会员注册 | 登录 | 微信快捷登录 QQ登录 微博登录 | 帮助中心 人人文库renrendoc.com美如初恋!
站内搜索 百度文库

热门搜索: 直缝焊接机 矿井提升机 循环球式转向器图纸 机器人手爪发展史 管道机器人dwg 动平衡试验台设计

外文翻译--决策支持系统建筑学的演变-在古巴地理系统计划的编制和管理的申请.doc外文翻译--决策支持系统建筑学的演变-在古巴地理系统计划的编制和管理的申请.doc -- 5 元

宽屏显示 收藏 分享

资源预览需要最新版本的Flash Player支持。
您尚未安装或版本过低,建议您

英文原文EvolutionofDecisionSupportSystemArchitecturesapplicationsforlandplanningandmanagementinCubaS.SegreraComputerScienceDepartment,NationalSugarCaneResearchInstituteCarreteraCAIMartínezPrietokm2,CiudaddeLaHabana,CubaR.PonceHernándezEnvironmentalandResourceStudiesProgram/DepartmentofGeography,TrentUniversityPeterborough,Ontario,CanadaandJ.ArciaComputerScienceDepartment,NationalSugarCaneResearchInstituteCarreteraCAIMartínezPrietokm2,CiudaddeLaHabana,CubaABSTRACTThemainobjectiveofthispapercentersonreviewingtheevolutionofDecisionSupportSystemsDSSarchitectures,particularlyastheyapplytonaturalresources.Todayitisdifficulttoconceivetheexistenceofaruralplanningautomatedsystemthatdoesntincludespatialanalysisfunctionalityandthatdoesnotconsidertheintegrateduseofdifferentanalyticalmodules.Thiswiderrangeoffunctionsallowforsolvingproblemsfromresourceandenvironmentalmanagement.GeographicalInformationSystemsGIS,automatedlandevaluation,multicriteriaparticipatoryanalysisindecisionmakingarebutthemostsalienttechnologiesinaDSS.DSShaveevolvedtheirarchitecture,modeofimplementation,aswellastheirfunctionalityandtheincorporationofnewcomputationaltechniqueshaveadvancedlately.IntheparticularcaseofCuba,thefirststepsinmaterializingthisevolutionhavebegun.Atpresent,theNationalSugarCaneResearchInstituteINICAleadsaresearchprojectorientedtowardsthedevelopmentandbuildingofadedicatedDSSforsugarcanecropping.ThisisconceivedasanintegratedSDSSSpatialDSStosupportdecisionmakingandmultipleproblemsolvinginsuchafundamentalproductiveactivitysuchassugarcaneagricultureinCuba.KeywordsDSS,decisionmaking,interoperability,SpatialDecisionSupportSystem.1.INTRODUCTIONThereisavarietyofdefinitionsontheconceptofDecisionSupportSystemsDSSinpublishedwork.TheDSSparadigmappearedattheendofthe70s.DSSweredevelopedforapplicationsindifferentfieldsofspecialization16.Someauthorslike17consideredaDSSasanycomputersystem,whichshouldsupporthumandecisionmaking.MostoftheexistentpublishedworkscoincideintheirunderstandingofDSSastoolstoaiddecisionmakingwithproblemsthatarenotwellstructured.Thistypeofanalysis,demandingarecursivemechanismforiterationsisthejustificationforusingsoftwareandhardwarethatsupportsthesearchandselectionofthemostappropriatealternativesforthesolutionofexistentproblems12,10and14.Ithasbeenpointedoutby30thatdecisionsupportsystemsshouldprovideintegrationandregenerationoftheinformation,supporttheexploratorynatureofthescientificdiscoveryprocessandallowthedevelopmentofalternativestoapplyinformationsystemtechnology,inordertoincreasetheeffectivenessofthoseresponsiblefordecisions,insituationswherethecomputercansupportandreinforcehumanjudgementinthefulfillmentoftasks,whichhaveelementsthatcannotbespecifiedbeforehand.Inthesesystemsdifferentmodulesarecombinedunderasoleinterface.Ithasbeenpointedout3,5,21,4,33and8thattheparadigmofintegrationinDSShasopenedupawiderangeofanalyticalpossibilitiesandpracticallylimitlessapplicationsareestablished,bytheuseofmodels,simulations,statisticalanalysis,imageprocessing,3Dandtemporaldimensionvisualization,togetherwiththepossibilityofcodingexpertreasoningdigitally.Also,softwarecustomizationispossiblespecificallyconfiguredtorequiredscalesandapplications,toachieveaflexibleinteroperationalenvironment.Allthosecapabilitiescontributetotheintegrationofapowerfuldecisionmakingtoolforagriculture,whereitsuseinnaturalresourcepreservationandenvironmentalmanagementwillhaveunquestionablyprofoundpracticalbenefits.ThetermsintelligentDSSorexpertDSShavebeenintroducedtomakereferencetotheuseofartificialintelligencetechniquestoextendthecapacitiesoftheDSSinthesolutionofproblems27y7.ThetrendintheevolutionoftheDSSparadigmleavesclearthatthefocusonrationalstaticanalysisisbeingleftinfavourofamoreiterative,complexandadaptativeparadigm25.WhenthespatialcomponentisaddedtoDSS,thenspatialinformationmanagementispossibleevolvingintoSpatialDecisionSupportSystemsSDSS.SixcharacteristicsofDSShavebeenidentified5and13.Thesecharacteristicsare1explicitdesigntosolvesemistructuredproblems2powerfuluserinterfaceandeasyuse3abilitytocombineanalyticalmodelswithdatainaflexibleway4abilitytoexplorethesolutionspacebuildingalternative5capacitytosupportvarietyofstylesindecisionmakingand6problemsolvinginaninteractiveandrecursiveway.Addedtothelistarethosecapacitiesandfunctions,whichdistinguishanSDSS1toprovidemechanismsforinputspatialdata2toallowtherepresentationoftherelationshipsandspatialstructures3toincludespatialandgeographicalanalysistechniques,and4toprovideoutputsindifferentspatialforms,includingmaps.As18outlined,thistypeofDSSmakesanimportantcontribution,notonlytoadvancingtechnologybutalsotoincorporatingthespatialdimensioninthedecisionmakingprocess,whichhasgreatsignificanceinareasrelatedtoconservationandmanagementofnaturalresources.2.RELATIONSHIPBETWEENGISANDSDSSSDSSandGeographicInformationSystemsGISarecloselyrelated.SpecialistsdonotevenconceivetheexistenceofaSDSSwithouttheinclusionofGISelementsorcomponents.Someauthorslike26carriedoutananalysiswhereGIS,DSSandSDSSwerecompared.TheyhaveconcludedthataGISisabletobeaneffectivetoolindecisionmakingprocessandthereforeitshouldbeintegratedwithsoftwareabletocarryoutmodelmanagement.Thishasbeenachievedwithsuccess.Storage,queries,andvisualizationofspatialdatawithGISispossible,inspiteofithavingthemathematicalmodelingofthesesystemslimitedtosimplearithmeticoperationsandspatialoverlays.ThisdeficiencyrequiresofexternalmodellingroutineuseanditcanbecorrectedwiththeconstructionofSDSS.Ontheotherhand,5exposedGISlimitationsandwhysometimesitisnecessarytouseSDSSforagroupofproblems1.ThecapacitiesofanalyticalmodelingfrequentlyarenotpartoftheGIS.2.Thegroupofvariablesorlayersinthedatabasecanbeinsufficientforcomplexmodels.3.Datahaveinsufficientscaleandresolution.Atthepresenttime,SDSSimplementationisnotconceivedwithoutconsideringGISintegrationinordertolinkitwiththegeospatialdataandwithagroupofanalyticalmodules,basedonmodelsofdiversetypesandorientations.Today,thereisanincreasinginterestinthedevelopmentofSDSS.Thesesystemsarecharacterizedbythespatialandgeometricrelationshipsofdatarepresentingobjectsandtheirpositioninthegeographicalspace.Toolsofspatialdecision,suchasGISandComputerAidDesignCADdonotincludetheanalyticalcapacitiesrepresentedbythemodulesmentionedabove,thereforetheyarenotabletoprovidecompleteanswerstosatisfytheneedsofmoderndecisionmaking.Theintegrationofalltheseautomatedtoolsinsideasingleworkingenvironmentandasingleusergraphicalinterfaceisdesirableifnotessential.However,manytechnicalproblemsshouldbesolved,andtheyarerelatedtodatamanagementanddatainteroperabilitybetweenmodules.Dataexchangeandtransfer,sharingofresultsandofparametersbetweenmodels,forasmoothdataflowandefficientinformationprocessing.Welldesignedandfunctionalinteroperabilitytasksareneededinordertosupportanefficientdecisionmakingprocess.Interoperabilityisthecapacitytoorganizeandtransferinformationamongmodelsandanalyticalmodulesandfunctionalcomponents,whichappearintegratedinasystem.InthecomponentsofaDSS,interoperabilityismeasuredbytheabilityofthesystemtoorchestratetheacquisition,transformationandpresentationoftheinformationduringthewholedecisionmakingprocess32.3.ARCHITECTURESOFASDSSASDSS,fromthestandpointofitsoperation,requiresessentiallyof4modulesormajoroperationsstosupportdecisionmaking.TheseareDatainpute.g.imagesanddata,DatabaseManagement,AnalysisandPresentation.FivekeymodulesforSDSSarchitecturehavebeensuggestedby1.Theseare1.ADatabaseManagementSystem.2.AnalyticalproceduresinaModelBaseManagementSystem.3.Ascreengenerator.4.Areportgenerator.5.Userinterface.ThecomponentsofaSDSSasdefinedby20are1.DatabaseManagementSystemDBMS,whichcontainsthefunctionsofmanipulationofthegeographicaldatabase.2.ModelBaseManagementSystemMBMS,whichcontainsthefunctionsformodeluseandmanagement.3.Dialoguegenerationandmanagementsystem,whichmanagestheinterfacebetweentheuserandtherestofthecomponentsofthesystem.Fortheprogrammer,thismodularstructurefacilitatesthedevelopmentofthesoftwareandfromtheusersperspectivetheSDSSappearsasseamlesslyintegrated.DifferentauthorshaveexaminedthehistoryandevolutionoftheDSS.Forinstance,28divideditin5stagesaccordingtotheevolutionoftheirarchitectures.ForthisanalysisthepatternSMPStructures,MechanismsandPoliciesparadigmwasused,23,beginningfromalgorithmsandsimpleprogramsandthefirstcomputersuntiltheemploymentofobjectorientation,sophisticatedcomputersandthearchitectureDSPDecisionSupportProcess–DecisionSupportSystemwithExecutableModelingLanguagesEMLFigure1.ThistypeofDSSmodelhaspresents3majoradvantages1.ItisindependentofthetypesofnecessarymodelsinthedecisionsupportsystemmakingtheDSPtobeportablethroughseveraldomainsofproblemsandtools.Figure1.DSParchitectureproposedby28.2.ItprovidesastableDSSarchitectureduetothefactthatnewtoolsandagentscanbeaddedwithouthavingtomodifythesuperiorlayersofthearchitecture.3.Itcreatesatoolintegrationenvironment.ADSParchitectureprovidesindependence,stabilityandintegration,threedesirableelementsthatmustbeincludedinageneraldesignofanAutomatedGeospatialDecisionSupportSystemforsugarcanePlanninginCubaAGDSSP.ThebasicarchitectureofaSDSSleaningontheelementsthat13exposedonthedefinitionofthesesystems,wasshownby15inFigure2.Someofthedesignproblemswereexposedby2.ThefirstDSSpresentedsuchproblemsandshowedhowtheadvancesininformationtechnologieshaveinfluencedthecreationofmoreflexibledesignsfasterandmoreresponsivesystems.Theexaminationsprovidedby22,6,and19,indicatestheimportanceoftheobjectorientationparadigm,achievingbenefitsinthedesignofSDSS,andmakingthemmoreinteractivesystemsFigure3.Figure2.SDSSArchitecturesuggestedby15.AnintegratedfocusforDSSinrelatedareaswithconservationandnaturalresourcemanagementwassuggestedby10Figure4.As25recognized,thisapproachcanonlybefeasibleforsophisticatedsoftwarekeepinginmindtheinclusionofaspectsandfunctionalityforparticipatorydecisionmaking.Specialistslike14addednewelements,whichallowtocorrectthedeficienciesofthepreviousoneastomeettheneedsofthedifferentusers,whichimpactonthedecisionmakingFigure5.Nevertheless,thisapproachdoesnotincludefeedbackmechanisms,whichaffectsnegativelyintheparticipatoryprocess.Ingeneral,DSSframeworksarebasedonsophisticatedcomputersoftwarebutwehaveconsideredthatitisveryimportantforthedevelopmentofAGDSSPtoincorporateascomponentsparticipatorydecisionmakingtoolsandmodelsandGIS.Thus,multiobjectiveoptimizationtoolsandmulticriteriagroupdecisionmakinghavebeenconsideredasimportantcomponentsinAGDSSPtoguaranteethesearchingforthebestsolutionsandfeedbackmechanisms.Figure3.ObjectorientedDSSarchitecturesuggestedby2.Figure4.Integratedschemaproposedby10.Asitwasmentionedbefore,SDSSneedGISelementsfortheirimplementation.CurrentdevelopmentsinGIStoolshaveportedthetechnologytotheinternet,inwhathascometobeknownasWebGIS,whichallowfordistributedGISfunctionalityinboth,Internetandintranets
编号:201311171116035785    大小:963.00KB    格式:DOC    上传时间:2013-11-17
  【编辑】
5
关 键 词:
教育专区 外文翻译 精品文档 外文翻译
温馨提示:
1: 本站所有资源如无特殊说明,都需要本地电脑安装OFFICE2007和PDF阅读器。图纸软件为CAD,CAXA,PROE,UG,SolidWorks等.压缩文件请下载最新的WinRAR软件解压。
2: 本站的文档不包含任何第三方提供的附件图纸等,如果需要附件,请联系上传者。文件的所有权益归上传用户所有。
3.本站RAR压缩包中若带图纸,网页内容里面会有图纸预览,若没有图纸预览就没有图纸。
4. 未经权益所有人同意不得将文件中的内容挪作商业或盈利用途。
5. 人人文库网仅提供交流平台,并不能对任何下载内容负责。
6. 下载文件中如有侵权或不适当内容,请与我们联系,我们立即纠正。
7. 本站不保证下载资源的准确性、安全性和完整性, 同时也不承担用户因使用这些下载资源对自己和他人造成任何形式的伤害或损失。
  人人文库网所有资源均是用户自行上传分享,仅供网友学习交流,未经上传用户书面授权,请勿作他用。
0条评论

还可以输入200字符

暂无评论,赶快抢占沙发吧。

当前资源信息

4.0
 
(2人评价)
浏览:11次
英文资料库上传于2013-11-17

官方联系方式

客服手机:17625900360   
2:不支持迅雷下载,请使用浏览器下载   
3:不支持QQ浏览器下载,请用其他浏览器   
4:下载后的文档和图纸-无水印   
5:文档经过压缩,下载后原文更清晰   

相关资源

相关资源

相关搜索

教育专区   外文翻译   精品文档   外文翻译  
关于我们 - 网站声明 - 网站地图 - 友情链接 - 网站客服客服 - 联系我们
copyright@ 2015-2017 人人文库网网站版权所有
苏ICP备12009002号-5