西方文化论文-评《老人与海》中海明写作风格和手法.doc西方文化论文-评《老人与海》中海明写作风格和手法.doc

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西方文化论文评老人与海中海明写作风格和手法CONTENTSABSTRACTABSTRACTCHINESEⅠOUTLINETOPICTHROUGHTHEOLDMANANDTHESEADISPLAYHEMINGWAYUNIQUEWRITINGSTYLEANDTECHNIQUEⅠINTRODUCTIONⅡLANGUAGESTYLE1ANALYSESOFTHELANGUAGESTYLE2THEFORMINGOFTHELANGUAGESTYLE3THEINFLUENCEOFTHELANGUAGESTYLEⅢTHEWAYTOUSEFACTSⅣCONCLUSIONNOTEBIBLIOGRAPHYABSTRACTBEINGDISTINGUISHEDFROMMANYGREATESTAMERICANWRITERS,HEMINGWAYISNOTEDFORHISWRITINGSTYLEAMONGALLHISWORKS,THEOLDMANANDTHESEAISATYPICALONETOHISUNIQUEWRITINGSTYLEANDTECHNIQUETHELANGUAGEISSIMPLEANDNATURALONTHESURFACE,BUTACTUALLYDELIBERATEANDARTIFICIALSOMETIMESTHESIMPLESTYLEISMADEALITTLEDIFFERENTTHEDIALOGUEISCOMBINEDWITHTHEREALISTICANDTHEARTIFICIALTHESIMPLICITYISHIGHLYSUGGESTIVE,ANDOFTENREFLECTSTHESTRONGUNDERCURRENTOFEMOTIONOCCASIONALLY,THEAUTHORUSESSOMEFIGURESOFSPEECHHEMINGWAY’SSTYLEISRELATEDTOHISEXPERIENCEASAJOURNALIST,HISLEARNINGFROMMANYFAMOUSWRITERS,ANDMOSTIMPORTANTLY,HISCONSCIENTIOUSEFFORTINLOOKINGFORASTYLEOFHISOWNTHEINFLUENCEOFHISSTYLEISGREATALLOVERTHEWORLDTHEOLDMANANDTHESEAISFULLOFFACTS,MOSTOFWHICHCOMESFROMHEMINGWAY’SOWNEXPERIENCESOTHEWAYTOUSEFACTSISAVERYIMPORTANTWRITINGTECHNIQUEINTHISNOVELTHEFACTSINTHENOVELARESELECTEDANDUSEDASADEVICETOMAKETHEFICTIONALWORLDACCEPTEDINTHEFOREPARTOFTHENOVEL,THEYAREUSEDTOSHOWTHEQUALITYOFSANTIAGO’SLIFE,ANDARENARRATEDSIMPLYANDNATURALLY;WHILEINTHELATTERPARTOFTHENOVEL,THEYAREUSEDFROMINSIDESANTIAGO’SOWNCONSCIOUSNESSANDFORMPARTOFAWHOLESCHEMEOFTHENOVELKEYWORDSFACTS;SIMPLICITY;ARTIFICIAL;ICEBERGTHEORY中文摘要在众伟大的美国作家中,海明威以独特的写作风格而著称。在他所有的作品中,老人与海最能体现他独特的写作风格和手法。这部小说语言看似简洁自然,其实包含了作者的精心揣摩和润色加工。有时为了突出某一部分,作者会采用长句代替短句。文中的对话内容真实、贴近生活,而表达形式则经过了艺术加工。小说简洁自然的语言背后隐藏了深刻的意义和感情。文中还运用了比喻、拟人等修辞手法还名位的这种独特风格与他当过新闻记者的经历有关,同时他兼菜各家之长,自成一体,形成了自己独特的创作方法和艺术风格。这种风格对整个世界文坛产生了重要的影响。老人与海这部小说中运用了大量的事实,他们大多来自于作者亲身经历。海明威对这些事实精心选择,从而吸引读者的兴趣并使读者有一种身临其境的感觉。小说一开始用大量事实描写了主人公生活的环境,叙述风格简洁自然,未加任何感情色彩。随着情节的发展,大量的事实主要被运用于主人公的心理活动之中,而不是主要由作者来叙述。同时,这些事实构成了整个小说体系中不可缺少的一部分。关键词事实;简洁;加工;冰山理论HEMINGWAY’SWRITINGSTYLEANDTECHNIQUESINTHEOLDMANANDTHESEAINTRODUCTIONTHEOLDMANANDTHESEA1952COMESROUNDATTHEFINISHOFHEMINGWAY’SWRITINGCAREERWITHITSVIVIDCHARACTERIZATION,ITSSIMPLELANGUAGE,ANDTHEPROFOUNDIMPLICATINGITCARRIES,ITSTANDSOUTASONEOFTHEEXCELLENTBOOKSHEMINGWAY’SFORMERSTATUREASTHEWORD’SPREEMINENTNOVELISTAFTERHEMINGWAY’SUNSUCCESSFULNOVELACROSSTHERIVERANDINTOTHETREES1950THEOLDMANANDTHESEAEARNEDITSAUTHORTHEPULITZERPRIZEINFICTIONFOR1952,ANDWASINSTRUMENTALINWINNINGHIMTHENOBELPRIZEFORLITERATURETWOYEARSLATERITISASHORTNOVELABOUTSANTIAGO,ANOLDCUBANFISHERMANWHOHASGONEFOR84DAYSWITHOUTCATCHTHEREFORETHEBOY,MANDOLIN,WHOUSEDTOSAILWITHHIM,ISFORCEDTOLEAVEHIMANDCATCHINANOTHERSHIPTHEOLDMANINSISTSONFISHINGALONEANDATLAST,HEHOOKSANEIGHTEENFOOT,GIANTMARLIN,THELARGESTHEHASEVERKNOWNBUTTHEFISHISVERYPOWERFULANDDISOBEDIENTITTOWSTHEOLDMANANDHISBOATOUTTOSEAFOR48HOURS,WITHTHEOLDMANBEARINGTHEWHOLEWEIGHTOFTHEFISHTHROUGHTHELINEONHISBACKTHEOLDMAN,WITHLITTLEFOODANDSLEEP,HASTOENDUREMUCHPAINANDFIGHTSAGAINSTHISTREACHEROUSHANDCRAMPTOHISGREATEXCITEMENT,ONHISTHIRDDAYATSEA,HESUCCEEDSINDRAWINGTHEWEAKENEDMARLINTOTHESURFACEANDHARPOONSITONHISWAYHOME,HELASHESMARLINALONGSIDEHISBOATBECAUSEITISTOOBIGTOBEPULLEDINTOTHEBOATBUT,UNFORTUNATELY,THECOMEACROSSSHARKSINDIFFERENTNUMBERSFORFOURTIMESTHEOLDMANFIGHTSTOKILLTHESHARKSWITHASMUCHMIGHTANDMANYWEAPONSASHECANSUMMON,BUTONLYTOFINDAGIANTSKELETONOFHISMARLINLEFTAFTERHISDESPERATEDEFENSEATLAST,SANTIAGO,HAVINGLOSTWHATHEFOUGHTFOR,REACHESTHESHOREANDSTRUGGLESTOHISSHACKHEFALLSINTOSOUNDSLEEP,DREAMINGOFAFRICA,ANDTHELIONSAGAINHISSTRUGGLEWINSHIMMUCHRESPECTAMONGMANYGREATAMERICANWRITERS,HEMINGWAYISFAMOUSFORHISOBJECTIVEANDTERSEPROSESTYLEASTHELASTNOVELHEMINGWAYPUBLISHEDINHISLIFE,THEOLDMANANDTHESEATYPICALLYREFLECTSHISUNIQUEWRITINGSTYLETHISPAPERAIMSTODISCUSSTHEWRITINGSTYLEANDTECHNIQUESINTHEOLDMANANDTHESEAOFCOURSE,HEMINGWAYHASUSEDMANYTECHNIQUESINTHISNOVEL,SUCHASREALISM,THECREATIONOFSUSPENSE,MONOLOGUE,ETCANDTHISPAPERFOCUSESESPECIALLYONTHELANGUAGESTYLEANDONEOFTHEIMPORTANTTECHNIQUESTHEWAYTOUSEFACTSINTHISNOVELHEMINGWAYISFAMOUSFORHISLANGUAGEWITHMUCHCAREANDEFFORT,HECREATEDAVERYINFLUENTIALANDIMMEDIATELYRECOGNIZABLESTYLE“THESTYLEHECREATEDINHISEARLYWORK,SUCHASINOURTIMEANDTHESUNALSORISES,WASALMOSTTOOGOODLIKETHESTYLEOFCERTAINPAINTERS,ITTENDEDTOBECOMEAMANNER,RATHERTHANAFLEXIBLEWAYOFRESPONDINGTOEXPERIENCEANDCONVEYINGFRESHINSIGHTSTHROUGHWORDS”1AMONGALLHISWORKS,THEOLDMANANDTHESEAISTHEMOSTTYPICALONETOHISUNIQUELANGUAGESTYLEITSLANGUAGEISSIMPLEANDNATURAL,ANDHASTHEEFFECTOFDIRECTNESS,CLARITYANDFRESHNESSTHISISBECAUSEHEMINGWAYALWAYSMANAGESTOCHOOSEWORDS“CONCRETE,SPECIFIC,MORECOMMONLYFOUND,MOREANGLOSAXON,CASUALANDCONVERSATIONAL”2HESELDOMUSESADJECTIVESANDABSTRACTNOUNS,ANDAVOIDSCOMPLICATEDSYNTAXHEMINGWAY’SSTRENGTHLIESINHISSHORTSENTENCESANDVERYSPECIFICDETAILSHISSHORTSENTENCESAREPOWERFULLYLOADEDWITHTHETENSION,WHICHHESEESINLIFEWHEREHEDOESNOTUSEASIMPLEANDSHORTSENTENCE,HECONNECTSTHEVARIOUSPARTSOFTHESENTENCEINASTRAIGHTFORWARDANDSEQUENTIALWAY,OFTENLINKEDBY“AND”INHISTASKOFCREATINGREALPEOPLE,HEMINGWAYUSESDIALOGUEASANEFFECTIVEDEVICEITISPRESENTEDINAFORM“ASCLOSETOTHEDRAMATICASPOSSIBLE,WITHAMINIMUMOFEXPLANATORYCOMMENT”3H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