外文翻译—基于PLC的感应电动机监控系统设计与实现 原版.pdf外文翻译—基于PLC的感应电动机监控系统设计与实现 原版.pdf

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IEEETRANSACTIONSONENERGYCONVERSION,VOL19,NO3,SEPTEMBER2004469DESIGNANDIMPLEMENTATIONOFPLCBASEDMONITORINGCONTROLSYSTEMFORINDUCTIONMOTORMARIAGIOANNIDES,SENIORMEMBER,IEEEABSTRACTTHEIMPLEMENTATIONOFAMONITORINGANDCONTROLSYSTEMFORTHEINDUCTIONMOTORBASEDONPROGRAMMABLELOGICCONTROLLERPLCTECHNOLOGYISDESCRIBEDALSO,THEIMPLEMENTATIONOFTHEHARDWAREANDSOFTWAREFORSPEEDCONTROLANDPROTECTIONWITHTHERESULTSOBTAINEDFROMTESTSONINDUCTIONMOTORPERFORMANCEISPROVIDEDTHEPLCCORRELATESTHEOPERATIONALPARAMETERSTOTHESPEEDREQUESTEDBYTHEUSERANDMONITORSTHESYSTEMDURINGNORMALOPERATIONANDUNDERTRIPCONDITIONSTESTSOFTHEINDUCTIONMOTORSYSTEMDRIVENBYINVERTERANDCONTROLLEDBYPLCPROVEAHIGHERACCURACYINSPEEDREGULATIONASCOMPAREDTOACONVENTIONAL86102CONTROLSYSTEMTHEEFFICIENCYOFPLCCONTROLISINCREASEDATHIGHSPEEDSUPTO95OFTHESYNCHRONOUSSPEEDTHUS,PLCPROVESTHEMSELVESASAVERYVERSATILEANDEFFECTIVETOOLININDUSTRIALCONTROLOFELECTRICDRIVESINDEXTERMSCOMPUTERCONTROLLEDSYSTEMS,COMPUTERIZEDMONITORING,ELECTRICDRIVES,INDUCTIONMOTORS,MOTIONCONTROL,PROGRAMMABLELOGICCONTROLLERSPLCS,VARIABLEFREQUENCYDRIVES,VOLTAGECONTROLIINTRODUCTIONSINCETECHNOLOGYFORMOTIONCONTROLOFELECTRICDRIVESBECAMEAVAILABLE,THEUSEOFPROGRAMMABLELOGICCONTROLLERSPLCSWITHPOWERELECTRONICSINELECTRICMACHINESAPPLICATIONSHASBEENINTRODUCEDINTHEMANUFACTURINGAUTOMATION1,2THISUSEOFFERSADVANTAGESSUCHASLOWERVOLTAGEDROPWHENTURNEDONANDTHEABILITYTOCONTROLMOTORSANDOTHEREQUIPMENTWITHAVIRTUALLYUNITYPOWERFACTOR3MANYFACTORIESUSEPLCSINAUTOMATIONPROCESSESTODIMINISHPRODUCTIONCOSTANDTOINCREASEQUALITYANDRELIABILITY4–9OTHERAPPLICATIONSINCLUDEMACHINETOOLSWITHIMPROVEDPRECISIONCOMPUTERIZEDNUMERICALCONTROLCNCDUETOTHEUSEOFPLCS10TOOBTAINACCURATEINDUSTRIALELECTRICDRIVESYSTEMS,ITISNECESSARYTOUSEPLCSINTERFACEDWITHPOWERCONVERTERS,PERSONALCOMPUTERS,ANDOTHERELECTRICEQUIPMENT11–13NEVERTHELESS,THISMAKESTHEEQUIPMENTMORESOPHISTICATED,COMPLEX,ANDEXPENSIVE14,15FEWPAPERSWEREPUBLISHEDCONCERNINGDCMACHINESCONTROLLEDBYPLCSTHEYREPORTBOTHTHEIMPLEMENTATIONOFTHEFUZZYMETHODFORSPEEDCONTROLOFADCMOTOR/GENERATORSETUSINGAPLCTOCHANGETHEARMATUREVOLTAGE16,ANDTHEINCORPORATIONOFANADAPTIVECONTROLLERBASEDONTHESELFTUNINGREGULATORTECHNOLOGYINTOANEXISTINGINDUSTRIALPLC17ALSO,OTHERTYPESOFMACHINESWEREINTERFACEDWITHPLCSTHEREBY,ANINDUSTRIALPLCWASUSEDFORCONTROLLINGSTEPPERMOTORSMANUSCRIPTRECEIVEDDECEMBER2,2002PAPERNOTEC000042002THISWORKWASSUPPORTEDBYTHENATIONALTECHNICALUNIVERSITYOFATHENSTHEAUTHORISWITHTHEFACULTYOFELECTRICALANDCOMPUTERENGINEERINGOFTHENATIONALTECHNICALUNIVERSITYOFATHENS,ATHENS15773,GREECEEMAILMIOANNIDECENTUAGRDIGITALOBJECTIDENTIFIER101109/TEC2003822303INAFIVEAXISROTORPOSITION,DIRECTIONANDSPEED,REDUCINGTHENUMBEROFCIRCUITCOMPONENTS,LOWERINGTHECOST,ANDENHANCINGRELIABILITY18FORSWITCHEDRELUCTANCEMOTORSASAPOSSIBLEALTERNATIVETOADJUSTABLESPEEDACANDDCDRIVES,ASINGLECHIPLOGICCONTROLLERFORCONTROLLINGTORQUEANDSPEEDUSESAPLCTOIMPLEMENTTHEDIGITALLOGICCOUPLEDWITHAPOWERCONTROLLER19OTHERREPORTEDAPPLICATIONCONCERNSALINEARINDUCTIONMOTORFORPASSENGERELEVATORSWITHAPLCACHIEVINGTHECONTROLOFTHEDRIVESYSTEMANDTHEDATAACQUISITION20TOMONITORPOWERQUALITYANDIDENTIFYTHEDISTURBANCESTHATDISRUPTPRODUCTIONOFANELECTRICPLANT,TWOPLCSWEREUSEDTODETERMINETHESENSITIVITYOFTHEEQUIPMENT21ONLYFEWPAPERSWEREPUBLISHEDINTHEFIELDOFINDUCTIONMOTORSWITHPLCSAPOWERFACTORCONTROLLERFORATHREEPHASEINDUCTIONMOTORUTILIZESPLCTOIMPROVETHEPOWERFACTORANDTOKEEPITSVOLTAGETOFREQUENCYRATIOCONSTANTUNDERTHEWHOLECONTROLCONDITIONS3THEVECTORCONTROLINTEGRATEDCIRCUITUSESACOMPLEXPROGRAMMABLELOGICDEVICECPLDANDINTEGERARITHMETICFORTHEVOLTAGEORCURRENTREGULATIONOFTHREEPHASEPULSEWIDTHMODULATIONPWMINVERTERS22MANYAPPLICATIONSOFINDUCTIONMOTORSREQUIREBESIDESTHEMOTORCONTROLFUNCTIONALITY,THEHANDLINGOFSEVERALSPECIFICANALOGANDDIGITALI/OSIGNALS,HOMESIGNALS,TRIPSIGNALS,ON/OFF/REVERSECOMMANDSINSUCHCASES,ACONTROLUNITINVOLVINGAPLCMUSTBEADDEDTOTHESYSTEMSTRUCTURETHISPAPERPRESENTSAPLCBASEDMONITORINGANDCONTROLSYSTEMFORATHREEPHASEINDUCTIONMOTORITDESCRIBESTHEDESIGNANDIMPLEMENTATIONOFTHECONFIGUREDHARDWAREANDSOFTWARETHETESTRESULTSOBTAINEDONINDUCTIONMOTORPERFORMANCESHOWIMPROVEDEFFICIENCYANDINCREASEDACCURACYINVARIABLELOADCONSTANTSPEEDCONTROLLEDOPERATIONTHUS,THEPLCCORRELATESANDCONTROLSTHEOPERATIONALPARAMETERSTOTHESPEEDSETPOINTREQUESTEDBYTHEUSERANDMONITORSTHEINDUCTIONMOTORSYSTEMDURINGNORMALOPERATIONANDUNDERTRIPCONDITIONSIIPLCASSYSTEMCONTROLLERAPLCISAMICROPROCESSORBASEDCONTROLSYSTEM,DESIGNEDFORAUTOMATIONPROCESSESININDUSTRIALENVIRONMENTSITUSESAPROGRAMMABLEMEMORYFORTHEINTERNALSTORAGEOFUSERORIENTATEDINSTRUCTIONSFORIMPLEMENTINGSPECIFICFUNCTIONSSUCHASARITHMETIC,COUNTING,LOGIC,SEQUENCING,ANDTIMING23,24APLCCANBEPROGRAMMEDTOSENSE,ACTIVATE,ANDCONTROLINDUSTRIALEQUIPMENTAND,THEREFORE,INCORPORATESANUMBEROFI/OPOINTS,WHICHALLOWELECTRICALSIGNALSTOBEINTERFACEDINPUTDEVICESANDOUTPUTDEVICESOFTHEPROCESSARECONNECTEDTOTHEPLCANDTHECONTROLPROGRAMISENTEREDINTOTHEPLCMEMORYFIG108858969/0420002004IEEE470IEEETRANSACTIONSONENERGYCONVERSION,VOL19,NO3,SEPTEMBER2004FIG1CONTROLACTIONOFAPLCINOURAPPLICATION,ITCONTROLSTHROUGHANALOGANDDIGITALINPUTSANDOUTPUTSTHEVARYINGLOADCONSTANTSPEEDOPERATIONOFANINDUCTIONMOTORALSO,THEPLCCONTINUOUSLYMONITORSTHEINPUTSANDACTIVATESTHEOUTPUTSACCORDINGTOTHECONTROLPROGRAMTHISPLCSYSTEMISOFMODULARTYPECOMPOSEDOFSPECIFICHARDWAREBUILDINGBLOCKSMODULES,WHICHPLUGDIRECTLYINTOAPROPRIETARYBUSACENTRALPROCESSORUNITCPU,APOWERSUPPLYUNIT,INPUTOUTPUTMODULESI/O,ANDAPROGRAMTERMINALSUCHAMODULARAPPROACHHASTHEADVANTAGETHATTHEINITIALCONFIGURATIONCANBEEXPANDEDFOROTHERFUTUREAPPLICATIONSSUCHASMULTIMACHINESYSTEMSORCOMPUTERLINKINGIIICONTROLSYSTEMOFINDUCTIONMOTORINFIG2,THEBLOCKDIAGRAMOFTHEEXPERIMENTALSYSTEMISILLUSTRATEDTHEFOLLOWINGCONFIGURATIONSCANBEOBTAINEDFROMTHISSETUPAACLOSEDLOOPCONTROLSYSTEMFORCONSTANTSPEEDOPERATION,CONFIGUREDWITHSPEEDFEEDBACKANDLOADCURRENTFEEDBACKTHEINDUCTIONMOTORDRIVESAVARIABLELOAD,ISFEDBYANINVERTER,ANDTHEPLCCONTROLSTHEINVERTEROUTPUTBANOPENLOOPCONTROLSYSTEMFORVARIABLESPEEDOPERATIONTHEINDUCTIONMOTORDRIVESAVARIABLELOADANDISFEDBYANINVERTERINCONSTANTCONTROLMODETHEPLCISINACTIVATEDCTHESTANDARDVARIABLESPEEDOPERATIONTHEINDUCTIONMOTORDRIVESAVARIABLELOADANDISFEDBYACONSTANTVOLTAGECONSTANTFREQUENCYSTANDARDTHREEPHASESUPPLYTHEOPENLOOPCONFIGURATIONBCANBEOBTAINEDFROMTHECLOSEDLOOPCONFIGURATIONABYREMOVINGTHESPEEDANDLOADFEEDBACKONTHEOTHERHAND,OPERATIONCRESULTSIFTHEENTIRECONTROLSYSTEMISBYPASSEDIVHARDWAREDESCRIPTIONTHECONTROLSYSTEMISIMPLEMENTEDANDTESTEDFORAWOUNDROTORINDUCTIONMOTOR,HAVINGTHETECHNICALSPECIFICATIONSGIVENINTABLEITHEINDUCTIONMOTORDRIVESADCGENERATOR,WHICHSUPPLIESAVARIABLELOADTHETHREEPHASEPOWERSUPPLYISCONNECTEDTOATHREEPHASEMAINSWITCHANDTHENTOATHREEPHASETHERMALOVERLOADRELAY,WHICHPROVIDESPROTECTIONAGAINSTCURRENTOVERLOADSTHERELAYOUTPUTISCONNECTEDTOTHERECTIFIER,WHICHRECTIFIESTHETHREEPHASEVOLTAGEANDGIVESADCINPUTTOTHEINSULATEDGATEBIPOLARTRANSISTORIGBTINVERTERITSTECHNICALSPECIFICATIONS25ARESUMMARIZEDINTABLEIITHEIGBTFIG2ELECTRICALDIAGRAMOFEXPERIMENTALSYSTEMTABLEIINDUCTIONMOTORTECHNICALSPECIFICATIONSIOANNIDESDESIGNANDIMPLEMENTATIONOFPLCBASEDMONITORINGCONTROLSYSTEMFORINDUCTIONMOTOR471TABLEIIINVERTERTECHNICALSPECIFICATIONSINVERTERCONVERTSTHEDCVOLTAGEINPUTTOTHREEPHASEVOLTAGEOUTPUT,WHICHISSUPPLIEDTOTHESTATOROFTHEINDUCTIONMOTORONTHEOTHERHAND,THEINVERTERISINTERFACEDTOTHEPLCBASEDCONTROLLERTHISCONTROLLERISIMPLEMENTEDONAPLCMODULARSYSTEM5,26–28THEPLCARCHITECTUREREFERSTOITSINTERNALHARDWAREANDSOFTWAREASAMICROPROCESSORBASEDSYSTEM,THEPLCSYSTEMHARDWAREISDESIGNEDANDBUILTUPWITHTHEFOLLOWINGMODULES29–37CENTRALPROCESSORUNITCPU;DISCRETEOUTPUTMODULEDOM;DISCRETEINPUTMODULEDIM;ANALOGOUTPUTSMODULEAOMANALOGINPUTSMODULEAIMPOWERSUPPLYOTHERDETAILSOFTHEPLCCONFIGURATIONARESHOWNINTABLESIIIANDIVASPEEDSENSORISUSEDFORTHESPEEDFEEDBACK,ACURRENTSENSORISUSEDFORTHELOADCURRENTFEEDBACK,ANDASECONDCURRENTSENSORISCONNECTEDTOTHESTATORCIRCUITS32THUS,THETWOFEEDBACKLOOPSOFTHECLOSEDLOOPSYSTEMARESETUPBYUSINGTHELOADCURRENTSENSOR,THESPEEDSENSOR,ANDTHEAIMATACHOGENERATORPERMANENTMAGNETDCMOTORISUSEDFORSPEEDSENSINGTHEINDUCTIONMACHINEDRIVESITSSHAFTMECHANICALLYANDANOUTPUTVOLTAGEISPRODUCED,THEMAGNITUDEOFWHICHISPROPORTIONALTOTHESPEEDOFROTATIONPOLARITYDEPENDSONTHEDIRECTIONOFROTATIONTHEVOLTAGESIGNALFROMTHETACHOGENERATORMUSTMATCHTHESPECIFIEDVOLTAGERANGEOFTHEAIM0–5VDCAND200KINTERNALRESISTANCEOTHERPLCEXTERNALCONTROLCIRCUITSAREDESIGNEDUSINGALOWVOLTAGESUPPLYOF24VDCFORTHEMANUALCONTROL,THESCHEMEISEQUIPPEDWITHSTART,STOP,ANDTRIPPUSHBUTTONS,ASWELLASWITHAFORWARDANDBACKWARDDIRECTIONSELECTORSWITCHASSHOWNINFIG2,ALLOFTHEDESCRIBEDCOMPONENTSAMAINSWITCH,ANAUTOMATICTHREEPHASESWITCH,ANAUTOMATICSINGLEPHASESWITCH,ATHREEPHASETHERMALOVERLOADRELAY,ALOADAUTOMATICSWITCH,SIGNALLAMPSFORWARD,BACKWARD,START,STOP,TRIP,PUSHBUTTONSSTART,STOP,TRIP,ASELECTORSWITCHFORTHEFORWARD/BACKWARDDIRECTIONOFROTATION,ASPEEDSELECTOR,AGAINSELECTOR,ASWELLASTHEPLCMODULESANDTHERECTIFIERINVERTERAREINSTALLEDINACONTROLPANELTHEPROGRAMISDOWNLOADEDINTOTHEPLCFROMAPERSONALCOMPUTERPCANDANRS232SERIALINTERFACEVSOFTWAREDESCRIPTIONPLC’SPROGRAMMINGISBASEDONTHELOGICDEMANDSOFINPUTDEVICESANDTHEPROGRAMSIMPLEMENTEDAREPREDOMINANTLYLOGFIG3FLOWCHARTOFTHEMAINPROGRAMTABLEIIIPLCCONFIGURATIONICALRATHERTHANNUMERICALCOMPUTATIONALALGORITHMSMOSTOFTHEPROGRAMMEDOPERATIONSWORKONASTRAIGHTFORWARDTWOSTATE“ONOROFF”BASISANDTHESEALTERNATEPOSSIBILITIESCORRESPONDTO“TRUEORFALSE”LOGICALFORMAND“1OR0”BINARYFORM,RESPECTIVELYTHUS,PLCSOFFERAFLEXIBLEPROGRAMMABLEALTERNATIVETOELECTRICALCIRCUITRELAYBASEDCONTROLSYSTEMSBUILTUSINGANALOGDEVICESTHEPROGRAMMINGMETHODUSEDISTHELADDERDIAGRAMMETHODTHEPLCSYSTEMPROVIDESADESIGNENVIRONMENTINTHEFORMOFSOFTWARETOOLSRUNNINGONAHOSTCOMPUTERTERMINALWHICHALLOWSLADDERDIAGRAMSTOBEDEVELOPED,VERIFIED,TESTED,ANDDIAGNOSEDFIRST,THEHIGHLEVELPROGRAMISWRITTENINLADDERDIAGRAMS,33,34THEN,THELADDERDIAGRAMISCONVERTEDINTOBINARYINSTRUCTIONCODESSOTHATTHEYCANBESTOREDINRANDOMACCESSMEMORYRAMORERASABLEPROGRAMMABLEREADONLYMEMORYEPROMEACHSUCCESSIVEINSTRUCTIONISDECODEDANDEXECUTEDBYTHECPUTHEFUNCTIONOFTHECPUISTOCONTROLTHEOPERATIONOFMEMORYANDI/ODEVICESANDTOPROCESSDATAACCORDINGTOTHEPROGRAMEACHINPUTANDOUTPUTCONNECTIONPOINTONAPLCHASANADDRESSUSEDTOIDENTIFYTHEI/OBITTHEMETHODFORTHEDIRECTREPRESENTATIONOFDATAASSOCIATEDWITHTHEINPUTS,OUTPUTS,ANDMEMORYISBASEDONTHEFACTTHATTHEPLCMEMORYISORGANIZEDINTOTHREER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