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2008年英语阅读理解专项训练---判断推理型.doc.doc2008年英语阅读理解专项训练---判断推理型.doc.doc -- 5 元

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2008年英语阅读理解专项训练判断推理型判断推理型1这类题主要考查学生根据文章字面意思及语篇逻辑关系,从而看出细节的暗示,推敲作者的态度,理解文章的寓意等的能力。判断推理题属于主观性较强的高层次阅读理解题。做这类题时,应在理解全文的基础上,从文章本身所提供的信息出发,运用逻辑思维,同时借助一定的常识进行分析、推理和判断。提问整篇文章或某段某句的含蓄意思时,问句中一般都含有infer,imply,indicate,suggest(推断,暗指)等词。对付这类题时不仅要弄懂文章的字面意思,还要知道其潜在的含义,和作者所给的提示,同时要对它们作合理的猜测。考核考生对整个语篇进行推理分析的能力时,通常是以下列方式提出问题的1.FromParagraph4wecaninferthat______.2.Whatcanbeinferredfromthepassage3.Wecaninferfromthetextthat4.Whatcanwelearnfrom5.Wecanconcludefromthepassagethat______.6.Wecanconcludethat...7.Thelastsentenceofthefirstparagraphmostprobablyimpliesthat______.8.Theauthorimpliesthat_______.9.Thewritersuggeststhat...10.ByaskingaseriesofquestionsinPara5,theauthormainlyintendstoindicatethat________.考核考生对作者观点、态度及语气、语调的理解时,常见的设问有1.Whatdoestheauthorthinkof...2.Howdoestheauthorfeelabout...3.Whatsthetoneofthispassage4.Thepurposeinwritingthistextisto______.5.Theauthorwritesthispassageto________.6.Theauthorinthispassageintendsto_____.7.Theauthorsattitudetowardis______解题技巧1判断有据,推论有理,忠实原文。切忌用自己的观点代替作者的本意。2全面分析所有相关信息,切忌片面思考,得出片面结论。3善于揣摩作者思路,尽可能与作者的思路吻合。4)不可直接选取文中的原句。Passage1Aroundtheworldmoreandmorepeoplearetakingpartindangeroussportsandactivities.Ofcourse,therehavealwaysbeenpeoplewhohavelookedforadventurethosewhohaveclimbedthehighestmountains,traveledintounknownpartsoftheworldorsailedinsmallboatsacrossthegreatestoceans.Now,however,therearepeoplewholookforanimmediateexcitementfromariskyactivity,whichmayonlylastafewminutesorevenseconds.Iwouldconsiderbungeejumping(蹦极跳)tobeagoodexampleofsuchanactivity.Youjumpfromahighplaceperhapsabridgeorahotairballoon200metersabovethegroundwithanelastic(有弹性的)ropetiedtoyourankles.Youfallatupto150kilometersanhouruntiltheropestopsyoufromhittingtheground.Itissaidthatabout2millionpeoplearoundtheworldhavenowtriedbungeejumping.Otheractivitieswhichmostpeoplewouldsayasriskyasbungeejumpingincludejumpingfromtallbuildingsanddivingintotheseafromthetopofhighcliffs.WhydopeopletakepartinsuchactivitiesastheseSomepsychologists(心理学家)suggestthatitisbecauselifeinmodernsocietieshasbecomesafeandboring.Notverylongago,peoplesliveswereconstantlyindanger.Theyhadtogooutandhuntforfood,diseasescouldnoteasilybecuredandlifewasacontinuousbattleforsurvival(生存).Nowadays,accordingtomanypeople,lifeofferslittleexcitement.Theyliveandworkincomparativelysafeconditionstheybuyfoodinshopsandtherearedoctorsandhospitalstolookafterthemiftheybecomeill.Theanswerforsomeofthesepeopleistolookfordangerinactivitiessuchasbungeejumping.1.Thewriterofthetexthasa____attitude(态度)towardsdangeroussports.A.positive(肯定的)B.negative(否定的)C.neutral(中立的)D.nervousCPassage2Sincemyretirement(退休)fromteachingmusicin2001,Ihavespentagooddealoftimepaintingasanartist.Iactuallybegandrawingagaininthesummerof1995whenmylatherdied.soperhapsIwastryingtorecoverfromthelossofmyfather,ormaybeitwasjustthatitbroughtbackmemoriesofhim.Inanycase,Idrewpenandinkanimalsandlandscapes(风景画)muchinfluenced(影响)byKrenkelandSt.Johnforfiveyears.Forsomestrangereason,Ihadbeenwaitinguntilmyretirementtostartdoingwatercolorsagain,butassoonasIwalkedoutoftheschooldoorforthelasttimeIpickedupmybrushesandrediscoveredAndrewWyeth,whoquicklybecamemyfavoriteartist.IhadlookedthroughalltheartbooksIhadonmyshelvesandfoundhiswatercolorstobetheclosesttohowIthoughtgoodwatercolorsshouldlook.SoIpaintedlandscapesaroundMinnesotaforthreeyearsandtriedoutmanyothertypesofpainting.However,watercolorsremainedmyfirstchoice,andIthinkIdidmybestworkthere,showingmypaintingsatanumberofartexhibitions.Artisnowtogetherwithmypianoplayingandreading.Thereisatimeforeverythinginmyworld,anditiswonderfultohavesometimedoingwhatIwanttodo.AsConfuciusoncesaid,AtseventyIcanfollowmyheartsdesire.1.Wecaninferfromthetextthattheauthor____.A.hadbeentaughtbyKrenkelandSt.JohnB.paintedlandscapesinMinnesotafor5yearsC.believedWyethtobethebestinwatercolorsD.startedhisretirementlifeattheageofseventy2.HowdoestheauthorprobablyfeelabouthislifeasanartistA.Veryenjoyable.B.Abitregretful.C.Ratherbusy.D.Fairlydull.CAPassage3Iwasthemiddlechildofthree,buttherewasagapoffiveyearsoneitherside,andIhardlysawmyfatherbeforeIwaseight.ForthisandotherreasonsIwassomewhatlonely.Ihadthelonelychildshabitofmakingupstoriesandholdingconversationswithimaginarypersons,andIthinkfromtheverystartmyliteraryambitions(文学志向)weremixedupwiththefeelingofbeingisolated(孤独)andundervalued.IknewthatIhadanaturalabilitywithwordsandapoweroffacingunpleasantfacts,andIfeltthatthiscreatedasortofprivateworldinwhichIcouldgetmyownbackformyfailureineverydaylife.However,thequantityofseriouswritingwhichIproducedallthroughmychildhoodwouldnotadduptohalfadozenpages.Iwrotemyfirstpoemattheageoffourorfive,mymothertakingitdowntodictation.Icannotrememberanythingaboutitexceptthatitwasaboutatigerandthetigerhadchairliketeethagoodenoughexpression.Ateleven,whenthewarof191418brokeout,Iwroteapoemwhichwasprintedinthelocal地方的)newspaper,aswasanother,twoyearslater,onthedeathofKitchener.Fromtimetotime,whenIwasabitolder,Iwrotebadandusuallyunfinishednaturepoems.Ialso,abouttwice,attemptedashortstorywhichwasafailure.ThatwasthetotalofthewouldbeseriousworkthatIactuallysetdownonpaperduringallthoseyears.1.Fromthetext,welearnthatasalittleboythewriter.A.hadnoplaymatesB.showedhisgiftforwritingC.putoutlotsofpoemsandstoriesD.gothisfirstpoempublishedin19162.WhatcanbeinferredaboutthewriterA.Hewasleastfavouredinhisfamily.B.Hehadmuchdifficultyintalkingwithothers.C.Hehadanunhappychildhoodforlackofcare.D.Hislonelinessresultedinhisinterestinwriting..BDPassage4Iwas9yearsoldwhenIfoundoutmyfatherwasill.Itwas1994,butIcanremembermymotherswordsasifitwereyesterdayKerrel,Idontwantyoutotakefoodfromyourfather,becausehehasAIDS.Beverycarefulwhenyouarearoundhim.AIDSwasntsomethingwetalkedaboutinmycountrywhenIwasgrowingup.Fromthenon,Iknewthatthiswouldbeafamilysecret.Myparentswerenottogetheranymore,andmydadlivedalone.Forawhile,hecouldtakecareofhimself.ButwhenIwas12,hisconditionworsened.Myfathersotherchildrenlivedfaraway,soitfelltometolookafterhim.Wecouldntaffordallthenecessarymedicationforhim,andbecauseDadwasunabletowork,Ihadnomoneyforschoolsuppliesandoftencouldntevenbuyfoodfordinner.Iwouldsitinclassfeelingcompletelylost,theteacherswordsmuffledasItriedtofigureouthowIwasgoingtomanage.Ididnotsharemyburden负担withanyone.IhadseenhowpeoplereactedtoAIDS.Kidslaughedatclassmateswhohadparentswiththedisease.Andevenadultscouldbecruel.Whenmyfatherwasmovedtothehospital,thenurseswouldleavehisfoodonthebedsidetableeventhoughhewastooweaktofeedhimself.Ihadknownthathewasgoingtodie,butaftersomanyyearsofkeepinghisconditionasecret.Iwascompletelyunpreparedwhenhereachedhisfinaldays.Sadandhopeless,IcalledawomanatthenonprofitNationalAIDSSupport.Thatday,shekeptmeonthephoneforhours.Iwassoluckytofindsomeonewhocared.Shesavedmylife.Iwas15whenmyfatherdied.Hetookhissecretawaywithhim,havingneverspokenaboutAIDStoanyone,evenme.HedidntwanttocallattentiontoAIDS.Ido.1.WhydidKerrelkeepherfathersdiseaseasecretA.Shewasafraidofbeinglookeddownupon.B.ShethoughtitwasshamefultohaveAIDS.C.Shefoundnoonewillingtolistentoher.D.Shewantedtoobeyhermother.2.WhydidKerrelwritethepassageA.Totellpeopleaboutthesufferingsofherfather.B.ToshowhowlittlepeopleknewaboutAIDS.C.TodrawpeoplesattentiontoAIDS.D.Torememberedherfather.ACPassage5AstudyofEnglishlearningproblemswascarriedoutamongatotalof106foreignstudents.ItshowsthatmoststudentsconsideredunderstandingspokenEnglishtobetheirbiggerproblemonarrival.Thiswasfollowedbyspeaking,Writingincreasedasaproblemasstudentsdiscovereddifficultiesinwritingpapersthattheywerenowexpectedtohandin.Readingremainedasasignificant(显著的)problem.Theinformationsignedhelpedupindeterminingwherespecialattentionshouldbepaidinourcourse.Althoughmanystudentshavechosentojointhecoursewithareasonablemotivation(动机),weconsidereditimportanttonotewhatseemedtoencourageinterest.NearlyallthestudentshaveexperiencedsomekindofgrammarbasedEnglishteachingintheirowncountry.Tousethesamemethodwouldbeselfdefeatingbecauseitmightreducemotivation,especiallyifithasfailedinthepest.Thereforeadifferentmethodmayhelpbecauseitisdifferent.Varietyofactivitywasalsoseenasawayofmaintaining(保持)orincreasingmotivationSeveralyearsagowehadonetimetablethatoperatedthroughout,butwesoonfoundthatboththestudentsandtheteacherslostinterestbyabouthalfwaythroughthetenweeks.Thisleduptoamajorrethink,sofinallywebroughtitintolinewiththeexpressedlanguageneedsofthestudents.1.Writingbecameabiggerproblemwhenforeignstudents____.A.hadtowritstheirpapersB.becamebetteratspeakingC.becamelessinterestedinreadingD.hadfewerproblemswithlistening2.Wemayinferfromthelasttwoparagraphsthat____.A.differentteachingmethodsshouldbeusedB.grammarbasedteachingseemstobeencouragingC.EnglishcoursesarenecessaryforforeignstudentsD.teachingcontentshouldbechangedhalfwayAA判断推理型2一、对文章的体裁和来源作出判断考试大纲就明文规定体裁避免单一化,包括记叙文、说明文、应用文等。而文章的来源指的是该文的出处,是选自小说,报刊杂志,还是科技论文,书评等,这就得靠考生自己作出判断了。通常这类问题的提问方式有以下几种1.Thisselection(节选)mightbesomepartsofabookconcernedwith...2.Thispassagemightbetakenoutofabookdealingwith...3.Wheredidthispassagemostprobablyappear4.Theseextracts(摘录)areprobablytakenfrom...5.Thispassagewouldmostlikelybefoundin______那么如何判断文章的体裁和来源呢判断体裁应根据其写作特点和叙述的内容,故事、评论、阐述对话各有其特点,是不难区分的。判断其来源要留心所选的部分是哪一类的,涉及哪方面的内容。一篇故事是不可能取材于科学杂志,新闻报道也不可能刊载在书评内。因此,判断文章来源应将文章的形式及内容特点加以综合考虑才能下结论。二、对前后的内容作出判断与预测这是要求你对该选段前面未取部分或其后将要谈及的内容,作出判断与预测。通常提问的方式有1.Theparagraphpreceding(先于...)thisonemostprobablydiscusses...2.Theparagraphprecedingthisextractprobablydealwith...3.Whatdoestheparagraphfollowingthepassagemostlikelydiscuss4.Whatdoyouthinktheauthorwilldiscussinthenextpart5.Theauthorintendtoexplainnext...6.Accordingtothepassageyouveread,thewriterwillprobablysuggestnext...如何判断和预测前后的内容呢由于所选文章的前后内容都未出现,且该部分是孤立的一段或几段,因此要准确作出判断,并非易事。这就要求我们在看文章时,要带着问题去阅读。首先,我们对所读的选段要有一个全局的概念,弄清它所涉及的全部内容,哪些可能已谈过,哪些还没谈,而我们正在阅读的摘选部分就是你作出分析的参照物了。其次,我们要从文章的语篇结构上去分析。一篇文章通常由导言、正文和结束语构成。导言一般要概述全篇内容,它规定了文章的主线或中心内容。借助导言,我们能紧紧把握作者的思路,从而有利于对文章的理解。正文是文章的主体,也是最常选摘的部分。正文的各段内容都由导言确定,也就是说,正文不论述导言中未提及的观点和内容。结束语是文章的收尾部分,尤其是正式论文往往通过它而使全篇得到提纲挈领的概括并从中得出结论。因此,通过对文章的篇章结构的分析,就可判断已谈了什么或将要谈什么。Passage1Morethan30,000driversandfrontseatpassengersarekilledorseriouslyinjured(受伤)eachyear.Ataspeedofonly30milesperhouritisthesameasfallingfromathirdfloorwindow.Wearingaseatbelt(安全带)saveslivesitreducesyourchanceofdeathorseriousinjurybymorethanhalf.Thereforedriversorfrontseatpassengersover14inmostvehiclesmustwearaseatbelt.Ifyoudonot,youcouldbefinedupto50.Itwillnotbeuptothedriverstomakesureyouwearyourbelt.Butitwillbethedriversresponsibility(责任)tomakesurethatchildrenunder14donotrideinthefrontunlesstheyarewearingseatbeltofsomekind.However,youdonothavetowearaseatbeltifyouarereversing(倒退)yourvehicleoryouaremakingalocaldelivery(发送)orcollectionusingaspecialvehicleorifyouhaveavalidmedicalcertificatewhichexcusesyoufromwearingit.Makesurethesecircumstances(情形)applytoyoubeforeyoudecidenottowearyourseatbelt.Rememberyoumaybetakentocourtfornotdoingso,andyoumaybefinedifyoucannotprovetothecourtthatyouhavebeenexcusedfromwearingit.QuestionThistextistakenfrom_____.A.amedicalmagazineB.apolicereportC.anadvertisement(广告)D.agovernmentinformationbooklet(小册子)这篇文章由不系安全带造成的危害引出不系安全带会处以什么样的惩罚,以及哪些情况下可以不系安全带。很显然,文章应该是从警方的报告中节选下来的,答案是B。Passage2Its2035.Youhaveajob,afamilyandyoureabout40yearsold.Welcometoyourfuturelife.Gettingreadyforwork,youpauseinfrontofthemirror,Turnred,yousay.Yourshirtchangesfromskybluetodeepred.Tinypreprogrammedelectronicarerearrangedinyourshirttochangeitscolor.Lookingintothemirror,youfindithardtobelievethatyouare40.Youlookmuchyounger.Withamazingadvancesinmedicine,peopleinyourgenerationmaylivetobe150yearsold.Yourenotevenmiddleaged.Asyougointothekitchenandpreparetopouryourbreakfastcerealintoabowl,youhearToloseweight,youshouldnteatthat,fromyourshoes.Theyreadthetinyelectroniccodeonthecerealboxtofindoutthenutritiondetails.Youdecidetolistentoyourshoes.Kitchen,whatcanIhaveforbreakfastAlistofpossiblefoodsappearonthecounteraskitchenchecksitsfoodsupplies.Readyforyourtriptospace.Youaskyoursonanddaughter.In2005onlyspeciallytrainedastronautswentintospace.andveryfewofthem.Todayanyonecangotospacefordaytripsorlongervacation.Yourbestfriendevenworksinspace.Handingyourchildrenthreestrawberrieseach,youadd,Thedoctorsaidyouneedtheseforspacetravel.Thankstomedicaladvices,vaccinationshotsareathingofthepast.Ordinaryfoodscontainspecificvaccines.Withtheberriesintheirmouths,thekidsheadforthefrontdoor.Itstimeforyoutogotowork.Yourcarchecksyourfingerprintsandunlocksthedoors.Myoffice.Autopilot,youcommand.Yourcardrivesitselfdowntheroadandmovessmoothlyintotrafficonthehighway.Yousitbackandunrollyourenewspaper.Thelatestnewsdownloadsandfillstheviewer.Lookingthroughthepages,youwatchthenewsasvideofilmsratherthanreadit.1.HowdotheshoesknowthatyoushouldnteatthebreakfastcerealA.Bypouringthebreakfastintoabowl.B.Bylisteningtothedoctorsadvice.C.Bytestingthefoodsuppliesinthekitchen.D.Bycheckingthenutritiondetailsofthefood.2.HowisthetextorganizedA.InorderoftimeB.Inorderoffrequency.C.Inorderofpreference.D.Inorderofimportance.DAPassage3WhyIDontSpareSpareChangePoorbuthonest.Thedeserving值得帮助的poor.ThesewordsalwayscometomymindwhenIthinkofthepoor.ButIalsothinkofpeoplewho,perhapsthroughalcohol酒or
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