会员注册 | 登录 | 微信快捷登录 支付宝快捷登录 QQ登录 微博登录 | 帮助中心 人人文库renrendoc.com美如初恋!
站内搜索 百度文库

热门搜索: 直缝焊接机 矿井提升机 循环球式转向器图纸 机器人手爪发展史 管道机器人dwg 动平衡试验台设计

外文翻译原文-一种对应隧道掘进机的测量黏土附着量的方法.pdf外文翻译原文-一种对应隧道掘进机的测量黏土附着量的方法.pdf -- 5 元

宽屏显示 收藏 分享

资源预览需要最新版本的Flash Player支持。
您尚未安装或版本过低,建议您

ORIGINALPAPERAmethodforassessingadhesionofclaystotunnelingmachinesI.SassÆU.BurbaumReceived21December2007/Accepted23August2008/Publishedonline31October2008C211SpringerVerlag2008AbstractTunnelboringmachinespassingthroughcohesivesoilssometimesexperiencesignificantclogging,leadingtodelaysandincreasedcosts.Thepaperdescribesatesttoassessthelikelihoodofadhesionproblemsoccurring,simulatingthesituationwhereaclaystickstothecuttingwheelofthemachine.Theresultsoftestsusingkaolinclaysuggestthattheadhesionchangeswiththecompressionforce.Furtherstudiesarebeingundertakentoelucidatethefactorswhichinfluencethis,includingclaymineralogyandroughnessofthefaceofthecuttingwheel.Itishopedthattheworkwillleadtoanindustrialstandardmethodofassessingadhesionwhichcanbeusedinsiteinvestigationandonsite.KeywordsAdhesionC1ClayC1SurfaceeffectsC1BoundarylayereffectsC1TunnelingC1SoilmechanicsRe´sume´Lestunnelierstraversantdessolscohe´sifssontparfoissujetsablocage,conduisantadesretardsetaugmentationsdecouˆts.Larticlede´crituntestpermettantde´valuerlesrisquesdencrassage,simulantlasituationouuneargilecolleaumolettedecoupedelamachine.Lesre´sultatsdutesteffectue´avecuneargilekaoliniquesuggerentqueladhe´rencechangeavecleffortdecompression.Denouvellese´tudessontentreprisespouridentifierlesfacteursresponsables,incluantlanaturemine´ralogiquedelargileetlarugosite´dumolettedecoupe.Onesperequeletravailre´alise´conduiraalade´finitiondunessainormalise´permettantde´valuerladhe´rencedunsolargileuxetpouvanteˆtremisenœuvrelorsdereconnaissancesdesterrainsetsurchantier.Motscle´sAdhe´renceC1ArgileC1EffetsdesurfaceC1EffetsdecouchelimiteC1TunnelierC1Me´caniquedessolsIntroductionInundergroundconstruction,theadherenceofclaystothesteelsurfacesofmachinerymaysignificantlyreducethemachinesefficiencyorindeedresultinatotallossofcapacity.Recently,thisproblemoccurredinsometunnelingprojectsdrivenbyahydroshieldTBMJanczecz1997Thewes1999.Figure1showsthecuttingwheelofatunnelboringmachinenearlycompletelycloggedwithclayeysoil.Whensuchcloggingoccurs,thetunneldrivingprocesshastobestoppedtoallowcleaningofthecuttingwheeland/orextractionchamber,withconsequentialdelaysandimpactonthebudget.Itisthereforeimportantthattheadhesivepropertiesofthesoilsaredetailedinthegeotechnicalsurveyreporttoprovidebothqualitativeandquantitativeinformation.Thesephenomenahavebeeninvestigatedsince1838.Intheearlydays,suchagriculturalworkastillingencounteredproblemswithstickycohesivesoils.Thefirstresearchstudiesfortheconstructionindustrywerereportedinthe1960swhilesystematicresearchontheadhesionofsoilsrelatedtotunnelinghasbeenundertakensincethelate1990s.Despitethis,theinteractionofsoilandthesteelsurfaceisstillnotveryclear.Avarietyofsoiladhesiontestmethodsandtestconditionsweredevelopedandinvestigatedbuttodatethereisnocommonlyacceptedtestmethodtoestablishtheadhesivepropertiesofsoils.Futuretunnelprojectsarelikelytobeundertakenmoreandmoreindifficultadhesivesoilconditions,thusitisI.SassC1U.BurbaumTechnischeUniversita¨tDarmstadt,Schnittspahnstraße9,64287Darmstadt,Germanyemailsassgeo.tudarmstadt.deU.Burbaumemailburbaumgeo.tudarmstadt.de123BullEngGeolEnviron20096827–34DOI10.1007/s1006400801786importantthatthereisanagreedindustrialstandardtestmethodwhichprovidesqualitativeandquantitativeinformationabouttheadhesivepropertiesofthesoilwhichcanbeusedbysiteinvestigation,tenderingandconstructioncontractorsaswellasforbudgetplanning.AdhesionofsoilsAdhesionoccursonlyincohesivesoilswithsome10–20minimumclaymineralcontent,dependingonthesoil.Theadhesionofcohesivesoilstosolidsurfacesisfoundtobedependentonawaterfilminsidethesoil–solidinterfaceandcanbeunderstoodasaboundarylayereffect.Theinteractionbetweenthiswaterfilmintheinterface,thewatercontent,theporewaterpressure,thewaterabsorption,theswellingcapacity,tensilestrength,capillaryforcesandotherphysicalpropertiesofthesoilandtheadhesionforcesaswellastheeffectsofthesteelsurfaceproperties,thewayinwhichtheTBMoperatesandtheboringslurryqualityarenotwellunderstoodFig.2.Thewes1999suggestedaphysicalsoilmodeltoexplaintheadhesiveeffectbetweensoilandasteelsurface.Thepaperproposesatestwhichmayassistinabetterunderstandingofthephysicalprocessesofadhesion.CharacteristicsofasoiladhesiontestmethodAlaboratorysoiladhesiontestmethodappropriateasanindustrialstandardinconstructionindustriesshouldincludeapreciselydefinedparametersbhighresolutionmeasurementchighreproducibilityinstandardgeotechnicallaboratoriesdeasyandquicktoperformingeneralsoiltestinglaboratoriesesimpletestequipment,appropriateforsiteusefsimpletestproceduregtheuseofotherestablishedstandardtestingmethods,ifpossiblehreferencetostandardizedsoilparameters.Thetestmethodhastobeacceptabletothemaintestinginstitutionsasmanyfutureprojectswithadhesionproblemsmaybeexpectedworldwide.Forthisreason,thetestequipmentandprocedureshouldbeassimpleaspossibleandshouldreferto/includeotherwellestablishedstandardtestingmethodsandsoilparameters.PrinciplesofsoiladhesiontestingThreemainprinciplesforthetestingofthebondingforcesbetweentwomaterialsareroutinelyusedHabenicht2006peeling,shearinganddirecttension.Peelingtestsareofinterestforthelooseningofsoilsinexcavations,trenching,etc.Sheartestswouldleadtoresultswhichinterferewiththeresultsoftheshearstrengthtestwhichistypicallyusedinsoilmechanics.Itwouldthennotbepossibletodistinguishshearstrengthfromadhesionforce.Furthermore,thestressconditionsofsheartestsmakethelocationoftheshearplaneveryundefined.Itislikelythatthemathematicalinterpretationofsoiltestswiththeshearprinciplewouldproducemisleadingresults.Withadirecttensiontestsimilartoaninverseunconfinedcompressiontestthematerialsareseparatedbyforcesnormaltotheirsurfaces.ForamonoaxiallayoutofthetestFig.1CuttingwheelofaTBMnearlycompletelycloggedwithclay,SydneyAirportRailLink,PhotoCopyrightFa.BouyguesAdhesionsoiltosteelsurfaceSoilSurface/handlingmannerGrainsizedistributionMineralogicalcompositionWatercontentPorosityCationexchangecapacitySpecificsurfaceWaterabsorptioncapacitySwellingcapacityContentofswellableclaymineralsPlasticityConsistencyCohesionandtensilestrengthSurfaceroughnessWettingofsurfaceForcesonsoilparticlesPressureforcessoilsurfaceContactdurationsoilsurfaceSlurrypropertiesFig.2Effectsonadhesion28I.Sass,U.Burbaum123themaximumtensionforceinseparatingsoilfromsteelistheadhesionforceoradhesionstrength.Thestressstateinthiscaseisverywelldefinedandsimplyinterpreted.Tocarrythisprincipleoverintothefieldofsoilmechanics,asolidmaterialhastobepressedonasoilsurfaceandpulledaway.ThistestprincipleisalreadyusedforsoiladhesiontestingSchachbasian1890Riek1963Schlick1989Fountaine1954Thewes1999.Thewes1999recommendedthisasanindustrialstandardtestingmethod.Onemajorproblemwiththistestprincipleistodistinguishadhesionstrengthinthematerialsinterfacefromtensilestrengthinthesoil.Iftheruptureisnotattheinterfacebetweenthesteelandthesoilbutinsidethesoilitself,theadhesionstrengthishigherthanthetensilestrengthofthesoilandhencecannotbemeasured.Onlyifthereisnosoilleftonthesolidsurfacecantheadhesionbemeasured.AdhesiontestAdhesiontestequipmentThesuggestedadhesiontestdeviceconsistsofasteelsampleringof9.0cmdiameterandaheightof4.9cm,whichisheldbetweenabaseplateandaheadplateFigs.3,4.Thesoilsampleisplacedintotheringunderdefinedconditions,e.g.watercontent,compaction,coagulatedorsinglegrained,etc.A6.2cmdiameteradhesiontestcylinderisusedasthesurfacetowhichthesoiladheres.Thecrosssectionsurfaceareaofthecylinderis30.2cm2.Thistestarrangementcanbeusedforvariousmaterials,e.g.metal,ceramics,plastics,etc.AdhesiontestprocedureFollowingsomepreliminaryinvestigationstoestablishthebestpracticeforinstallingthecohesivesoilsamplesinthesoilsampleringHug2007Hempel2008,itwasfoundthatthesoilisbestplacedinthreelayers,compactedasinthestandardProctortestusingthe2.5kgrammer.Aftercompaction,thesurfaceofthesoiliscarefullylevelled/smoothedandthesampleplacedinthecompressionandtensiontestingmachineFig.5withtheadhesiontestcylinder.Thetestprocedureisasfollows.Thesoilsurfaceiswettedwithdeionizedwater.Itisessentialtousedeionizedwatertoavoiduncontrolledevaporationandtoproduceanadhesionfilmbetweenthesteelofthecylinderandthesoil.ThewaterisdeionizedtoavoidundefinedionFig.3Adhesiontestdevice,crosssections11and22Fig.4AdhesiontestrigThemeasurementofadhesivepropertiesofcohesivesoils29123exchangeintheclayfractionofthesoilsample,althoughintheorythistestcanbecarriedoutwithotherfluids,e.g.tunnelboringordrillingfluids.Theadhesiontestcylinderisthenpressedverticallyontothewettedsoilsurface,usingacontrolledforcewhichshouldbemaintainedforaspecificperiodoftime.Theadhesiontestcylinderisthenpulledaway,whilecarefullymonitoringtheforceandvelocity.MeasurementsandinterpretationoftestresultsTointerpretthetestresults,themeasurementsrecordedduringthetensionphasesareplottedonaforce–timediagramFig.6.Thedifferencebetweenthemaximumtensileforceandtheabscissaifthedeadweightoftheadhesiontestcylinderisincorporatedinthetestprogramprovidestheadhesionforceorthetensileforceofthesoilsampleifthefailureisobservedinthesoilitself.Tocomparetheresultswiththosereportedbyotherauthors,theforceswereconvertedtostressesbydividingtheforcesbytheareaofsurfaceoftheadhesiontestcylindersurface.Tovalidatethetestmethod,aseriesofadhesiontestswereundertakenonindustrial,homogeneousclays.Ineachcase,onlyonetestparametere.g.consistencywasvariedwiththeothersparameterskeptthesame.SystemtestsThefirsttestserieswerecarriedouttochecktheoperationoftheadhesiontestdevice.Anadhesiontestcylinderwitharoughnessof0.1lmwasputonanotheradhesiontestcylinderofthesameroughness.Thesurfaceoftheadhesiontestcylinderwaswettedwithpurewater.Figure7showstheteststatejustbeforethetwocylindersareconnectedandjustbeforethewaterfilmintheinterfaceisseparatedfromonecylinder.ThemeasuredstresstimerelationshipisshowninFig.8.Themeasuredadhesionstresseswerebetween5.3and4.9kN/m2withanaveragevalueof5.1kN/m2andastandarddeviationof0.13kN/m2equalto2.7oftheaveragevalue.Theseresultsshowthatadhesionstressoccurswhenawaterfilmispresentanditcanbemeasuredveryprecisely.AdhesiontestsonclayTestclayThetestedclaywasindustrialpowderedkaolinofmediumplasticitywithaclaygradecontentofcirca50.TheFig.5AdhesiontestrigwithsoilsampleinacompressionandtensiontestingmachinetensionmaximumtensileforcedeadweighadhesiontestcylindercompressionforcetimeDisconnectionsoilsample/adhesiontestcylindercompressionFig.6Principleofinterpretationofthestress–timerelationshipFig.7Teststatebeforeconnectionleftphotoandbeforeseparationrightphoto30I.Sass,U.Burbaum123
编号:201311171409316474    大小:512.20KB    格式:PDF    上传时间:2013-11-17
  【编辑】
5
关 键 词:
专业文献 学术论文 精品文档 外文翻译
温馨提示:
1: 本站所有资源如无特殊说明,都需要本地电脑安装OFFICE2007和PDF阅读器。图纸软件为CAD,CAXA,PROE,UG,SolidWorks等.压缩文件请下载最新的WinRAR软件解压。
2: 本站的文档不包含任何第三方提供的附件图纸等,如果需要附件,请联系上传者。文件的所有权益归上传用户所有。
3.本站RAR压缩包中若带图纸,网页内容里面会有图纸预览,若没有图纸预览就没有图纸。
4. 未经权益所有人同意不得将文件中的内容挪作商业或盈利用途。
5. 人人文库网仅提供交流平台,并不能对任何下载内容负责。
6. 下载文件中如有侵权或不适当内容,请与我们联系,我们立即纠正。
7. 本站不保证下载资源的准确性、安全性和完整性, 同时也不承担用户因使用这些下载资源对自己和他人造成任何形式的伤害或损失。
  人人文库网所有资源均是用户自行上传分享,仅供网友学习交流,未经上传用户书面授权,请勿作他用。
0条评论

还可以输入200字符

暂无评论,赶快抢占沙发吧。

当前资源信息

4.0
 
(2人评价)
浏览:14次
淘宝运营上传于2013-11-17

官方联系方式

客服手机:13961746681   
2:不支持迅雷下载,请使用浏览器下载   
3:不支持QQ浏览器下载,请用其他浏览器   
4:下载后的文档和图纸-无水印   
5:文档经过压缩,下载后原文更清晰   

相关资源

相关资源

相关搜索

专业文献   学术论文   精品文档   外文翻译  
关于我们 - 网站声明 - 网站地图 - 友情链接 - 网站客服客服 - 联系我们
copyright@ 2015-2017 人人文库网网站版权所有
苏ICP备12009002号-5