语言文化论文-法语对英语的影响.doc语言文化论文-法语对英语的影响.doc

收藏 分享

资源预览需要最新版本的Flash Player支持。
您尚未安装或版本过低,建议您

语言文化论文法语对英语的影响ABSTRACTBOTHFRENCHANDENGLISHBELONGTOTHEINDOEUROPEANFAMILYSINCETHEMIDDLEENGLISHPERIODFRENCHHASHADSTRONGINFLUENCEONENGLISHTHEINFLUENCEOFTHEFRENCHLANGUAGEUPONTHEENGLISHLANGUAGECANBEDIVIDEDINTOTWOMAINSTAGESTHEFIRSTONEISFROM1066TO1500THEDECISIVEFACTORDURINGTHISTIMEISTHENORMANCONQUESTALARGENUMBEROFFRENCHWORDSPOUREDINTOENGLISHASAPARTOFENGLISHETYMOLOGY,EXTENDINGINFLUENCETOGRAMMAR,SPELLING,PRONUNCIATIONANDWORDFORMATIONTHESECONDSTAGEISFROMEUROPEANRENAISSANCETOTHEPRESENTGLOBALIZATIONWITHTHEINCREASINGCOMMUNICATIONAMONGECONOMY,CULTUREANDTECHNOLOGY,MANYFOREIGNBORROWINGSHAVEBEENIMPORTEDFROMDIFFERENTCOUNTRIESFRENCHASABORROWINGCONTINUESITSCONTRIBUTIONTOTHEENGLISHVOCABULARYBYANALYZINGTHEFUSIONOFTHETWOLANGUAGES,THISPAPERTRIESTOPRESENTTHEVOCABULARYEVOLUTIONANDITSCULTURALCONNOTATIONKEYWORDSFRENCH;ENGLISH;VOCABULARY;INFLUENCE;NORMANCONQUEST;NATURALIZATION【摘要】法语和英语同属于印欧语系,中古英语以来法语对英语就有着极其深刻的影响。法语对英语的影响主要分为两个阶段第一阶段从1066年到1500年,在这一阶段诺曼征服是其决定性的因素。大量的法语词汇进入英语,构成了英语词源的一部分。其影响涉及语法、拼写、语音以及构词等方面。第二阶段是从欧洲的文艺复兴到现在加速世界一体化的信息时代。各国之间的文化相互渗透,经济、文化、科技密切联系。许多国家的词汇进入英语,法语作为外来语继续丰富着英语的词汇。本文通过分析两种语言的融合来探讨词汇的发展演变过程及其所反映的历史文化色彩。【关键词】法语;英语;词汇;影响;诺曼征服;归化1INTRODUCTIONTHEDEVELOPMENTOFACERTAINLANGUAGEHASALONGHISTORYIT’SINEVITABLETHATDIFFERENTLANGUAGESINFLUENCEANDPENETRATEEACHOTHERINTHEIRFORMATIONANDDEVELOPMENTINADDITION,APARTICULARLANGUAGEASSIMILATESTHEREFINEDPORTIONOFOTHERLANGUAGESTOENRICHITSELFENGLISHISTHETYPICALREPRESENTATIVEOFTHISKINDOFLANGUAGEASACOSMOPOLITANLANGUAGE,ENGLISHHASBEENGREATLYINFLUENCEDBYVARIOUSLANGUAGES,ESPECIALLYBYFRENCHSINCETHEMIDDLEENGLISHPERIODFRENCHHADASTRONGINFLUENCEONENGLISHTHEINFLUENCEOFTHEFRENCHLANGUAGEUPONTHEENGLISHLANGUAGECANBEDIVIDEDINTOTWOMAINSTAGESTHEFIRSTSTAGEISFROMNORMANCONQUESTTO1500ONEOFTHEMOSTINFLUENTIALFACTORSISTHENORMANCONQUESTATTHISSTAGETHEFRENCHWASUSEDBYTHEUPPERCLASSATFIRST,ANDTHENTHETWOLANGUAGESFUSEDTOGETHERANDATLASTTHEFRENCHWASACKNOWLEDGEDBYCOMMONPEOPLETHESECONDSTAGEISFROM1500TOTHEPRESENTTIMEONTHEWHOLETHEMOSTDIRECTANDOBSERVABLEIMPACTMANIFESTSITSELFONTHEWORDBORROWINGTHESCALEOFVOCABULARYISWIDEWECANFINDWORDSRELATINGTOEVERYASPECTOFHUMANSOCIETY,EGGOVERNMENT,LAW,RELIGION,MILITARYAFFAIRS,FOODANDSOONMOREOVER,THEDEGREEOFVOCABULARYINFLUENCEISCONSIDERABLESOMEWORDSAREASSIMILATED;SOMENATIVEWORDSARELOSTWHILEOTHERWORDS’MEANINGSAREEXPANDEDBESIDES,FRENCHALSOINFLUENCESENGLISHGRAMMAR,SPELLING,PRONUNCIATIONANDWORDFORMATIONANDNOWTHEINFLUENCEISSTILLGOINGON2INDOEUROPEANFAMILYTHELANGUAGESBROUGHTINTORELATIONSHIPBYDESCENTORPROGRESSIVEDIFFERENTIATIONFROMAPARENTSPEECHARECONVENIENTLYCALLEDAFAMILYOFLANGUAGESITISASSUMEDTHATTHEREAREROUGHLY300LANGUAGEFAMILIESINTHEWORLD,ANDTHEINDOEUROPEAN,ONEOFTHESE,ISMADEUPOFMOSTLANGUAGESOFEUROPE,THENEAREAST,ANDINDIATHEPARENTTONGUEFROMWHICHTHEINDOEUROPEANLANGUAGESHAVESPRUNGHADALREADYBECAMEDIVIDEDANDSCATTEREDBEFORETHEDAWNOFHISTORYTHESURVIVINGLANGUAGESSHOWVARIOUSDEGREESOFSIMILARITIESTOONEANOTHER,THESIMILARITYBEARINGAMOREORLESSDIRECTRELATIONSHIPTOTHEIRGEOGRAPHICALDISTRIBUTIONTHEYACCORDINGLYFALLINTOELEVENPRINCIPALGROUPSINDIAN,IRANIAN,ARMENIAN,HELLENIC,ALBANIAN,ITALIC,BALTOSLAVIC,GERMANIC,CELTIC,HITTITE,ANDTOCHARIAN1THEITALICBRANCHHASITSCENTERINITALY,ANDTOMOSTPEOPLEITALYINANCIENTTIMESSUGGESTSROMEANDTHELANGUAGEOFROME,LATINTHEVARIOUSLANGUAGESTHATREPRESENTTHESURVIVALOFLATININTHEDIFFERENTPARTSOFTHEROMEEMPIREAREKNOWNASTHEROMANCEORROMANICLANGUAGESTHEMOSTEXTENSIVEOFTHEROMANCELANGUAGESAREFRENCH,SPANISH,PORTUGUESE,ANDITALIANTHECOMMONFORMTHATTHELANGUAGESOFTHEGERMANICBRANCHHADBEFORETHEYBECAMEDIFFERENTIATEDISKNOWNASGERMANICORPROTOGERMANICTHELANGUAGESDESCENDEDFROMITFALLINTOTHREEGROUPSEASTGERMANIC,NORTHGERMANIC,ANDWESTGERMANICWESTGERMANICISTHEGROUPTOWHICHENGLISHBELONGS2INSHORT,BOTHFRENCHANDENGLISHBELONGTOTHEINDOEUROPEANFAMILY3MANYENGLISHWORDSCOMINGFROMOTHERLANGUAGES,ESPECIALLYFROMFRENCHASWEKNOW,THEENGLISHLANGUAGEISOFAMIXEDCHARACTERONONEHAND,ITSHARESWITHWESTGERMANICLANGUAGESMANYCOMMONWORDSANDSIMILARGRAMMATICALSTRUCTURESONTHEOTHERHAND,MORETHANHALFOFTHEENGLISHVOCABULARYISDERIVEDFROMLATIN,GREEK,NOTABLYFRENCH4THEINFLUENCEOFTHEFRENCHLANGUAGEUPONTHEENGLISHLANGUAGE41THESOCIALBACKGROUNDOFTHEINFLUENCE411THEORIGINOFNORMANDYONTHENORTHERNCOASTOFFRANCEISADISTRICTKNOWNASNORMANDYITDERIVESITSNAMEFROMTHEBANDSOFNORTHMENWHOSETTLEDTHEREINTHENINTHANDTENTHCENTURIESTHENORMANSHADSOONABSORBEDTHEMOSTIMPORTANTELEMENTSOFFRENCHCIVILIZATIONTHEYGAVEUPTHEIROWNLANGUAGEANDLEARNEDFRENCHFORSOMEYEARSBEFORETHENORMANCONQUESTTHERELATIONSBETWEENENGLANDANDNORMANDYHADBEENFAIRLYCLOSEIN1002RHELREDTHEUNREADYHADMARRIEDANORMANWIFEANDTHEIRSONEDWARD,WHOHADTHUSBEENBROUGHTUPINFRANCE,WASALMOSTMOREFRENCHTHANENGLISHIN1042,EDWARDWASRESTOREDTOTHETHRONEANDHEBROUGHTWITHHIMANUMBEROFHISNORMANFRIENDSANDGAVETHEMIMPORTANTPLACESINTHEGOVERNMENTASTRONGFRENCHATMOSPHEREPERVADEDTHEENGLISHCOURTDURINGTHETWENTYFOURYEARSOFHISREIGN412THENORMANINVASIONATHISSUCCESSIONTHEMOSTINFLUENTIALNOBLEWASGODWIN,EARLOFTHEWESTSAXONEARLDOMHISELDESTSON,HAROLD,WASELECTEDKINGWHENEDWARDDIEDIN1066BUTHISELECTIONDIDNOTLONGGOUNCHALLENGEDWILLIAM,THEDUKEOFNORMANDYATTHISTIME,WASASECONDCOUSINTOTHELATEKINGALTHOUGHTHISRELATIONSHIPDIDNOTGIVEHIMANYRIGHTOFINHERITANCETOTHEENGLISHTHRONE,HEHADNEVERTHELESSBEENLIVINGINEXPECTATIONOFBECOMINGEDWARD’SSUCCESSORHEHOPEDTOOBTAINTHECROWNBYFORCEONSEPTEMBER1066,WILLIAMLANDEDATPEVENSEY,ONTHESOUTHCOASTOFENGLAND,WITHAFORMIDABLEFORCEHAROLDWASKILLEDDURINGTHEBATTLEANDTHEENGLISHWERESOONINFULLRETREATONCHRISTMASDAY1066,WILLIAMWASCROWNEDKINGOFENGLAND413THENORMANSETTLEMENTWILLIAM’SPOSSESSIONOFTHETHRONEHADBEENAMATTEROFCONQUESTANDWASATTENDEDBYALLTHECONSEQUENCESOFTHECONQUESTOFONEPEOPLEBYANOTHERONEOFTHEMOSTIMPORTANTOFTHESECONSEQUENCESWASTHEINTRODUCTIONOFANEWNOBILITYFORSEVERALGENERATIONSAFTERTHECONQUESTTHEIMPORTANTPOSITIONSANDTHEGREATESTATESWEREALMOSTALWAYSHELDBYNORMANSORMENOFFOREIGNBLOODSIMILARLY,NORMANPRELATESWEREGRADUALLYINTRODUCEDINTOALLIMPORTANTPOSITIONSINTHECHURCHITISLESSEASYTOSPEAKWITHCERTAINTYOFTHENORMANSINTHELOWERWALKSOFLIFEWHOCAMEINTOENGLANDWITHWILLIAM’SARMYMANYOFTHEMDOUBTLESSREMAINEDINTHEISLAND,ANDTHEIRNUMBERWASINCREASEDBYCONSTANTACCRETIONSTHROUGHOUTTHERESTOFTHEELEVENTHCENTURYANDTHEWHOLEOFTHENEXTLIKEWISEMERCHANTSANDCRAFTSMENFROMTHECONTINENTSEEMTOHAVESETTLEDINENGLANDINCONSIDERABLENUMBERSITISQUITEIMPOSSIBLETOSAYHOWMANYNORMANSANDFRENCHPEOPLESETTLEDINENGLAND,BUTBECAUSETHEGOVERNINGCLASSINBOTHCHURCHANDSTATEWASALMOSTEXCLUSIVELYMADEUPFROMAMONGTHEM,THEIRINFLUENCEWASOUTOFALLPROPORTIONTOTHEIRNUMBER42THEINFLUENCEOFFRENCHUPONENGLISHINTHEMIDDLEENGLISHPERIOD421THEUSEOFFRENCHBYTHEUPPERCLASSWHATEVERTHEACTUALNUMBEROFNORMANSSETTLEDINENGLAND,ITISCLEARTHATTHEMEMBERSOFTHENEWRULINGCLASSWERESUFFICIENTLYPREDOMINANTTOCONTINUETOUSETHEIROWNLANGUAGETHISWASNATURALENOUGHATFIRST,ASTHEYKNEWNOENGLISH;BUTTHEYCONTINUEDTODOSOFORALONGTIMETOCOME,PICKINGUPSOMEKNOWLEDGEOFENGLISHGRADUALLYBUTMAKINGNOEFFORTTODOSOASAMATTEROFPOLICYFOR200YEARSAFTERTHENORMANCONQUEST,FRENCHREMAINEDTHELANGUAGEOFORDINARYINTERCOURSEAMONGTHEUPPERCLASSESINENGLANDTHENOBILITYCHOSETOMAINTAINFRENCHASTHELANGUAGEOFSOCIETY,ADMINISTRATIONANDCOMMERCE3ATFIRSTTHOSEWHOSPOKEFRENCHWERETHOSEOFNORMANORIGIN,BUTSOONTHROUGHINTERMARRIAGEANDASSOCIATIONWITHTHERULINGCLASSNUMEROUSPEOPLEOFENGLISHEXTRACTIONMUSTHAVEFOUNDITTOTHEIRADVANTAGETOLEARNTHENEWLANGUAGE,ANDBEFORELONGTHEDISTINCTIONBETWEENTHOSEWHOSPOKEFRENCHANDTHOSEWHOSPOKEENGLISHWASNOTETHNICBUTLARGELYSOCIALTHEMOSTIMPORTANTFACTORINTHECONTINUEDUSEOFFRENCHBYTHEENGLISHUPPERCLASSUNTILTHEBEGINNINGOFTHETHIRTEENTHCENTURYWASTHECLOSECONNECTIONTHATEXISTEDTHROUGHALLTHESEYEARSBETWEENENGLANDANDTHECONTINENTTHESUBJUGATEDENGLISHWERENOTKILLEDOFF,NORWERETHEYDRIVENFROMTHEIRCOUNTRYTHEYWERERELEGATEDTOTHESTATUSOFANINFERIORPEOPLE,GOODSWINEHERDSANDSERVANTSTHEREFORE,ENGLANDBECAMEABILINGUALCOUNTRYTHENORMANSBELONGEDTOARACEOFSCANDINAVIANORIGIN,BUTDURINGTHERESIDENCEINNORMANDYTHEYHADGIVENUPTHEIRNATIVELANGUAGEANDHADADOPTEDTHEFRENCHDIALECTOFTHATREGIONTHENORMANSINTRODUCEDINTOENGLANDAVARIETYOFTHEFRENCHLANGUAGEWECALLNORMANFRENCH,THEOTHERVARIETYISPARISIANFRENCHBYTHEENDOFTHETHIRTEENTHCENTURYPARISIANFRENCHBEGANTOENTERENGLAND,ANDMORESTILLINTHEFIFTEENTHCENTURYALARGENUMBEROFFRENCHWORDSMADETHEIRAPPEARANCEINTHEWORKSOFCHAUCERANDOTHERENGLISHWRITERS,ESPECIALLYINMANYENGLISHTRANSLATIONSOFFRENCHLITERARYWORKSPUBLISHEDATTHATTIME422FUSIONOFTHETWOPEOPLESANDTWOLANGUAGESINTHEYEARSFOLLOWINGTHENORMANCONQUESTTHESTINGOFDEFEATANDTHEHARDSHIPSINCIDENTTOSOGREATAPOLITICALANDSOCIALDISTURBANCEWEREGRADUALLYFORGOTTENPEOPLEACCEPTEDTHENEWORDERASSOMETHINGACCOMPLISHED;THEYACCEPTEDITASAFACTANDADJUSTEDTHEMSELVESTOITTHEFUSIONOFNORMANSANDENGLISHWASRAPIDANDTHEEARLYFUSIONOFFRENCHANDENGLISHINENGLANDISQUITECLEARFROMAVARIETYOFEVIDENCESITISEVIDENTINTHEMARRIAGEOFNORMANSTOENGLISHWOMENITISEVIDENTFROMTHEWAYINWHICHTHEENGLISHGAVETHEIRSUPPORTTOTHEIRRULERSANDNORMANPRELATESITISEVIDENTINMANYOTHERWAYSEVERYWHERETHEREARESIGNSOFCONVERGENCE423KNOWLEDGEOFFRENCHAMONGTHEMIDDLECLASSIFBYTHEENDOFTHETWELFTHCENTURYTHEKNOWLEDGEOFENGLISHWASNOTUNUSUALAMONGMEMBERSOFTHEHIGHESTCLASS,ITSEEMSEQUALLYCLEARTHATTHEKNOWLEDGEOFFRENCHWASOFTENFOUNDSOMEWHATFURTHERDOWNINTHESOCIALSCALEINFACTTHEKNOWLEDGEOFFRENCHMAYSOMETIMESHAVEEXTENDEDTOTHEFREETENANTSSOTHETWOLANGUAGESFUSEDTOGETHERANDINFLUENCEDEACHOTHER424FRENCHINFLUENCEONTHEVOCABULARYTHEINFLUENCEOFTHEFRENCHLANGUAGEUPONTHEENGLISHLANGUAGEISDIRECTANDEVIDENTITISMUCHMOREOBSERVABLEFROMTHEVOCABULARYWHERETHETWOLANGUAGESEXISTSIDEBYSIDEFORALONGTIMEANDTHERELATIONSBETWEENTHEPEOPLESPEAKINGTHEMAREASINTIMATEASTHEYWEREINENGLAND,ACONSIDERABLETRANSFERENCEOFWORDSFROMONELANGUAGETOTHEOTHERISINEVITABLE4THENUMBEROFFRENCHWORDSTHATPOUREDINTOENGLISHWASUNBELIEVABLYGREATTHEREISNOTHINGCOMPARABLETOITINTHEPREVIOUSORSUBSEQUENTHISTORYOFTHELANGUAGEINTHEINFLUXOFFRENCHWORDSTWOSTAGESCANBEOBSERVED,ANEARLIERANDALATER,WITHTHEYEAR1250ASTHEAPPROXIMATEDIVIDINGLINE5WHENWESTUDYTHEFRENCHWORDSAPPEARINGINENGLISHBEFORE1250,ROUGHLY900INNUMBER,WEFINDTHATMANYOFTHEMWERESUCHASTHELOWERCLASSESWOULDBECOMEFAMILIARWITHTHROUGHCONTACTWITHAFRENCHSPEAKINGNOBILITY,EGBARON,NOBLE,DAME,SERVANT,MESSENGER,FEAST,MINSTREL,JUGGLER,LARGESS,STORY,RIME,LAY,ETC6INTHEPERIODAFTER1250THECONDITIONSUNDERWHICHFRENCHWORDSHADBEENMAKINGTHEIRWAYINTOENGLISHWERESUPPLEMENTEDBYANEWANDPOWERFULFACTOR-TH
编号:201312161525396013    类型:共享资源    大小:47.43KB    格式:DOC    上传时间:2013-12-16
  
2
关 键 词:
行业资料 商业贸易 精品文档 语言文化
  人人文库网所有资源均是用户自行上传分享,仅供网友学习交流,未经上传用户书面授权,请勿作他用。
关于本文
本文标题:语言文化论文-法语对英语的影响.doc
链接地址:http://www.renrendoc.com/p-226013.html

当前资源信息

4.0
 
(2人评价)
浏览:16次
docin上传于2013-12-16

官方联系方式

客服手机:17625900360   
2:不支持迅雷下载,请使用浏览器下载   
3:不支持QQ浏览器下载,请用其他浏览器   
4:下载后的文档和图纸-无水印   
5:文档经过压缩,下载后原文更清晰   

精品推荐

相关阅读

人人文库
关于我们 - 网站声明 - 网站地图 - 资源地图 - 友情链接 - 网站客服客服 - 联系我们

网站客服QQ:2846424093    人人文库上传用户QQ群:460291265   

[email protected] 2016-2018  renrendoc.com 网站版权所有   南天在线技术支持

经营许可证编号:苏ICP备12009002号-5