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/data/ce/er/2/kechenx/kechengxx.htm ants05 英语泛 读教程 2 Study Aid (Unit 1-15) ants05 1 Unit 1 Text 1 The Shadowland of Dreams I. About the author Alex Haley (1925-1992) American biographer, scriptwriter, author who became famous with the publication of the novel Roots, which traces his ancestry back to Africa and covers seven American generations as they are taken slaves to the United States. The book was adapted to television series, and woke up an interest in genealogy, particularly among African-Americans. Alex Haley was born in Ithaca, New York. His father was a teacher of agriculture. The family moved to the small town of Henning, Tennessee, when Alex Haley was an infant. In Henning Haley heard stories from maternal grandmother, Cynthia Palmer, who traced the family genealogy to Haleys great-great-great-great-grandfather, who was an African, called Kin-Tay and brought by slave-ship to America. Haley did not excel at school or university. During World War Two Haley enlisted in the Coast Guard and started to write adventure stories. After twenty years of service, Haley left the Coast Guard in 1959 to become a full-time writer. II. Language notes 1. When I left a 20-year-career in the Coast Guard to become a freelance writer, I had no prospect at all. 当我放弃在海 岸警卫队做了二十年的工作而成为一名自由撰稿人时,我的前途渺茫。 A freelance writer is a writer who earns his money without being in the regular employment of any particular organization. 2. It didnt even matter that it was cold and had no bathroom. 房子里冷嗖嗖的,也没有卫生间,就连这也没有什么关系。 The that-clause is the real subject standing for the first it. 3. On the phone was an old acquaintance from the Coast Guard, now stationed in San Francisco. 打电话来的是一位海岸警卫队供过职的老熟人 ,现在在旧金山。 The sentence structure is inverted for the subject is too long. 4. He had once lent me a few bucks and liked to egg me about it. 他曾经借给我几美元,总喜欢喋喋不休地要我还给他。 Egg here means to encourage strongly or to urge persistently. e.g. I didnt want to accept her offer but Peter kept egging me on. 5. From deep inside a bull-headed resolution welled up. 我的内心深处升起一个坚强的信念。 Well up means to flow or start to flow, and here well is used as a verb. e.g. Anger was welling up in him. Blood was welling out from the wound. 6. Rumor had it that if a customer ordered steak the singer would dash to a supermarket across the street to buy one. 据传,如果有客 人在餐馆里点了牛排,这位歌 手会火速跑去街对面的超市为他买一个。 Rumor has it that is a common sentence pattern meaning that people are saying. 7. Id be hard pressed to say which means the most to me. 我很难说哪一个对我最 重要。 Be hard pressed means to feel it very difficult. Unit 1 Text 2 Isambard Kingdom Brunel I. About the author 英语泛 读教程 2 Study Aid (Unit 1-15) ants05 2 Miles Kington is an English humorist and a regular columnist. II. About Isambard Kingdom Brunel Isambard Kingdom Brunel was born in Portsea on 9th April 1806 to an English mother and a French father. His father, Marc Brunel, was a French monarchist whose continuing residence in revolutionary France had made life there somewhat uncomfortable. When working in New York, Marc conceived and patented machines to produce wooden pulley-blocks for the worlds navies. This tackle block technology was adopted by the British Admiralty. Isambard had a French and English education. The technical side inc luded mathematics and apprenticeship with Breguet, a precision-instrument maker. Further practical experience came from working in the family engineering office and at the Maudsley engineering works. Throughout his life Isambard, the engineering star, never stopped working on projects which called for complex organizational ability. In 1859 he died from overwork. His life was a hectic sequence of ambitious, high-risk, leading-edge projects involving complex tasks, new technology, people, politics, investors and funding. In order to commemorate him Brunel Un iversity is named after him. III. Language notes 1. Looking back through my career, I can see that everything fortunate that has happened to me has come about through a misfortune in some other undertaking. 回顾我的 事业,我发现,凡在我身上发生的幸运之事皆出于其他某个背运之事。 Come about means to happen, esp. in a way that seems impossible to prevent. e.g. How did it come about that he knew where we were. 2. He was a Frenchman by birth and was destined for the priesthood. 他出生时是法国人,而且已经决定要他当牧师。 Be destined (for) means intended, esp. by fate, for some special purpose. e.g. Coming from a theatrical family, I was destined for a career on the stage. It was destined that they would marry. 3. He would no doubt have prospered well in France were it not for a little event called the Revolution, which caused him to flee France to the USA with a price on his head. 毫无疑问,倘若不是因为那次名为法国大革命的小事件 ,有人悬赏父亲头颅 ,以致他从法国逃至美国,他在法国肯定会发展很好。 Note the sentence is in the subjunctive mood and before were it if is omitted. 4. But I was resolved to make the best of a bad job. 但是我下定决心要尽量利用这个不利境遇。 Make the best of a bad job means to accept in a cheerful way bad or unsatisfactory conditions and do the best one can in the situation. 5. All would have been well had not the money run out. 如果不是经费耗尽的话,一切会进展得很顺利。 Note that the subjunctive mood is used in the sentence and the word if is omitted. 6. I was, you will recall, in Bristol on account of an illness and had stayed there on account of a botched bridge. 你还记得, 我是因为生病才来到了布里斯托尔,呆在那儿是因为一座蹩脚的桥梁。 On account of means because of. e.g. Tom delayed his departure on account of the bad weather. 英语泛 读教程 2 Study Aid (Unit 1-15) ants05 3 Unit 2 Text 1 A Very Special Goose I. About the author Isaac Asimov( 1920-1992): Russian-born US author and editor of science fiction and nonfiction. Asimov was born in Petrovichi, Russia, but his family moved to the United States in 1923 and settled in New York, where his parents opened a sweet-shop. After leaving the boys high school in Brooklyn, Asimov studied chemistry at Columbia University, New York, where he graduated in 1939 and received his MA in 1941. During World War II Asimov worked in the US Naval Air Experimental Station alongside L. Sprague de Camp and Robert A. Heinlein. Towards the end of the war he served in the army as a corporal. In 1949 Asimov joined the Boston University School of Medicine, where he worked as an associate professor of biochemistry. Although he soon gained the reputation as one of the best lecturers, he devoted himself to writing. He remained an associate professor until 1979 and subsequently held the title of professor. Asimovs first tales appeared in science-fiction magazines in 1939. Most of Asimovs books are pure adventure, good entertainment solving all kinds of problems of human society and technology. Among his most popular works are the Foundation novels - based loosely on the fall of the Roman Empire - and Robot novels and stories. Isaac Asimov was a professional writer of renowned versatility. He was called a genius and the nearest thing to a human writing machine, and was perhaps best known as one of the major science fiction writers of his day. His broad range of works includes histories, childrens books, collections of articles, mysteries, and books concerning the Bible, literature, geography, and nonfiction science material. He was the recipient of numerous awards, including the American Associations Advancement of Science Westinghouse Award for excellence in magazine writing and a 1983 Hugo Award from the World Science Fiction Convention for his novel Foundations Edge. Known to type 90 words a minute and to produce as many as 35 pages of manuscript a day, Asimov maintained an 8-hour-a-day, 4-day-a-week writing schedule and called writing my idea of a vacation. Most of all, I want to be writing, he said. If I could, Id write every book in the world. Dr. Asimov lectured as enthusiastically as he wrote, and had been referred to as one of the great explainers of our technological age, helping to bridge the gap between science and the public. Asimov wrote in his lifetime over 500 books that enlightened, entertained, and spanned the realm of human knowledge. II. More about the story A Very Special Goose is one of Asimovs funniest stories ever. The government tries to figure out what to do with the Goose that Lays the Golden Eggs. This is absolutely hilarious. The completely unlikely premise combined with the straight-faced narrative, the plausible-sounding science, and the governments desperation at trying to solve the problem of a goose that can catalyze nuclear reactions combine for one of Asimovs best. III. Cultural and background notes 1) The Department of Agriculture 美国农业部 In 1862, when President Abraham Lincoln founded the U.S. Department of Agriculture, he called it the peoples Department. In Lincolns day, 48 percent of the people were farmers who needed good seeds and information to grow their crops. Today, USDA continues Lincolns legacy by serving all Americans. 2) The Goose That Laid the Golden Eggs 英语泛 读教程 2 Study Aid (Unit 1-15) ants05 4 This phrase comes from the English proverb kill the goose that lays the golden eggs, which means destroy a source of riches through stupidity or greed. The proverb alludes to Aesops fable about a farmer whose goose lays one golden egg a day, and who kills the goose in the mistaken belief that he will get all the eggs at once. 3) Temple University Based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, Temple University is a comprehensive public research university with more than 30 000 students. It is the 36th largest university in the United States, and it is the third largest provider of professional education (law, dentistry, medicine, pharmacy and pediatric medicine) in the country. 4) Purdue Based in Indiana, Purdue is one of the largest four-year universities in the United States, with 32 208 students enrolled in autumn 2001 on its West Lafayette Campus. Purdue also offers degrees at four regional campuses and 11 School of Technology sites statewide, bringing its system-wide enrollment to 67 548. IV. Language notes 1) I couldnt tell you my real name if I wanted to, and under the circumstances I dont want to. 即使我想把我的真 实姓名告诉你,我也不能这么做,何况在这种情况下我也不想告诉你。 Under the circumstances means considering the situation at a particular time. e.g. Im going away next week so under the circumstances I wouldnt have time to finish the job. 2) Im not much of a writer myself. 我自己不大会写作 . Be not much of a writer (swimmer, cook, etc.) means one doesnt write (swim, cook, etc.) well. e.g. Hes very good at tennis, but hes not much of a swimmer. 3) .so Im having Isaac Asimov write this up for me. 所以我请艾萨克 阿西莫夫替我整理这篇东西。 To write sth up means to record sth on paper or on a computer in a complete or final form using notes that have already been made. e.g. Most students spend two years doing research for their thesis and one year writing it up. 4) Im in the employ of the Department. 我在农业部工作 . In the employ of sb/in sbs employ means working for sb. e.g. She has fifty workers in her employ ( = she employs them). 5) .so my boss asked me to stop off at MacGregors place and see what I could do. 因此 ,我的上司让我中途在麦格雷戈的农场停一下,看看我能帮点什么忙。 To stop off means to visit or stay at a place briefly on the way to somewhere else. e.g. On our way to Scotland we stopped off in York to do some sightseeing. 6) Pieces of it had flaked away and what shone through was a dull yellow in color. 裂开的白色蛋壳剥落了,里面透出暗黄色的光。 To flake away means to come or fall off in flakes. e.g. The paint on the walls is beginning to flake away. 7) I dont want the Government butting in, he said stubbornly. “我不想政府插手, ”他固执地说。 To butt in is to interrupt or interfere. e.g. Dont butt in like that when Im speaking. 英语泛 读教程 2 Study Aid (Unit 1-15) ants05 5 8) He stated the obvious. 他说了明摆的事实。 To state the obvious means to say what everyone already knows. e.g. To say we are disappointed would be stating the obvious. 9) What it amounts to, said Billings, is that The Goose can convert any radioactive isotope into a stable one. “也就是说 , ”比林斯说道, “这只鹅能够把任何放射性同位素转变成稳定的同位素 .” To amount to sth means to be equal to sth in meaning. e.g. Her reply amounts to a refusal. 10) .wed have the perfect way of disposing of radioactive ash from nuclear power plants. “.那么我们就为核电厂处理放射性烟尘找到了一个十全十美的办法。 ” To dispose of sth means to get rid of sth that one doesnt want or cant keep. e.g. All the furniture has been disposed of. Unit 2 Text 2 Happy Accidents I. Cultural and background notes 1) Leo Baekeland (1863-1944) Belgian-born US chemist who invented Bakelite, the first commercial plastic, made from formaldehyde and phenol. He later made a photographic paper, Velox, which could be developed in artificial light. 2) Horace Walpole (1717-1797) English novelist and politician, the son of Robert Walpole. He was a Whig member of Parliament ( 1741-67) . He converted his house at Strawberry Hill, Twickenham (then a separate town southwest of London), into a Gothic castle; his The Castle of Otranto 1764 established the genre of the Gothic, or romance of terror novel. 3) Charles Goodyear (1800-1860) US inventor who developed rubber coating (1837) and vulcanized rubber (1839), a method of curing raw rubber to make it strong and elastic. 4) Wilhelm von Roentgen (1845-1923) German professor of physics. His name is chiefly associated with his discovery of the rays that he called X-rays. He received the Nobel Prize in 1901. 5) Serendip Ancient name of Ceylon, today known as Sri Lanka 锡兰的旧称,今称斯里兰卡。 II. Language notes 1) Although he could not determine beforehand what kind of mixture he would get, one thing was certain: he was on the right track. 虽 然他事先无法确定会得到什么样的混合物,但有一点是肯定的:他的努力方向是对的。 On the right track means thinking or acting in a correct way. e.g. We havent found the solution yet, but Im sure were on the right track. 2) Eventually this process would result in a better varnish. 这样做下去最终就会制成更好的清漆。 To result in sth means to have a specified effect or consequence. e.g. Our efforts resulted in success. 3) Baekeland and his assistant dived for cover. 英语泛 读教程 2 Study Aid (Unit 1-15) ants05 6 贝克兰和助手慌忙躲避。 To dive for sth means to move quickly towards or in search of sth. e.g. We dived for cover when the storm started. 4) But regardless of what they used, nothing had any effect on it. 但无论他们用什么手段,都不起任何作用。 Regardless of sb/sth means paying no attention to sb/sth. e.g. He continued speaking, regardless of my feelings on the matter. 5) Leo Baekeland is only one of countless scientists who have set out in search of one thing and through an accident or unforeseen event have discovered something else - often more valuable than what they were seeking. 许多科学家寻找某一样东西时,却在无意中或由于某个事故而发现了另一样东西,而且常常比原来寻找的东西更有价值,利奥 贝克兰只是无数这样的科学家中的一个。 In search of means searching for. e.g. Scientists are in search of a cure for the disease. 6) In 1754 an English writer by the name of Horace Walpole, coined a word for such “happy accidents”: serendipity. 1754 年一位名叫霍勒斯 沃尔浦尔的英国作家为这种 “意外收获 ”杜撰了一个词, serendipity。 By the name here means named. e.g. He goes by the name of Henry. 7) This rubber, mixed with sulphur and then exposed to intense heat, was flexible in cold yet firm in heat. 这块橡胶混合了硫磺,经过高温处理后,在受冷时会变软,受热时能变硬。 To expose to means to leave (sb/sth) uncovered or unprotected from. e.g. Keep indoors and dont expose your skin to the sun. 英语泛 读教程 2 Study Aid (Unit 1-15) ants05 7 Unit 3 Text 1 Environmental Problems I. Information related to the text 1) Environment The physical surroundings of an organism or organisms, including biological, physical, and chemical factors. In the context of human ecology, it also includes social and cultural surroundings. Planning, caring for, and conservation of the human environment, both built and natural, became of increasing concern in the years following World War II. Since then the environmental movement has broadened public concern so that the term now encompasses wildlife and endangered species and habitats, and the threat to planetary systems posed by pollution, deforestation, desertification, and other effects of human activity. In philosophy, environmentalism stresses the influence of the physical environment on mans development and activities. 2) Environmental protection organizations With a growing awareness of the importance of environmental protection, a number of environmental protection organizations have been established. Here are some of them: Green Party: a British political party that aims to protect the environment. It is against the use of nuclear power and other forms of industry and transport which it considers harmful. It was formed in 1973 as the Ecology Party, and changed its name to the Green Party in 1985. Other countries also have parties that share the same name and ideals. Greenpeace: a large international pressure group that aims to protect the environment. Its members are well known for taking direct action and putting their own lives in dangers in order to stop people from harming the environment. For example, they often go out in small boats to stop people from killing whales or throwing poisonous material into the sea. The Environmental Protection Agency: a US government organization that establishes rules and standards for protecting the environment, e.g. against pollution. II. Language notes 1) Before humans came on the scene, the world changed only slowly. 人类出现之前 ,世界变化很慢。 Came on the scene means arrive, (fig) be present/appear. e.g. By the time I came on the scene, it was all over. 2) Forests have disappeared, river courses have been changed. 森林已经消失,河流也已改道 . Course here means forward movement in space or time. e.g. the course of life from the cradle to the grave; the course of events 3) Animals (like ourselves) give out carbon dioxide. 动物(象我们一样)呼出二氧化碳 .) To give out means to send out or emit sth. e.g. The radiator is giving out a lot of heat. 4) The problem with the greenhouse effect began about 100 years ago when people started using fuels like oil and petrol on a large scale. 一百年前人们开始大规模地使用汽油等燃料时,温室效应于是开始。 On a large/small scale means to a large, etc. extent/degree. e.g. They are preparing for war on a large scale. 英语泛 读教程 2 Study Aid (Unit 1-15) ants05 8 Unit 3 Text 2 Farming I. Information related to the text Green Revolution: a term referring mainly to dramatic increases in cereal-grain yields in many developing countries beginning in the late 1960s, due largely to use of genetically improved varieties. Beginning in the mid-1940s researchers in Mexico developed broadly adapted, short-stemmed, disease-resistant wheat that excelled at converting fertilizer and water into high yields. The improved seeds were instrumental in boosting Mexican wheat production and averting famine in India and Pakistan, earning the 1970 Nobel Peace Prize for American plant breeder Norman E. Borlaug, leader of the Mexican wheat team. Significant though less dramatic improvements followed in corn. The Mexican program inspired a similarly successful rice-research effort in the Philippines and a network of research centers dedicated to the important food crops and environments of the developing world. By 1992 the system included 18 centers, mostly in developing countries, staffed by scientists from around the world, supported by a consortium of foundations, national governments, and international agencies. Recent research responds to criticism that the Green Revolution depends on fertilizers, irrigation, and other factors that poor farmers cannot afford and that may be ecologically harmful,and that it promotes monocultures and loss of genetic diversity. II. Language notes 1) Where this is not done the farming is extensive rather than intensive. 没有采用这种方法的农场经营是分散型的,而不是集约型 . Rather than here means instead of, in preference to (sb/sth). e.g. It is management that is at fault rather than the work-force. 2) In the 1960s special international efforts were made to breed new crop varieties that would produce better yields. 20 世纪 60 年代国际上专门组织力量培育新的作物品种,提高产量。 To breed means to produce (offspring). e.g. How often do lions breed? 3) The new varieties of plants need fertilizers and pesticides if they are to grow well and resist diseases. 新的植物品种要生长得好 ,抵抗疾病 ,就需要化肥和杀虫剂。 Be to here expresses possibility. e.g. The book was not to be found. 4) Animals kept on organic farms are allowed to roam in the open air and are not locked up in cages for long periods. 在施用有机肥的农场人们把动物露天放养在草场上,而不是长时间的关在笼子里。 To lock up means to make (a house, etc.) secure by locking the doors and windows. e.g. Dont forget to lock up before leaving home. 英语泛 读教程 2 Study Aid (Unit 1-15) ants05 9 Unit 4 Text 1 The Lady on Pemberton Street I. About the story Protecting the environment seems a big and sometimes abstract problem, but it does concern us all. With the disappearing of ozone layer above two poles, the frequent occurrence of acid rain and the sandstorm, environmental problems kept the attention of the scientists as well as the common people. Mable, in the following text is definitely one of those people who consciously protect the environment. Her decades practice of cleaning the block has inspired many people around her to pay more attention to the environment issues and be a conscious cleaner. Have you ever noticed any examples of environmental heroes around you? II. Language notes 1) The only place within our means was a row house on a little street called Pemberton. 按收入状况,我们只能住在一条叫做潘伯敦的小街上的联立房屋。 To live within ones means means to base ones expenditure upon ones income (量入为出地生活 ); there is another phrase, to live beyond ones means (过着超过自已收入的生活 ). a row house: one of a series of identical houses situated side by side and joined by common walls. 2) I also mentioned that I did handiwork on the side. 我顺便提到还兼职做些手工活。 On the side refers to work done or money earned apart from that coming from ones main occupation(工作或收入)额外地,附带 . e.g. His nominal wage is fifteen pounds a week, but he makes a few pounds more on the side. 3) There was a certain combativeness in her voice, as if those who did not help had sided with the dark forces responsible for litter, decay and dilapidation. 她的声音带有某种好战情绪,似乎那些不供帮助的人都站到了黑暗势力一边,要对垃圾、腐败、倾颓负责。 To side with means to put oneself on the same side as somebody. e.g. John sided with Adam in any argument. 4) That incongruous sight was soon eclipsed by a gushing fire hydrant and phalanxes of neighbors pushing brooms to work the water and dirt down the street. 在消防水龙头冲洗和邻居们组成的大扫除方阵的努力下,街道上的污水和灰尘被清扫干净了,原先那种不协调的景象很快就消失了。 A fire hydrant is a pipe from a water main for street-cleaning, putting out fires etc. (消防栓 ). Phalanxes is a body of soldiers in close formation for fighting(方阵 ). Unit 4 Text 2 Its Our World, Too! I. About the story As is the truth, in some regions the economy has developed at the sacrifice of environment. Just look at the grim facts of the environmental destruction around us, we will understand that we should undertake the responsibility of protecting the environment, otherwise we will inevitably fall the victims of the environmental disasters. If every one of us increases consciousness of environmental protection, we can improve the quality of our life. Furthermore, the state has to work out the laws and regulations related to environmental protection. Only through compulsory regulations can we throttle the pace of environmental deterioration. 英语泛 读教程 2 Study Aid (Unit 1-15) ants05 10 In the following story, the little boy called Andrew took up the legal weapons to fight against those who wanted to develop the wetland near his home into an apartment lot. His final victory no wonder has encouraged us to continue the battle of the environmental preservation, for it is our world, too!. II. Language notes 1) Using their field guides, he and a friend had learned to identify nearly all the plants and animals that lived there. 靠着土地指南册,他和一个朋友学会了辨别在这块土地上生活的几乎每一种动植物。 A field guide refers to something, such as a pamphlet, that offers basic information or instruction of a place. 2) Sitting at his kitchen table, Andrew went through a kind of metamorphosis. 安德鲁坐在餐桌旁,似乎经历了 一次变形。 Metamorphosis means a change in appearance, character, condition, or function. e.g. A butterfly is produced by metamorphosis from a caterpillar. 3) He called the state Audubon Societys Environmental Health Line and asked for ideas. 他打电话给州奥杜邦协会环境健康专线,向他们请教。 The Audubon Society is a society that seeks to protect the environment and its creatures, especially birds; named after John James Audubon, nineteenth-century painter and expert on birds. 4) He even proposed an alternative site for development: the old drive-in theater. 他甚至提出另一个地点以供开发:破旧的汽车电影院。 A drive-in theatre is a theatre designed to permit customers to remain in their motor vehicles while seeing a movie. 5) No reason to burn bridges, he told himself. 他对自己说,没有必要做得过分。 To burn bridges means to go so far in a course of action that one cannot turn back. e.g. Think carefully before you resign - if you do that youll have burnt your boats. 英语泛 读教程 2 Study Aid (Unit 1-15) ants05 11 Unit 5 Text 1 A Mothers Place I. About the author Donna Gamache was born in Minnedosa, Manitoba in 1944 and currently lives in MacGregor, Manitoba. She received a Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Manitoba followed by one year of Education. She has taught language arts and social studies full-time at the secondary level and has worked as an elementary and secondary substitute teacher. She specializes in fiction, especially for children, but also writes some poetry and occasional non-fiction articles. II. Language notes 1. And usually she acted younger than her years, if anything. 如果有什么不同的话 ,从她平日里的举止行动看不出她的实际年龄。 If anything means if there is any difference. e.g. Id say he was more like his mother, if anything. 2. Shed known it last night, of course, after the blow up with Jenny, Tims wife. 当然,昨晚与蒂姆的妻子詹妮吵架之后,她就已经知道是为什么了。 Blow up with sb means severe reprimand of sb. e.g. She got blown up by her boss for being late. 3. . and Dorothy stumped off to bed at 8.30 p.m., feeling old and lonely, and missing Steve as she hadnt missed him for a long time. 于是多罗西晚上八点半就气冲冲地上床了,她感到心力交瘁,孤立无助,从来没有这么想念过史蒂夫。 Stump means walk stiffly or noisily. e.g. The boss stumped out in fury. 4. Tim and Jennys baby was due in two months. 蒂姆和詹妮的孩子还有两个月就要出世了。 Due here means the baby would be delivered as expected. e.g. The train is due in five minutes. 5. Not that anything had been said to that effect. 并非已经说了什么话,表达了那个意思。 To that/this effect means with that/this meaning or information. e.g. He told me to get out, or words to that effect. 6. And there were suites available, if she could stand living in an apartment without a yard or garden. 要是她能忍受住在没有院子和花园的公寓,空着的套间是有的。 To stand doing sth means to endure doing sth. e.g. That patient cant stand the noise outside. 7. Shed have her say first! 她要先把话说出来! To have ones say means to express one view. e.g. Dont interrupt her - let her have her say. Unit 5 Text 2 To Grandmothers House We Go I. Information related to the text Nursing home: Searching for the right type of nursing home can be a traumatic experience. The quality of accommodation and care can vary significantly between homes and exploring the 英语泛 读教程 2 Study Aid (Unit 1-15) ants05 12 various options is often difficult. Finding the right placement is not an easy task, and finding the right care can be a long and arduous process when time is at a premium. Each featured nursing home has a description, photographs and contact information enabling one to get further information and finally arrive at an informed decision. A quality nursing home offers a full array of personal, dietary, therapeutic, social, recreational and nursing services. Meals, laundry, housekeeping and medical services are provided. In addition, most not-for-profit homes offer religious services and counseling programs. II. Language notes 1.“They are full of the devil” as the old expression goes. 正如俗话所说的, “她们被恶魔缠住了。 ” What the author really means is that the girls are very excited and become ignorant of the surroundings. 2. She reaches out, touches Eleanors hair like it is some elixir of life, and smiles. 她伸出手轻轻笑着抚摩着伊丽诺的头发,仿佛那是生命中的灵丹妙药一样。 Note that there is a that-clause behind like. Like, as a preposition, can be followed by a that-clause. 3.“Here to see Grandma?” someone else pipes in. “来看外婆吗? ”有人插了一句。 To pipe in means to begin to speak or sing unexpectedly. 4. I understand this communication, half garbled as it is. 我听得懂她的话,虽然有一半意思是猜出来的。 In the sentence as means though or although and when it is used with this meaning the branch sentence is usually inversed. 5. What she didnt count on was the severity of the stroke. 她没有料到中风的严重程度。 To count on means to expect or to take into account. It also means to rely on sb/sth with confidence. e.g. Dont count on a salary increase this year. 英语泛 读教程 2 Study Aid (Unit 1-15) ants05 13 Unit 6 Text 1 Fathers & Sons: the Bonding Process I. About the story Father and son. It is a relationship that rewards, frustrates and mystifies. Father and Son: The Bond is a photo album of more than fifty fathers and sons who reveal in their writings, and through Bill Hansons poignant photography, the unique bond of fatherhood. These men speak of the responsibilities and rewards of being father and son. They are firemen, athletes, professors, artists, and doctors. They share stories of discovery and growing pains. As this beautifully illustrated book demonstrates, while the bond between fathers and sons can be celebrated, cursed, strained, ridiculed, and honored, it cannot be broken. II. Language notes 1) Life must have been lonely for a boy losing his father, but Dad never wallowed in self-pity. 对于一个年幼丧父的孩子来讲,他的生活一定是孤独的,但父亲从不沉湎于自怜。 To wallow means to move, or roll about happily in deep mud, water, etc., as some animals do. e.g. (fig.) Dont just wallow in self-pity; do something about your problem! 2) bobtail: (a horse or dog with) a tail cut short 3) Buffalo Bill: Cody, William Frederick(91846-1917) US showman, born in Scott Co, Iowa. He was known as Buffalo Bill after killing nearly 5 000 buffalo in eight months for a contract to supply workers on the Kansas Pacific Railway with meat. He served as a scout in the Sioux wars, but from 1883 toured with his Wild West Show. The town of Cody in Wyoming stands on part of his former ranch. He died in Denver, Colorado. 4) He had a real way with words and instilled in me an appreciation and knowledge for language. 他非常擅长辞令,逐步教给我语言知识以及对语言的欣赏能力。 To have a way with one means (infml) to have an attractive quality which persuades or pleases other people. e.g. He has a way with flowery language and his stubborn was finally persuaded. 5) My world had hinged on him. 我的世界一直依赖于他。 To hinge on/upon means to depend on. e.g. The success of the operation hinges on the support we get from our allies. 6) Little League: a BASEBALL LEAGUE for children in the US, arranged in the summer in many different towns and cities using money from local businesses. Some parents whose children play in Little League become very concerned that their children play well and win games. Parents who put too much pressure on their children to win are sometimes called Little League parents, even if the sport their child is involved in is not baseball. Unit 6 Text 2 My fathers Music I. About the story With the development of the society, people become aware of the fierce competition. As parents, they long to see their children succeed in life. So its quite understandable that the children are made to learn more, play more outside the school. Only to be versatile, as it is thought, can one survive. In the story, however, the narrator is hounded to practice accordion by his parents, not for better future, but the joy he can possibly bring people - this is the most precious gift. Those tales shared at special moments with the family have untold value. II. Language notes 英语泛 读教程 2 Study Aid (Unit 1-15) ants05 14 1) Spending $300 for an accordion and $ 5 per lesson was out of character for my father. 花 300 美元买一架手风琴,每次上课再花 5 美元,这不象是我父亲的作风。 Character here refers to the combination of qualities which make a particular person, thing, etc., different from others. e.g. I cant understand why he did that - its quite out of character. (= not at all typical of her behavior) 2) He seemed to hang on every note. 他好象能跟得上每一个节奏。 To hang on means to pay close attention to. e.g. The boy admires his teacher and hang on his every word. 3) I had rarely heard Dad speak with such feeling about anything, much less the accordion. 我很少听到爸爸如此语重心长地跟我谈事情,更不用说是为了拉手风 琴的事。 Much less means and certainly not. e.g. I can hardly walk, much less run. 4) At the theater nervousness overtook me as I realized how much I wanted to make my parents proud. 在剧场里,当我意识到我是多么想让父母引以为豪时,我紧张极了。 To overtake means (of something unpleasant) to reach suddenly and unexpectedly. e.g. Being overtaken by the misfortune, he felt as if his whole world had collapsed. 5) I was lightheaded, glad my ordeal was over. 我眩晕了,庆幸我的苦难终于结束。 An ordeal is a difficult or painful experience. e.g. The parents went through a terrible ordeal when their child was kidnapped. 6) On the moving day, I didnt have the heart to tell him that he could dispose of the accordion. 搬家那天,我不忍心告诉他,可以把那架手风琴扔掉。 To have the heart (to so sth.) means to be cruel or unfeeling enough (to do sth.); usually it is in negative sentences or questions with can or could. e.g. I didnt have the heart to tell her the bad news. 7) Dad had been right all along: the most precious gift is to touch the hearts of those you love. 爸爸始终是对的:最珍贵的礼物莫过于触动你所爱的人的心弦。 All along means (infml) all the time from the beginning. e.g. I suspected all along that he was lying. 英语泛 读教程 2 Study Aid (Unit 1-15) ants05 15 Unit 7 Text 1 Numbers and Omens I. Cultural and background notes 1) The I Ching or Book of Changes A compilation which records an ancient Chinese system of divination. In the system, an oracle is cast by flipping coins or more traditionally, by manipulating yarrow stalks. The oracle is one of 64 different hexagrams. The hexagram itself is composed of two trigrams, each consisting of three lines. Those lines are either straight (Yang) or broken (Yin). 2) Yin-Yang Meaning much more than just female/male, Yin-Yang are the Chinese terms for the basic polarities of the Universe. Yang is time, light, strong. Yin is space, dark, weak. Yang is the direction upwards; Yin downwards. Yang is the closed circle; Yin is the open angle. Yang is clockwise; Yin counter-clockwise. Yang is hard, resistant and tense; Yin is soft, yielding and relaxed. 3) the five elements Metal, wood, water, fire and earth. The following is the productive cycle of the five elements in ancient Chinese philosophy. Wood burns producing Fire. Fire leaves behind Earth. Earth is the source of Metal. Metal liquefies into flowing liquid like Water. Water then becomes the nourishment for the Wood. 4) Lao Tzu Also called Tao Te Ching (literally, the classic of the way of virtue), is attributed to Lao Tzu, though scholars disagree about his actual existence. In its very poetic form, it teaches that there is a dynamic, cosmic structure underlying everything that happens in the world. We humans need to discover that Way (Tao), which is immanent in all aspects of the world, not a rule imposed from without; and we need to fit into it, letting things take their course, not exerting ourselves in opposition to it by trying to bend things to our will. Our naming (describing) of things always falls short of the way things are, since things are not limited as our language presupposes. Even the Tao which we are trying to talk about here eludes our words. The original polarity is that of being and non-being, and it will be found to interplay throughout the world, with non-being (emptiness, what is not) having as much significance as does being (the fullness of things, what is). Thus the notion of the Tao recaptures the earlier Chinese concept of Yin and Yang, the polarities running through all things. 5) doing the sevens Traditional Chinese funeral ceremony, traditionally lasts over 49 days, the first seven days being the most important. Prayers are said every seven days for 49 days if the family can afford it. If the family is in poor circumstances, the period may be shortened to from 3 to 7 days. Usually, it is the responsibility of the daughters to bear the funeral expenses. The head of the family should be present for, at least the first and, possibly the second, prayer ceremony. The number of ceremonies conducted is dependent on the financial situation of the family. The head of the family should also be present for the burial or the cremation. 6) ghost month 英语泛 读教程 2 Study Aid (Unit 1-15) ants05 16 The seventh month of the lunar year when Ghost Festival is celebrated. Just as Western people have Halloween for ghosts, Chinese people also have a holiday to fete the departed spirits of the underworld - Ghost Festival. It is a popular occasion celebrated throughout China on the 15th day of the seventh lunar month. Historically, families offer sacrifices of the newly harvested grain to departed ancestors on this day. The Chinese believe that the dead become ghosts roaming between Heaven and earth. Spirits without descendants to care for them are prayed to during Ghost Festival so that they may also enjoy the warmth of life among the living. This custom, an extension of the traditional Chinese ethic of universal love. II. Language notes 1) Many foreign visitors cant help but exclaim that the Chinese are really creative and can line numbers up so auspiciously. 许多外国游客赞叹不已,说中国人真有创造性,竟能够把数字排列得如此 “吉祥 ”。 To line sth up means to arrange or organize sth. e.g. Hes lined up a live band for the party. 2) Chinese not only use numbers to appeal for good fortune, they also bring them out to chew people out. 中国人不仅用数字来求好运,而且还用数字骂人 . To chew sb. out means to speak angrily to sb. e.g. He chewed out his secretary for being late to work. 3) .and a whole set of auspiciousness-attracting and evil-expelling habits took shape. .于是就形成了一整套祈福避祸的风俗习惯。 To take shape means to take on a definite form. e.g. The plan is beginning to take shape in my mind. 4) We often say three yang make good fortune to describe the hope that misfortune will be held at bay and good luck will follow. 我们常说 “三阳开泰 ,以期远离凶险,万事亨通。 To hold sb at bay means to prevent (an enemy, pursuers, etc) from coming near. e.g. Im trying to hold my creditors at bay. 5) .says that the only significance numbers have is what people ascribe to them. 李恒力认为数字和祸福并无任何联系,他们的意义是人们强加上去的。 To ascribe sth to sb/sth means to consider sth to be caused by, written by or belonging to sb/sth. e.g. He ascribed his failure to bad luck. This play is usually ascribed to Shakespeare. You cant ascribe the same meaning to both words. 6) They are more wary of one, three, five, seven, and nine. 他们对一、三、五、七、九等数字比较谨慎。 To be wary of is to be cautious of. e.g. She was wary of strangers. 7) Thus in odd-numbered months holidays have been stipulated to help people get by. 因此单月里定下了一些节日让人们来过。 To get by is to manage to live. e.g. How does he get by on such a small salary? 8) When inquiring into the others name and the eight character horoscope of the other party. 向女方 “问名 ”或互换 “生辰八字 ”时 . 英语泛 读教程 2 Study Aid (Unit 1-15) ants05 17 To inquire into sth means to try to learn the facts about sth. e.g. We must inquire further into the matter. 9) The number of characters in the Chinese text would always have to add up to an even number. 所用字数也要凑成偶数 . To add up to means to amount to. e.g. These numbers add up to 100. 10) .Thus five fits in well with the idea of the mean always promoted by Confucian scholars, he has written. .“因此 五 正好符合儒家所提倡的 中庸 思想 ”,他这样写道。 To fit in with sth means to be in harmony with sth. e.g. Do these plans fit in with your arrangements? 11) Six is the largest number on a die, so wouldnt one win by coming up with two sixes? 骰子上最大的数字是六,如果你掷出了两个六,不就赢了吗? To come up with sth means to find or produce (an answer, a solution, etc). e.g. She came up with a new idea for increasing sales. Unit 7 Text 2 Red Envelops I. Information related to the text ECHO magazine: Echo is a biweekly magazine of news, culture and entertainment for a lesbian, bisexual, transsexual, transgender and gay readership. II. Language notes 1) But choosing a gift is an art in itself, and you can rack your brains and spend a whole day shopping, and you still wont know if the other person will like it or need it. 但是选 购礼物是一门艺术,你绞尽脑汁兜了一整天的商店,还是不知道买到手的东西别人喜欢不喜欢,需要不需要。 To rack ones brains means to try very hard to think of sth or recall sth. e.g. We racked our brains for an answer. 2) .only after dinner would it be pulled out and handed out to the small children. .饭后才把钱拉出来发给孩子们。 To hand sth out (to sb) is to distribute sth (to sb). e.g. Relief workers were handing out emergency rations (to the survivors). 3) Ruan Chang-jue reminds us that because red symbolizes the vitality of life, and all mankind in early times had their magic ways to expel evil, it was by no means unique to China. 阮长珏提醒我们,由于红色象征生命力,而且早期人类都有各自驱邪的魔法,所以绝非中国独有 . By no means means not at all. e.g. She is by no means poor: in fact, shes quite rich. 4) .who cant help but lament that today sending a red envelope is synonymous with giving a bribe. .痛心地说如今 “送红包 ”成了贿赂的同义词。 Be synonymous (with sth) means having the same meaning. e.g. Wealth is not necessarily synonymous with generosity. 5) Some Chinese have adapted to circumstances. 英语泛 读教程 2 Study Aid (Unit 1-15) ants05 18 有些中国人随机应变 . To adapt (oneself) to sth means to become adjust to new conditions, etc. e.g. She adapted herself quickly to the new climate. 6) .hoping that after they get a red envelope and become a local god of wealth, they will no longer tamper with the affairs of men. .希望他们拿到红包成为本地财神后,不再干预人间的事务。 To tamper with sth means to meddle or interfere with sth. e.g. Someone has been tampering with the lock. 7) .steakhouse may print a golden bull, to make a deeper impression on their customers. .牛排餐厅也许会印一只金牛,给顾客留下深刻印象。 To make an impression on sb means to have a deep lasting effect on the mind or feeling of sb. e.g. His first speech as president made a strong impression on his audience. 8) .how can a few piece of paper currency take the place of or outweigh the feeling in ones heart? .几张纸币怎么能取代或重过一个人内心的情意呢? To take the place of sb/sth means to replace sb/sth. e.g. Nothing could take the place of the family he had lost. 英语泛 读教程 2 Study Aid (Unit 1-15) ants05 19 Unit 8 Text 1 Getting Enough Sleep? Dream On I. Information related to the text 1) Biological Clock A biological clock is not like all clocks : it doesnt measure time passively like a sun dial and it doesnt measure a single interval and then stop like an hour glass. A biological clock is a self sustaining (i.e. it doesnt run down and need winding up like some watches and unlike the sundial will carry on telling the time even in the dark) oscillator that is linked to the environment around it and can be reset by it. Its most important function is that it times or controls an overt biological rhythm (such as the sleep-wake cycle) or some other form of biological timing (such as controlling when to enter hibernation or when to breed). Biological clocks then are physiological systems that enable organisms to live in harmony with the rhythms of nature, such as the cycles of day and night and of the seasons. 2) the ravelld sleeve of care It comes from William Shakespeares Macbeth (Act II, Scene II): MACBETH Methought I heard a voice cry Sleep no more! Macbeth does murder sleep, the innocent sleep, (2.2.33) Sleep that knits up the ravelld sleave of care, The death of each days life, sore labours bath, Balm of hurt minds, great natures second course, (2.2.36) Chief nourisher in lifes feast,- LADY MACBETH What do you mean? (2.2.37) MACBETH Still it cried Sleep no more! to all the house: Glamis hath murderd sleep, and therefore Cawdor Shall sleep no more; Macbeth shall sleep no more. II. Language notes 1. Another patient went to great lengths to obtain a 50-yard-line ticket to a crucial San Francisco 49ers play-off game. 还有一位病人费了九牛二虎之力才弄到一张五十码线的门票,观看 49 淘金人协会在旧金山队举行的一场至为关键的加时赛 . Go to any/some/great, etc. lengths (to do sth) means to be prepared to do anything, something, a lot, etc. (to achieve sth) (为达到某目的 )不顾一切 ,不遗余力。 e.g. They went to absurd lengths to keep the affair secret. There are no lengths to which an addict will not go to obtain his drug. She even went to the length of driving me home. 2. Societal pressures to work more and at odd hours have reduced our sleep time over the past century by about 20 percent. 过去的一个世纪,迫于社会压力,我们不得不加班加点,因而睡眠时间减少了约 20。 Odd here means not regular, or fixed; occasional. e.g. I take the odd bit of exercise, but nothing regular. Do you have an odd minute to help me with this? 英语泛 读教程 2 Study Aid (Unit 1-15) ants05 20 3. Its a timepiece of such astonishing precision that people often wake up a few minutes before their alarm clocks go off. 这种时钟准确得如此惊人,我们往往就在闹钟响前几分钟就会醒来。 To go off means to make a sudden, loud noise; be sounded. e.g. The thieves ran away when the burglar alarm went off. 4. You may have paid off those sleep-deprived stretches when you got sick shortly afterward and sleep 18 hours at a stretch. 或许你不久后病倒了,一睡就是十八个小时,这样的话,那些因剥夺了睡眠机会而造成的种种紧张感就被一扫而光。 At a stretch means without stopping; continuously. e.g. She worked for six hours at a stretch. 5. After years of further research, the original results still stand: 经过多年的深入调查,起初的结论依然成立: Stand means remain unchanged; remain valid. e.g. My offer still stands. Unit 8 Text 2 Three Hours to Save Your Life I. Information related to the text 1) a CAT scan CAT comes from Computed Axial Tomography. CAT scans take the idea of conventional X-ray imaging to a new level. Instead of finding the outline of bones and organs, a CAT scan machine forms a full three-dimensional computer model of a patients insides. Doctors can even examine the body one narrow slice at a time to pinpoint specific areas. 2) FDA The Food and Drug Administration is a team of dedicated professionals working to protect, promote and enhance the health of the American people. FDA is responsible for ensuring that: Foods are safe, wholesome and sanitary; human and veterinary drugs, biological products, and medical devices are safe and effective; cosmetics are safe; and electronic products that emit radiation are safe. Regulated products are honestly, accurately and informatively represented. These products are in compliance with the law and FDA regulations; noncompliance is identified and corrected; and any unsafe or unlawful products are removed from the marketplace. 3) 9-1-1 The first use of 9-1-1 took place in Haleyville, Ala. in January 1968. The town had a population of approximately 4 500 and was serviced by the Alabama Telephone Company (ATC). The 9-1-1 number was intended to be an easy-to-remember, no-coin method of reaching the correct law enforcement, fire and EMS agencies. Congress had declared that 9-1-1 should be the national emergency number just weeks before and a man called Bill Frye, an ATC engineer, quickly made some changes to the companys small telephone system to accept 9-1-1 calls. A debate broke out about where 9-1-1 calls should be routed - to the police, fire department, or local hospital. Officials settled on the Haleyville police, and a red telephone. There was no ANI/ALI service with this first installation. The first 9-1-1 call from Haleyville was made by Alabama Speaker of the House Rankin Fite on February 16, 1968 to Tom Bevill, a U.S. Representative. Later, the two said they exchanged greetings, hung up and had coffee and doughnuts. II. Language notes 英语泛 读教程 2 Study Aid (Unit 1-15) ants05 21 1. Had Zanes Cypress suffered a stroke a few years earlier, the outcome would have been far grimmer, for doctors could have done little to help him. 倘若赞恩斯 塞浦瑞斯几年前中 风的话,结果可能就会可怕得多,要知道当时医生几乎无能为力。 这是由 if 引导的非真实条件句 ,表示可能 ,能力或允许 ,与过去事实相反。 从句用 had done,主句用 would/ should/could/might have done.当 if 省略时 ,从句倒装。 e.g. If our documents had been in order, we could have left at once. 2. .then let nature take its course and focus on recovery. .然后听其自然,关注病人康复。 To take/run its course means to develop as is usual; proceed to the usual end. e.g. We can not cure the diseases; it must run its course. The decision cant be reversed; the law must take its course. 3. One reason is that most people are still not aware that the damage of a stroke can often be reversed, provided the victim gets immediate care. 原因之一,大多数人,包括医学行业的一些成员, 尚未意识到只要患者得到及时的护理,中风的损伤常常是可以治愈的。 Provided (also provided that, providing, providing that) means on the condition or understanding that. e.g. I will agree to go provided my expense. 英语泛 读教程 2 Study Aid (Unit 1-15) ants05 22 Unit 9 Text 1 First There Was the Land I. Information related to the text The Appalachian Mountains: The mountain system in the East of North America extending from southeast Quebec to north Alabama. Its highest peak, Mt. Mitchell is 6 684 feet high (2 037 meters). The Mississippi River: A river in the central part of the United States which is 2 470 miles long (2 037 kilometers), flowing from the north of central Minnesota to the Gulf of Mexico. The Rocky Mountains: The mountain system in the west of north America extending from North Alaska to north Mexico. The Gulf Stream: The warm current in north Atlantic flowing from the gulf of Mexico along the US coast northeastward to Nantucket and then eastward. The Missouri River: A 2 700-mile-long (4 345-kilometer-long) river in the west of the US flowing from southwest Montana into the Mississippi in the east Montana. It is the chief western branch of the Mississippi. The Gulf of Mexico: The inlet of the Atlantic in Mexico on southwest coast of north America. The Great Plains: The plain region in the west of the central part of the US and the west of Canada to the east of the Rocky Mountains. The Great Lakes: A chain of five lakes (Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario) in the central part of north America in the US and Canada draining through St. Lawrence River into the Atlantic. Columbia River: A 1 270-mile-long river in southwest Canada and northwest United States, flowing southwest into the Atlantic. Snake River: A river 1 038 miles long. Rising in northwest US, flowing from northwest Wyoming across the south Idaho and into the Columbia River in Washington. South Pass: A broad level valley in the southwest of central Wyoming crossing continental Divide near southeast end of the Wind River range. II. Language notes 1. No single force has been responsible for shaping the background of American history, but of the many that have contributed, none played a more important role than the land itself. 美国历史背景绝非由某单一因素形成。诸多因素中,土地起着最重要的作用。 Although many factors, not just a single one, have played an important role in American history, the land plays a more important role than any other factors. Be responsible for means to be the cause or explanation of something. e.g. I am partly responsible for the confusion. 2. They were drawn westward by the land, a land vast in size, often free for the taking, and rich in undeveloped natural resources. 他们被那片西部土地所吸引。这片土地幅员辽阔,通常可以无偿获得,而且那里未开发的资源也极其丰富。 Free for the taking means obtainable without having to pay for it. 3. In the central area, there are plains on the coast which give way rapidly to the foothill of the Appalachians and then to the mountains themselves. 位于中部地区沿海的平原与阿巴拉契亚山脉周边山麓毗邻,与连绵的群山相接。 Give way rapidly to the foothill here means plains do not expand much before they are replaced by the foothills. 英语泛 读教程 2 Study Aid (Unit 1-15) ants05 23 Foothill is a low hill at the bottom of a mountain or chain of mountains. To give way to means to be replaced. e.g. The storm gave way to bright sunshine. 4. Plenty of rainfall and fertile soil permit a long growing season for its main crops of pineapples and sugar cane. 充裕的降水和肥沃的土壤使当地长年盛产菠萝、甘蔗等主要作物。 Permit a long growing season means to make a long period of time of the year suitable for the growth of certain crops. Unit 9 Text 2 The Birth of the Modern World I. Information related to the text Middle Class: The social class that includes professional people such as doctors, engineers, teachers or managers, but does not include people who are very rich and people who mainly work with their hands. The Christian Church: In this passage, the Christian Church refers to the Roman Catholic Church before the Reformation. After the Reformation, the Christian Church was divided into two major sects, namely, the Catholic Church and the Protestant Church, the latter having a number of denominations. Roman Catholic Church: The part of the Christian religion whose leader is the Pope. The Representative government: A government that allows everyone to express their opinions by voting for representatives. Kings role was more or les that of a figurehead, a chief in name only .: Traditionally, in western Europe, Kings and Queens were of the same social status as aristocracy. The lords including army generals, bishops and high priests of the church believed that the kings and queens could not have absolute power. kings and queens only held suzerainty(宗主权 ) instead of sovereignty (主权 ).Their greatest authority was to enfeoff (授予封地 )land to the feudal lords which was to be agreed upon by the groups of lords because kings and queens did not own all the land of the country. Kings and queens were supposed to meet royal expenses out of their own wealth. If a king or queen wanted to wage a war, he or she would have to persuade the assembly of the leading wealthy feudal lords and lords spiritual, “Great Council”, to provide him with extra money. This is one of the characters of aristocratic democracy. The Magna Carta: In the 13th century, some feudal lords and the Church opposed some of King Johns (1199-1216) policies. This opposition was so powerful that the king finally granted them a charter of liberty and political rights whose medieval name is Magna Carta. The charter limited kings ability to abuse his royal power, and reflected the rights of citizens against the Crown. The New World: North, central and south America discovered by Europeans since 15thcentury. The Near East: The region that includes countries of southwest Asia and northeast Africa. Mediterranean Cities: The cities of Europe and Africa around the Mediterranean Sea, a sea 2 330 miles long between Europe and Africa, connecting with the Atlantic through the Strait of Gibraltar and with the Red Sea through the Suez Canal. The West Indies: The islands lying between the southeast of North America and the north of South America, bordering the Caribbean and comprising the Great Antilles, Lesser Antilles and the Bahamas. 英语泛 读教程 2 Study Aid (Unit 1-15) ants05 24 John Cabot: (1450-1499) An Italian navigator who later became a subject of Great Britain, and discovered the continent of North America for Great Britain. II. Language notes 1. Better maps reduced fears of the unknown, and the earlier invention of the compass took the guess work out of sailing a ship on course. 较为精确的海图减少了人们对于未知世界的恐惧。早先发明的指南针也使船只不必再揣测航向而能沿正确航向行驶。 Took the guess work out of sailing a ship on course here means no longer used the ancient practice of estimating the position of the ship on the ocean and its direction. 2. Upon his voyages, England rested its claim to the lands which would finally become the United States. 由于他的数次远航,英格兰宣称她对这片土地拥有主权 ,而这些土地最终成为了美国。 Rest its claim to the lands means declare that the lands discovered belonged to (Great Britain). 3. Almost every way of life in the medieval period was washed away by the tide of change. 改革浪潮荡涤了中世纪生活的几乎每个方面。 To wash away means to remove effects of something. e.g. Time has washed away their feud. 英语泛 读教程 2 Study Aid (Unit 1-15) ants05 25 Unit 10 Text 1 Ancient Olympic Games I. Information related to the text Olympia: Plain in southern Greece along the Alpheus(阿尔菲俄斯河 ). The Golden Age of Greece: The period of prosperity and achievement in great thought and art in the history of Greece which began in the 5th century B.C. when the ancient Greece reached the peak of their power and influence. Yard: A unit of length which is equal in the US to 0.9144 meter. Greek Democracy: Democracy began in certain city-states in ancient Greece in which the whole citizen body formed the legislature, a system made possible by the fact that a city-states population rarely exceeded10 000 persons and that women and slaves enjoyed no political rights. Citizens were illegible for a large variety of executive and judicial offices, some of which were filled by elections, others being assigned by lot. There was no separation of powers, and all officials were fully responsible to the popular assembly, which was qualified to act in executive and judicial as well as legislative matters. Greece Democracy was a brief historic episode that had little direct influence on the practice of modern states. From the fall of Greek city-states to the modern constitutional states there was a gap of 2 000 years in the practice of democracy. Zeus: The chief of the Greek gods on Mount Olympus. According to Greek mythology, Zeus is the son of Uranus, the Sky; and Gaea, the Earth. He defeated the Titans and was powerful enough to control not only the thunder and lightning, but also Mens fortune and misfortune. Therefore, he is regarded as the King of both men and gods. In Roman mythology, Zeus is called Jupiter. Sparta: Ancient city in southern Greece in Peloponnisos Peninsula with Laconia as its capital. Pindar: (522?-443? B.C.) A Greek writer of odes, who was regarded by the ancient Greeks as the greatest of their lyric poets. Pindars odes celebrated victories in games held at the greatest religious festivals of Greece - the Olympian, the Pythian, the Isthmian, and the Memean - and from these festivals the four books of pindaric odes take their names. In his religious, as in his political thought, Pindar was a conservative. As an aristocrat, he held many conventional and traditional bias of his class. He felt the virtue of excellence and achievement of the victor at the games could be achieved only by the nobly born, supported by the favor of the gods. Pindars odes must be counted among the most beautiful and influential in Greek literature. Goethe in Germany, Shelley and Wordsworth in England, and Victor Hugo in France, all used the Pindaric legacy with varying aims and varying successes. Nero: (37-68 A.D.) The 5th Roman Emperor (54-68 A.D.) infamous for his personal debaucheries and extravagance, and on doubtful evidence, for his burning of Rome and persecution of Christians. Theodosius I: (347-395 A.D.) was first the Great Roman general and latter Roman Emperor (379-395 A.D.). He banned the ancient Olympic Games in 394 A.D. Alpheus River: A river about 75 miles long in southern Greece, flowing northwestward into Ionian Sea. The Athletic Sports Union: A French group of athletic sports which Baron Pierre de Coubertin had helped to organize. II. Language notes 1. The custom lasted for more than 1 000 years but then died out under the rulers of Rome. 这一习俗延续了一千余年,后来在罗马人统治时终止了。 英语泛 读教程 2 Study Aid (Unit 1-15) ants05 26 To die out means to disappear completely. In this sentence, it means to stop. e.g. The moths habitat is being destroyed and it has nearly died out. The old traditions are dying out. 2. They survived for centuries, inspiring the music and poetry and the architecture and sculpture that were to become the magnificence of the Golden Age of Greece. 几个世纪里,它赋予人们无穷无尽的创作灵 感,使他们创作出希腊黄金时代辉煌的音乐、诗歌、建筑和雕塑作品。 Be to in this sentence expresses destiny. e.g. The celebrations were not to take place. (ie They did not, in fact, take place.) 3. Only freeborn male citizens could take part in the Olympic Games. 唯有出生于自由民的男性方可参加奥运会比赛。 Freeborn here means not born in slavery. 4. She was pardoned, and in time women were allowed in the games. 她终于得到豁免,而且此后不久,妇女也终于获准观看比赛。 In time in this sentence means after a certain period of time. e.g. He kept on practicing painting, and in time, he became a good artist. 5. One of the greatest honors was to be crowned to the winner of the pentathlon (meaning five contests). 赛场上最大的荣耀是获得五项全能比赛的优胜桂冠。 Be to in this sentence expresses arrangement, intention or purpose. e.g. Each participant was to pay his own expenses. 6. Remains of the huge statue of Zeus at Olympia bear the signature of Phidias, the famous Athenian sculptor and architect. 在奥林匹亚残存的宙斯巨 型雕像上,著名雅典雕塑家 、建筑师菲迪亚斯的签名依然清晰可见。 Bear here means show sth or carry visibly. e.g. The coach bears the royal coat of arms. 7. In 1892, at a meeting of the Athletic Sports Union, De Coubertin first put forth the idea of starting the Olympic Games again. 1892 年,在一次田径运动联合会的会议上,顾拜旦倡议重新举办奥运会。 To put forth her means to advance, propose or suggest sth for discussion. e.g. She is putting forth a radical proposals for medical reform. 8. It was fitting that Baron de Coubertin should remain director of the International Olympic Committee until 1925. 因此,理所当然地,直到 1925 年,他一直连任国际奥委会主席。 Note that-clause is in subjunctive mood. Fitting here means suitable for the occasion; right or proper. e.g. It was fitting that he should be here to tackle the problem in person. Unit 10 Text 2 Modern Olympic Games I. Information related to the text Marathon: The site of a victory of Greeks over Persians in 490 B.C. The news of the victory was carried to Athens by a warrior Pheidippides, who ran a long distance of 26 miles (42.2 kilometers) and dropped dead as soon as he finished shouting out Rejoice, we have conquered. The Marathon is the longest foot race, 26 miles, named after the town of Marathon. 英语泛 读教程 2 Study Aid (Unit 1-15) ants05 27 Montreal: A city and a seaport in southern Quebec, Canada on Montreal Island which is in St. Lawrence river with a population of 1 100 000. Antwerp: A city and a seaport in northern Belgium with a population of 191 000. Language notes 1. The Modern Olympic Games might have remained just a part of history without the dream of one Frenchman, Pierre de Coubertin. 如果没有法国人皮埃尔 徳 顾拜旦的梦想,现代奥林匹克运动也许只能是段历 史。 This sentence can be paraphrased as the Olympic Games might have been memorized as an event in Greek history, taking place long ago without being turned into reality if Pierre de Coubertin failed to have come up with the idea of reopening the Olympic Games. 2. The Greek government was unhappy with the decision to hold the Games in Athens, as they had serious economic problems at the time and did not feel they were in a position to spend the necessary money. 当时由于希腊政府在国内面临严重的经济困难,感到难以支付举办奥运会所需资金 ,因此政府对在雅典举办奥运会的决定颇为不满。 Be in position to do sth means to be able to do sth. e.g. Im sorry Im not in a position to help you right now, for Ive to finish typing this long letter in half an hour. 3. Australia, Austria, Britain, Bulgaria, Chile, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Sweden, Switzerland and the USA, were the only countries to send athletes to the Games and most of the athletes who did come had to pay for their own travel and other costs. 仅有来自澳大利亚、奥地利、不列颠、保加利亚、智利、丹麦、法国、徳国、匈牙利、瑞典、瑞士和美国的运动员参赛,而且大多数参赛运动员的旅费及其它费用均由他们本人承担。 The athletes had to pay for their own travel and other costs because the competitors in the early modern Olympic Games were not sent by their governments. They went to the Games by themselves and paid for their own traveling expenses and other costs. It was not until 1908 when the Games were held in London that athletes were sent by their countries and their expenses were covered by the governments. 英语泛 读教程 2 Study Aid (Unit 1-15) ants05 28 Unit 11 Text 1 We Are Still Alive! I. About earthquakes It is a convulsion of the superficial parts of the earth due to the release of accumulated stress as a result of faults in strata or volcanic action. While gentle earth tremors can occur in any religion of the globe, the more severe ones usually occur near the edges of the major plates that make up the earths crust. The point at which an earthquake shock originates is called the focus and the point immediately above this on the earths surface is the epicenter. The intensity of the earthquake is reported as measured by the Richter scale. Major earthquakes generally measure between about 7 and 9, though in theory there is no upper limit on the scale. Minor earthquakes occur around the world every day, some so small that they can only be felt by sophisticated seismological instruments. But it is the large earthquakes that preoccupy peoples thoughts. Inhabitants of areas that are prone to earthquakes want to know when to expect the Big One. Seismologists are well aware that predicting major earthquakes, their location and severity, is something they have so far been unable to do with any accuracy. Internationally, seismologists are still at the stage of trying to understand the earthquake process. A major earthquake in rural Lijiang region in Yunnan province in February in 1996 caused extensive damage to buildings, hundreds of deaths and more than 3000 injuries. It was Chinas most devastating earthquake since 1988, when at least 1000 people died in the south of the country. In 1976, an estimated 242,000 people died in Tangshan in Hebei province. In Los Angeles, California, in January 1994 and Kobe, Japan, in January 1995 - these quakes took seismologists and relief agencies by surprise. II. More about the story After 11 days trapped in the Hyatt ruins, Arnel Calabias injured right hand was gangrenous. Surgeons amputated three fingers, but he was otherwise unharmed. Luisa Jingjing Mallorca emerged from her ordeal with only minor abrasions and bruises. Pedrito Dy survived 14 days beneath the debris without serious injuries. Citing the exemplary acts of heroism of the miners, then-president Corazon Aquino issued a presidential award commending their tireless and unselfish deeds performed under extreme risk to life. III. Language notes 1) Adjacent to the tower were seven floors of rooms that rose like steps. 高楼边上是七层楼卧房,象一段楼梯似的挺立着。 Adjacent to means very close. e.g. The council offices are adjacent to the library. 2)The overhead lights went out. 头顶上的灯灭了。 Go out means stop burning or shining. e.g. Without more coal, the fire will soon go out. 3)Pedrito arched his back against the mattress, desperately trying to form an air space. 帕吉特拱起背顶住床垫,不顾一切地试图形成一个空间。 To arch means to make into the shape of an arch. e.g. The trees arched over the path. 4) Jingjing Mallorca tripped over the debris. 京京 莫洛卡被碎石绊倒了。 英语泛 读教程 2 Study Aid (Unit 1-15) ants05 29 To trip (over) means to catch ones foot and lose ones balance. e.g. The fisherman tripped over a root and fell into the river. 5) Jingjing twisted to her side, struggling to shift the debris from Williams body, but she could not budge the heaviest chunks. 京京扭向一侧,吃力地把那些碎石从威廉身上移开,但她实在无法挪动最重的那些大石块。 To budge means to move a little. e.g. We tried to lift the rock but it wouldnt budge. 6)Arnel Calabia bit his lip, trying to dull the pain from his trapped right hand. 阿恩尔 凯兰比尔咬紧嘴唇,试图减轻被困的右手的疼痛。 To trap means to place firmly with no possibility of escape. e.g. Twenty miners were trapped underground after the fire 7) His internal injuries were dragging him relentlessly toward death. 内伤无情地把他 拽向死亡。 To drag means to pull along with great effort. e.g. Why must you drag me out to a concert on a cold night like this? 8) Her dust-caked face was bathed with a sweet, cool draft. 她那粘满灰尘的脸,沐浴在清新凉爽的空气中。 To bathe means to spread over with. e.g. The childs eyes were bathed with tears. 9) Arnel clenched his jaw against the pain as the miners saved through a wooden frame to free him. 当矿工们锯开一个木头架来解救阿恩尔时,他咬紧牙关忍着疼痛。 To free means to loosen (a person that is prevented from moving). e.g. Her dress got caught on a rose bush, and she tore it when she tried to free herself from the thorns. Unit 11 Text 2 Darwin - Cyclone Tracy in 1974 I. About Cyclone Tracy A cyclone is the Southern Hemispheres version of a Hurricane, the only difference being that cyclones rotate clockwise rather than counter-clockwise. Cyclone Tracy didnt appear to be a threat to Darwin, Australia on the 23rd of December, 1974. Unfortunately over the next day the storm would rapidly intensify and take an unexpected looping turn to the east, placing an unprepared Darwin right in the heart of the storms fury. When Tracy finally struck Darwin on Christmas day, she was nearly at Category 5 strength, packing winds of 150 mph and carrying a 19 foot storm surge. I t caused an estimated $1 billion in damage and required the evacuation of 35,362 residents. In all, 70 percent of Darwins homes were destroyed or suffered severe structural damage. All services - communications, power, water and sewerage - were severed. II. Language notes 1) The people of Darwin were well aware of the threat of cyclone in their part of the world. 达尔文市的人们清楚地知道到他们这个地区有龙卷风的威胁。 Be aware of means having knowledge of. e.g. He said that the government was acutely (=very) aware of the problem. 英语泛 读教程 2 Study Aid (Unit 1-15) ants05 30 2) But because few of the storms ever hit the towns on the coast, people had come to discount the warnings. 但暴风雨极少袭击过海边的这座城镇,所以人们没有重视这一警告。 Discount here means regard something as less important. e.g. Experts have discount the possibility of a second earthquake in the area. 3) Houses were torn from the ground and thrown several yards in all directions. 房屋被掀起,抛出几码外,四处飞落。 To tear means to remove by sudden force. e.g. Several trees were torn up (=from the ground) in last nights storm. 4) As the full anger of Cyclone Tracy began to die down, Peter Firth struggled out of his ruined house and forced open the front door of the Aulds home. 当怒吼的 “特蕾西 ”龙卷风风力渐弱时,彼特 弗瑟挣扎着爬出倒塌的房子,用力打开奥德家的前门。 To die down means to be come less strong, violent. e.g. The excitement soon died down. 5) The mother Mrs Vivianne Buffery described the scene at the height of the storm. 那位母亲,维维安 巴弗雷女士 ,描述了当时风力最劲时的情景。 Height here means the main or most active point. e.g. The famine was at its height. 6) The city was so badly hit that it was decided to bring in bulldozers to knocked down whatever was left standing. 整座城市 遭到了严重的破坏,最后人们决定用推土机铲除所有残留的建筑。 To knock down here is to destroy and remove the structure (a building, bridge, etc.) e.g. Our house is being knocked down to make way for a new road. 英语泛 读教程 2 Study Aid (Unit 1-15) ants05 31 Unit 12 Text 1 The beauty and the yak I. Information related to the text Snowman: humanlike creature so named because it is associated with the perpetual snow region of the Himalayas. A figure unknown except through tracks ascribed to it and through alleged encounters, it is described as being 6 to 8 ft (1.8 to 2.4 m) tall and covered with long, dark hair. Attempts after the 1950s to verify the authenticity of its tracks (notably by Sir Edmund Hillary in 1960) have yielded no conclusive results. Most scholars dismiss the existence of the creature. A somewhat similarly described creature of W North America is known as Bigfoot or Sasquatch. II. Language notes 1) These peaks all straddle the boundary between Nepal and China or Nepal and India. 所有这些险峻的峰峦都座落在尼中或尼印边界上。 This part means that these peaks are located on both sides of the border between Nepal and China or Nepal and India. 2) A wooden stairway, equipped with the luxury of a handrail, led upstairs. 一段楼梯已经磨损,溜滑的木质 楼梯直通楼上,楼梯居然还装有扶手。 This sentence can be paraphrased as though very simple and crude, the stairway unexpectedly had a handrail that seemed not well matched with the crudeness of it. 3) And then, no doubt, breaking every rule of Sharpa etiquette. 接着,我无疑打破了夏巴人礼节上的一切清规戒律 . Etiquette means customs. This part means: and then, doubtlessly, acting against the customs of Sharpa tribe. 4) That night sleep confused me. 那天晚上我难以成眠。 The sentence means that night, I didnt sleep well. 5) At this moment my flashlight went completely dead, and neither shaking or cajoling could revive it. 就在这时,我的手电筒灭了。无论我如何摆弄,就是不亮。 To cajole means to coax or persuade someone to do something. To revive it means to make it light up again. 6) On the fourth step down I slipped, fell, and was just barely able, with my right hand, to check my slide. 刚走下四级,我就滑了一跤,幸而右手抓着扶手才算没滑下楼去。 To check my slide means to prevent me from sliding further down. e.g. The government is determined to check the growth of public spending. 7) Then my flashlight banged against a step and, miraculously, the light sprang back to life. 手电筒在楼梯上碰了一下,这时竟突然奇迹般地亮了。 The light sprang back to life means the flashlight suddenly lit up again. 8) My budget was tight, yet I handed him a $20 bill. 我手头并不宽裕,但我还是给了他一张二十美元的钞票。 This sentence means that although I havent got much extra money apart from the money I planned to spend during the trip, I handed him a $20 bill. 9) Then my trek mates and our crew came, and soon a boiled potato gathering was in full swing. 旅伴们和随 行的人们随后也都到了,不久人们又聚集在一起,热热闹闹地煮土豆吃。 In full swing means fully active. 英语泛 读教程 2 Study Aid (Unit 1-15) ants05 32 e.g. The party was in full swing when he arrived. Unit 12 Text 2 A New Future for Dorah I. Information related to the text 1) South Africa It is a country blessed with an abundance of natural resources including fertile farmlands and unique mineral resources. South African mines are world leaders in the production of diamonds and gold as well as strategic metals such as platinum. The climate is mild, reportedly resembling the San Francisco bay area weather more than anywhere in the world. 2) Apartheid in Africa Racial segregation and the supremacy of whites had been traditionally accepted in South Africa prior to 1948, but in the general election of that year, Daniel F. Malan officially included the policy of apartheid in the Afrikaner Nationalist party platform, bringing his party to power for the first time. Although most whites acquiesced in the policy, there was bitter and sometimes bloody strife over the degree and stringency of its implementation. The purpose of apartheid was separation of the races: not only of whites from nonwhites, but also of nonwhites from each other, and, among the Africans (called Bantu in South Africa), of one group from another. In addition to the Africans, who constitute about 75% of the total population, those regarded as nonwhites include those people known in the country as Coloured (people of mixed black, Malayan, and white descent) and Asian (mainly of Indian ancestry) populations. Under the prime ministership of Hendrik Verwoerd apartheid developed into a policy known as separate development, whereby each of the nine African (Bantu) groups was to become a nation with its own homeland, or Bantustan. An area totaling about 14% of the countrys land was set aside for these homelands, the remainder, including the major mineral areas and the cities, being reserved for the whites. In 1962 the South African government established the first of the Bantustans, the Transkei, as the homeland of the Xhosa people, and granted it limited self-government in 1963, later becoming independent. Bophuthatswana, Ciskei, and Venda were also granted independence, but no nation other than South Africa recognized them. Lebowa, Kangwane, Gazankulu, Qwaqwa, KwaZulu, and KwaNdebele were declared “self-governing” in the 1970s. None of the reserves were viable nations; they were made up of broken tracts of poor-quality land, riddled with erosion and incapable of supporting their large designated populations. With no industry, opportunities for employment were few. Urban wage earners attempted to contribute to the support of their families in the reserves, but the level of black wages was so low that this was barely feasible. In 1994 the Bantustans were abolished and the territories were reabsorbed into the nation of South Africa. Despite public demonstrations, UN resolutions, and opposition from international religious societies, apartheid was applied with increased rigor in the 1960s. In 1961 South Africa withdrew from the Commonwealth of Nations rather than yield to pressure over its racial policies, and in the same year the three South African denominations of the Dutch Reformed Church left the World Council of Churches rather than abandon apartheid. Although the policy of apartheid was continued under Prime Minister John Vorster there was some relaxation of its pettier aspects, and this accelerated under his successor, P. W. Botha. 英语泛 读教程 2 Study Aid (Unit 1-15) ants05 33 Probably the most forceful pressures, both internal and external, eroding the barriers of apartheid were economic. International sanctions severely affected the South African economy, raising the cost of necessities, cutting investment, even forcing many American corporations to disinvest, for example, or, under the Sullivan Rules, to employ without discrimination. In addition, the severe shortage of skilled labor led to lifting limits on African wages, and granting Africans the right to strike and organize unions. Unions, churches, and students organized protests throughout the 1970s and 80s. Moreover, political, economic, and military pressures were exerted by the independent countries of sub-Saharan Africa. As a result of these pressures, many lesser apartheid laws - such as those banning interracial marriage and segregating facilities - were repealed or fell into disuse by 1990. In 1991 President de de Klerk Klerk obtained the repeal of the remaining apartheid laws and called for the drafting of a new constitution. In 1993 a multiracial, multiparty transitional government was approved, and fully free elections were held in 1994, which gave majority representation to the African National Congress. II. Language notes 1) At the end of 1997 doctors in South Africa recommended that her eyes should be removed to prevent infection. 一九九七年岁末 ,南非的医生建议割除她的双眼以防止感染。 Note in this sentence recommend is followed by a sentence in the subjunctive mood, and should can be omitted. e.g. His wife recommended that he resign. 2) It has also raised 76 000 in donations - people wrote from as far afield as Australia and New York. 由此我们筹措了 76000 镑的捐款 - 连远在澳大利亚和纽约的读者也给我们来过信。 Raise here means manage to obtain. e.g. They are raising funds for charity. 3) Margaret was raised mainly by her frail grandmother. 玛格丽特主要是由祖母抚养大的 . Raise in this case means to bring up. 4) She has no positive role models to encourage her to do so. 她也没有可以仿效的正面榜样鼓励她这么做。 Positive here means tending toward improvement. e.g. Positive progress has been achieved during the negotiations. 英语泛 读教程 2 Study Aid (Unit 1-15) ants05 34 Unit 13 Text 1 Danger by candlelight I. Information related to the text Maginot Line: It was built between 1929 and 1940 to provide time for the French army to mobilize and to make up for a potentially disastrous shortfall of manpower predicted for the late 1930s. II. Language notes 1) These twin terrors too often went hand in hand with patriotism during the Second World War. 第二次世界大战期间,这对恐怖的孪生兄弟与爱国行为时时携手相随。 The twin terrors refer to the suspense and the shadow of death mentioned in the previous sentence. Went hand in hand means were closely connected. 2) He envied his friend Pierre who, although only fourteen, was in active service with the Free France. 雅克很羡慕自己的好 朋友皮埃尔。皮埃尔才十四岁,却已经参加了自由法兰西的地下武装。 In active service here means actually fighting in the armed forces. 3) Jacqueline was to be taken care of by loyal neighbors should the hand of death suddenly knock at the Bernauds door. 一旦死神叩响伯纳家的门,杰奎琳将由忠于法国的邻居们帮助抚养。 Should the hand of death knock at the Bernauds door is in the subjunctive mood. 4) The light was now good enough for a keen observer to note that a tense look left Jacques face. 那灯光足以使目光敏锐的人注意到雅克脸上那紧张的神色消失了。 The light of the lamp would enable anyone careful enough to see that a look of nervous anxiety disappeared from Jacques face. 5) He must be in at the finish. 事情了结的时候,他一定跑不了。 Be in at means be present at. Unit 13 Text 2 A Physicians Life in a Turbulent World I. Language notes 1) . instead of storing it in the cache we had prepared for sensitive material. .而没有藏入我们为保存秘密材料准备的秘室。 Storing it in the cache we had prepared for sensitive material means concealing it in the secret hiding place for confidential documents. 2) My strongest recollection of the next moment is the total collapse of Lion. 接着发生的事,我记忆最深的就是莱昂完全 崩溃。 The total collapse means the complete nervous brea


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