外文翻译原文-一种对应隧道掘进机的测量黏土附着量的方法.pdf外文翻译原文-一种对应隧道掘进机的测量黏土附着量的方法.pdf

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ORIGINALPAPERAMETHODFORASSESSINGADHESIONOFCLAYSTOTUNNELINGMACHINESISASSUBURBAUMRECEIVED21DECEMBER2007/ACCEPTED23AUGUST2008/PUBLISHEDONLINE31OCTOBER2008C211SPRINGERVERLAG2008ABSTRACTTUNNELBORINGMACHINESPASSINGTHROUGHCOHESIVESOILSSOMETIMESEXPERIENCESIGNIFICANTCLOGGING,LEADINGTODELAYSANDINCREASEDCOSTSTHEPAPERDESCRIBESATESTTOASSESSTHELIKELIHOODOFADHESIONPROBLEMSOCCURRING,SIMULATINGTHESITUATIONWHEREACLAYSTICKSTOTHECUTTINGWHEELOFTHEMACHINETHERESULTSOFTESTSUSINGKAOLINCLAYSUGGESTTHATTHEADHESIONCHANGESWITHTHECOMPRESSIONFORCEFURTHERSTUDIESAREBEINGUNDERTAKENTOELUCIDATETHEFACTORSWHICHINFLUENCETHIS,INCLUDINGCLAYMINERALOGYANDROUGHNESSOFTHEFACEOFTHECUTTINGWHEELITISHOPEDTHATTHEWORKWILLLEADTOANINDUSTRIALSTANDARDMETHODOFASSESSINGADHESIONWHICHCANBEUSEDINSITEINVESTIGATIONANDONSITEKEYWORDSADHESIONC1CLAYC1SURFACEEFFECTSC1BOUNDARYLAYEREFFECTSC1TUNNELINGC1SOILMECHANICSRESUMELESTUNNELIERSTRAVERSANTDESSOLSCOHESIFSSONTPARFOISSUJETSABLOCAGE,CONDUISANTADESRETARDSETAUGMENTATIONSDECOUˆTSL’ARTICLEDECRITUNTESTPERMETTANTD’EVALUERLESRISQUESD’ENCRASSAGE,SIMULANTLASITUATIONOUUNEARGILECOLLEAUMOLETTEDECOUPEDELAMACHINELESRESULTATSDUTESTEFFECTUEAVECUNEARGILEKAOLINIQUESUGGERENTQUEL’ADHERENCECHANGEAVECL’EFFORTDECOMPRESSIONDENOUVELLESETUDESSONTENTREPRISESPOURIDENTIFIERLESFACTEURSRESPONSABLES,INCLUANTLANATUREMINERALOGIQUEDEL’ARGILEETLARUGOSITEDUMOLETTEDECOUPEONESPEREQUELETRAVAILREALISECONDUIRAALADEFINITIOND’UNESSAINORMALISEPERMETTANTD’EVALUERL’ADHERENCED’UNSOLARGILEUXETPOUVANTEˆTREMISENŒUVRELORSDERECONNAISSANCESDESTERRAINSETSURCHANTIERMOTSCLESADHERENCEC1ARGILEC1EFFETSDESURFACEC1EFFETSDECOUCHELIMITEC1TUNNELIERC1MECANIQUEDESSOLSINTRODUCTIONINUNDERGROUNDCONSTRUCTION,THEADHERENCEOFCLAYSTOTHESTEELSURFACESOFMACHINERYMAYSIGNIFICANTLYREDUCETHEMACHINE’SEFFICIENCYORINDEEDRESULTINATOTALLOSSOFCAPACITYRECENTLY,THISPROBLEMOCCURREDINSOMETUNNELINGPROJECTSDRIVENBYAHYDROSHIELDTBMJANCZECZ1997;THEWES1999FIGURE1SHOWSTHECUTTINGWHEELOFATUNNELBORINGMACHINENEARLYCOMPLETELYCLOGGEDWITHCLAYEYSOILWHENSUCHCLOGGINGOCCURS,THETUNNELDRIVINGPROCESSHASTOBESTOPPEDTOALLOWCLEANINGOFTHECUTTINGWHEELAND/OREXTRACTIONCHAMBER,WITHCONSEQUENTIALDELAYSANDIMPACTONTHEBUDGETITISTHEREFOREIMPORTANTTHATTHEADHESIVEPROPERTIESOFTHESOILSAREDETAILEDINTHEGEOTECHNICALSURVEYREPORTTOPROVIDEBOTHQUALITATIVEANDQUANTITATIVEINFORMATIONTHESEPHENOMENAHAVEBEENINVESTIGATEDSINCE1838INTHEEARLYDAYS,SUCHAGRICULTURALWORKASTILLINGENCOUNTEREDPROBLEMSWITHSTICKYCOHESIVESOILSTHEFIRSTRESEARCHSTUDIESFORTHECONSTRUCTIONINDUSTRYWEREREPORTEDINTHE1960SWHILESYSTEMATICRESEARCHONTHEADHESIONOFSOILSRELATEDTOTUNNELINGHASBEENUNDERTAKENSINCETHELATE1990SDESPITETHIS,THEINTERACTIONOFSOILANDTHESTEELSURFACEISSTILLNOTVERYCLEARAVARIETYOFSOILADHESIONTESTMETHODSANDTESTCONDITIONSWEREDEVELOPEDANDINVESTIGATEDBUTTODATETHEREISNOCOMMONLYACCEPTEDTESTMETHODTOESTABLISHTHEADHESIVEPROPERTIESOFSOILSFUTURETUNNELPROJECTSARELIKELYTOBEUNDERTAKENMOREANDMOREINDIFFICULTADHESIVESOILCONDITIONS,THUSITISISASSC1UBURBAUMTECHNISCHEUNIVERSITATDARMSTADT,SCHNITTSPAHNSTRAE9,64287DARMSTADT,GERMANYEMAILSASSGEOTUDARMSTADTDEUBURBAUMEMAILBURBAUMGEOTUDARMSTADTDE123BULLENGGEOLENVIRON20096827–34DOI101007/S1006400801786IMPORTANTTHATTHEREISANAGREEDINDUSTRIALSTANDARDTESTMETHODWHICHPROVIDESQUALITATIVEANDQUANTITATIVEINFORMATIONABOUTTHEADHESIVEPROPERTIESOFTHESOILWHICHCANBEUSEDBYSITEINVESTIGATION,TENDERINGANDCONSTRUCTIONCONTRACTORSASWELLASFORBUDGETPLANNINGADHESIONOFSOILSADHESIONOCCURSONLYINCOHESIVESOILSWITHSOME10–20MINIMUMCLAYMINERALCONTENT,DEPENDINGONTHESOILTHEADHESIONOFCOHESIVESOILSTOSOLIDSURFACESISFOUNDTOBEDEPENDENTONAWATERFILMINSIDETHESOIL–SOLIDINTERFACEANDCANBEUNDERSTOODASABOUNDARYLAYEREFFECTTHEINTERACTIONBETWEENTHISWATERFILMINTHEINTERFACE,THEWATERCONTENT,THEPOREWATERPRESSURE,THEWATERABSORPTION,THESWELLINGCAPACITY,TENSILESTRENGTH,CAPILLARYFORCESANDOTHERPHYSICALPROPERTIESOFTHESOILANDTHEADHESIONFORCESASWELLASTHEEFFECTSOFTHESTEELSURFACEPROPERTIES,THEWAYINWHICHTHETBMOPERATESANDTHEBORINGSLURRYQUALITYARENOTWELLUNDERSTOODFIG2THEWES1999SUGGESTEDAPHYSICALSOILMODELTOEXPLAINTHEADHESIVEEFFECTBETWEENSOILANDASTEELSURFACETHEPAPERPROPOSESATESTWHICHMAYASSISTINABETTERUNDERSTANDINGOFTHEPHYSICALPROCESSESOFADHESIONCHARACTERISTICSOFASOILADHESIONTESTMETHODALABORATORYSOILADHESIONTESTMETHODAPPROPRIATEASANINDUSTRIALSTANDARDINCONSTRUCTIONINDUSTRIESSHOULDINCLUDEAPRECISELYDEFINEDPARAMETERS;BHIGHRESOLUTIONMEASUREMENT;CHIGHREPRODUCIBILITYINSTANDARDGEOTECHNICALLABORATORIES;DEASYANDQUICKTOPERFORMINGENERALSOILTESTINGLABORATORIES;ESIMPLETESTEQUIPMENT,APPROPRIATEFORSITEUSEFSIMPLETESTPROCEDURE;GTHEUSEOFOTHERESTABLISHEDSTANDARDTESTINGMETHODS,IFPOSSIBLE;HREFERENCETOSTANDARDIZEDSOILPARAMETERSTHETESTMETHODHASTOBEACCEPTABLETOTHEMAINTESTINGINSTITUTIONSASMANYFUTUREPROJECTSWITHADHESIONPROBLEMSMAYBEEXPECTEDWORLDWIDEFORTHISREASON,THETESTEQUIPMENTANDPROCEDURESHOULDBEASSIMPLEASPOSSIBLEANDSHOULDREFERTO/INCLUDEOTHERWELLESTABLISHEDSTANDARDTESTINGMETHODSANDSOILPARAMETERSPRINCIPLESOFSOILADHESIONTESTINGTHREEMAINPRINCIPLESFORTHETESTINGOFTHEBONDINGFORCESBETWEENTWOMATERIALSAREROUTINELYUSEDHABENICHT2006PEELING,SHEARINGANDDIRECTTENSIONPEELINGTESTSAREOFI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