHEATFLOWTHERESEARCHDESCRIBEDINTHISPAPEREXTENDSROEDER’SWORKANDINCLUDESENOUGHREPETITIVEDATAPOINTSTOQUANTIFYTHESEANDOTHERCONCLUSIONSLITERATUREONHEATSTRAIGHTENINGHASBEENAVAILABLEFORMANYYEARSASREVIEWEDINASTATEOFTHEARTPAPERBYAVENT1989HOWEVER,ENGINEERINGQUANTIFICATIONOFTHEPROCESSHASBEENLACKINGTHEHANDFULOFPRACTITIONERSCURRENTLYUSINGTHEMETHODRELYEXTENSIVELYONTHEIRMANYYEARSOFEXPERIENCETOGUIDETHEMTHROUGHAREPAIRANENGINEERLACKINGTHISWEALTHOFEXPERIENCENEEDSASETOFANALYTICALPROCEDURESTODETERMINEHOWBESTTOAPPLYTHEHEATSTRAIGHTENINGPROCESSTOAPARTICULARREPAIRTHESEANALYTICALTOOLS,FORREASONSOFECONOMY,SHOULDBERELATIVELYFAST,EASYTOAPPLY,ANDALLOWFORSUCHCONSIDERATIONSASDIFFERENTVEEGEOMETRIES,TEMPERATURERANGES,EXTERNALLOADINGS,ANDSUPPORTRESTRAINTSATPRESENT,TWOEXTREMESEXIST1OVERLYSIMPLISTICMODELSHOLT1965,1971;MOBERG1979THATCANNOTTAKEINTOACCOUNTTHEEFFECTOFEITHERTEMPERATUREVARIATIONSORINTERNALANDEXTERNALRESTRAINT;AND2COMPREHENSIVECOMPUTERMODELSFORCHIN1962;BURBANK1968;WEERTH1971;HORTON1973;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