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3附录附录1英文原文Reflectionsregardinguncertaintyofmeasurement,ontheresultsofaNordicfatiguetestinterlaboratorycomparisonMagnusHolmgren,ThomasSvensson,ErlandJohnson,KlasJohanssonAbstractThispaperpresentstheexperiencesofcalculationandreportinguncertaintyofmeasurementinfatiguetesting.SixNordiclaboratoriesperformedfatiguetestsonsteelspecimens.Thelaboratoriesalsoreportedtheirresultsconcerninguncertaintyofmeasurementandhowtheycalculatedit.Theresultsshowlargedifferencesinthewaytheuncertaintiesofmeasurementwerecalculatedandreported.Nolaboratoryincludedthemostsignificantuncertaintysource,bendingstressduetomisalignmentofthetestingmachine,incorrectspecimensand/orincorrectlymountedspecimens,whencalculatingtheuncertaintyofmeasurement.SeverallaboratoriesdidnotcalculatetheuncertaintyofmeasurementinaccordancewiththeGuidetotheExpressionofUncertaintyinMeasurementGUM1.KeywordUncertaintyofmeasurement,Calculation,Report,Fatiguetest,LaboratoryintercomparisonDefinitionsRStressratioFmin/FmaxFForcenektonsAandBFatiguestrengthparameterssandSStressmegapascalsNNumberofcycles.IntroductionThecorrectorbestmethodofcalculatingandreportinguncertaintyofmeasurementintestinghasbeenthesubjectofdiscussionformanyyears.TheissuebecameevenmorerelevantinconnectionwiththeintroductionofISOstandards,e.g.ISO170252.Thediscussion,aswellasimplementationoftheuncertaintyofmeasurementconcept,hasoftenbeenconcentratedonwhichequationtouseoronadministrativehandlingoftheissue.Therehasbeenlessinterestinthetechnicalproblemandhowtohandleuncertaintyofmeasurementintheactualexperimentalsituation,andhowtolearnfromtheuncertaintyofmeasurementcalculationwhenimprovingtheexperimentaltechnique.Onereasonforthismaybethattheaccreditationbodieshaveconcentratedontheveryexistenceofuncertaintyofmeasurementcalculationsforanaccreditedtestmethod,insteadofonwhetherthecalculationsareperformedinasoundtechnicalway.Thepresentinvestigationemphasizestheneedforamoretechnicalfocus.Onetestingareawhereitisdifficulttodouncertaintyofmeasurementcalculationsisfatiguetesting.However,thereisguidanceonhowtoperformsuchcalculations,e.g.inRefs.3,4.Toinvestigatehowuncertaintyofmeasurementcalculationsareperformedforfatiguetestsinreallife,UTMIStheSwedishfatiguenetworkstartedaninterlaboratorycomparisonwhereone4ofthemostessentialpartswastocalculateandreporttheuncertaintyofmeasurementofatypicalfatiguetestthatcouldhavebeenorderedbyacustomeroftheparticipatinglaboratories.Forcostreasons,customersoftenaskforalimitednumberoftestspecimensbut,atthesametime,theyrequestalotofinformationaboutalargeportionofthepossiblestresslifeareafromfewcycleshighstressestomillionsofcycleslowstressesandevenrunouts.Thewaythecalculationwasmadeshouldalsobereported.Theoutcomeconcerningtheuncertaintyofmeasurementfromtheprojectisreportedinthisarticle.ParticipantsSixNordiclaboratoriesparticipatedintheinterlaboratorycomparisononeindustriallaboratory,tworesearchinstitutes,twouniversitylaboratoriesandonelaboratoryinaconsultancycompany.Twoofthelaboratoriesareaccreditedforfatiguetesting,andathirdlaboratoryisaccreditedforothertests.Eachparticipantwasrandomlyassignedanumberbetween1and6,andthisnotificationwillbeusedintherestofthispaper.ExperimentalprocedureTheparticipantsreceivedinformationaboutthetestspecimenswithoutmaterialdata,togetherwithinstructionsonthewaytoperformthetestandhowtoreporttheresults.Theinstructionswerethattestsshouldbeperformedasconstantloadamplitudetests,withR0.1atthreedifferentstresslevels,460,430and400Map,withfourspecimensateachstresslevel,atatestfrequencybetween10and30Hz,witharunoutlimitat6510cyclesandinanormallaboratoryclimate0203Cand5015relativehumidity.Thiswasconsideredasatypicalcustomerorderedtest.Thetestresultsweretobeusedtocalculateestimatesofthetwofatiguestrengthparameters,AandB,accordingtolinearregressionofthelogsandlongvariables,i.e.loglogABN.ThereportedresultshouldincludeboththeestimatedparametersAandBandtheuncertaintiesinthemduetomeasurementerrors.Thereportshouldalsoincludetheconsiderationsandcalculationsbehindtheresults,especiallythoseconcerninguncertaintyofmeasurement.Severalpropertiesweretobereportedforeachspecimen.Themostimportantonewasthenumberofcyclesuntilfractureorifthespecimenwasarunouti.e.survivedfor6510cycles.ThetestsweretobeperformedinaccordancewithASTME466–965andISO572526.ASTME46696doesnottakeuncertaintyofmeasurementintoaccountHowever,ASTME46696mentionsthatthebendingstressintroducedowingtomisalignmentmustnotexceed5ofthegreateroftherange,maximumorminimumstresses.Therearealsorequirementsfortheaccuracyofthedimensionalmeasurementofthetestspecimen.Allparticipantsusedhydraulictestingmachines.Thetestspecimensweremadeofsteelyieldstress375–390Map,andtensilestrength670–690Map,tabulatedvalues.Thetestspecimensweredistributedtotheparticipantsbytheorganizer.Results5TheprimarylaboratoryresultsthatshouldbecomparedaretheestimatedWhalercurves.Inordertopresentallresultsinthesameway,theorganizertransformedsomeoftheresults.TheWhalercurvesreportedbytheparticipantsareshowninFig.1.Itcanbeseenthatthereareconsiderabledifferencesbetweenlaboratories.Anapproximatestatisticaltestshowsasignificantlaboratoryeffect.MaterialscatteralonecannotexplainthedifferencesintheWhalercurves.Inordertoinvestigateifthelaboratoryeffectwassolelycausedbythemodelinguncertainty,weestimatednewparametersfromtherawdatawithacommonalgorithm.Wethenchosetouseonlythefailedspecimensandtomaketheminimizationinthelogarithmiclifedirection.TheresultsareshowninFig.2.Aformalstatisticalsignificancetestwasthenmade,andtheresultofsuchatestshowsthatthedifferencesbetweenthelaboratoriesshowninFig.1couldbeattributedonlytomodeling.UncertaintyofmeasurementcalculationsOneofthemostimportantobjectiveswiththisinvestigationwastocomparetheobserveddifferencesbetweenlaboratorytestresultswiththeirestimateduncertaintiesofmeasurement.Theintentionwastoanalyzetheuncertaintyanalysesassuch,andtocomparethemtothestandardprocedurerecommendedintheISOguideGuidetotheExpressionofUncertaintyinMeasurementGUM1.Thelaboratoriesidentifieddifferentsourcesofuncertaintyandtreatedthemindifferentways.Thesesourcesaretheloadmeasurement,theloadcontrol,thesuperimposedbendingstressesbecauseofmisalignmentandthedimensionalmeasurements.Implicitly,laboratorytemperatureandhumidity,specimentemperatureandcorrosioneffectsarealsoconsidered.Inaddition,theresultsshowamodelingeffect.ThedifferentlaboratorytreatmentsofthesesourcesaresummarizedinTable1.SpecificcommentsonthedifferentlaboratoriesAlllaboratoriesgavetheirlaboratorytemperatureandhumidity,butdidnotconsiderthesevaluesassourcesofuncertainty,i.e.theinfluenceoftemperatureandhumiditywasneglected.Thisconclusionisreasonableforsteelinthetemperaturerangeandhumidityrangeinquestion7.Laboratory1.Theuncertaintyduetotheappliedstresswasdeterminedtakingloadcellanddimensionaluncertaintiesintoaccount.ThemathematicalevaluationwasmadeinaccordancewiththeGUM.Specimentemperaturewasmeasured,butwasimplicitlyneglected.Themodelingproblemwasmentioned,butnotconsideredasanuncertaintysource.Laboratory2.Thereportcontainsnouncertaintyevaluation.Theuncertaintiesintheloadcellandthemicrometerareconsidered,butneglectedwithreferencetothelargematerialscatter.Specimentemperaturewasmeasured.Modelingproblemsarementionedbyacommentregardingthechoiceofloadlevels.Laboratory3.Thereportcontainsnouncertaintyevaluation.However,theaccuracyofthe6machineisgivenandtheloadwascontrolledduringtheteststobewithinspecifiedlimits.Thebendingstressesweremeasuredononespecimen,buttheirinfluenceonthefatigueresultwasnottakenintoconsideration.Laboratory4.Theuncertaintiesintheloadcellandthedimensionalmeasurementsareconsideredinanevaluationofstressuncertainty.ThemethodfortheevaluationisnotinaccordancewiththeGUMmethod,butwasperformedbyaddingabsoluteerrors.Thebendingstressinfluenceandthecontrolsystemdeviationsareconsidered,butnotincludedintheuncertaintyevaluation.Thefailurecriterionismentionedandregardedasnegligible,andcorrosionismentionedasapossiblesourceofuncertainty.Laboratory5.Uncertaintiesintheloadcellandtheloadcontrolwereconsidered,andthelaboratorystatedinthereportthattheevaluationoftheloaduncertaintywasperformedaccordingtotheCIPMmethod.Laboratory6.Noreportwasprovided,butonlyexperimentalresultsandaWhalercurveestimate.Nolaboratoryreportedtheuncertaintyintheestimatedmaterialproperties,theWhalerparameters,butatmosttheuncertaintyintheappliedstress.Theoverallpictureoftheuncertaintyconsiderationsisthatonlyuncertaintysourcesthatarepossibletoestimatefromcalibrationreportsweretakenintoaccountinthefinalevaluation.Fig.1AllexperimentalresultsandestimatedWholecurvesfromthedifferentlaboratoriesNumberofcyclestofailureOneimportantsourcethatseverallaboratoriesmentionedisthebendingstressesinducedbymisalignmentinthetestingmachine,incorrectlymountedtestspecimensorincorrectspecimens.Theamountofbendingstresswasalsoestimatedinsomecases,butitsinfluenceon
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