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外文翻译合同中缔约过失责任的产生和发展.doc外文翻译合同中缔约过失责任的产生和发展.doc -- 5 元

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TheEmergenceandDevelopmentofContractingFaultLiabilityAbstractTheContractingFaultLiabilityasacivilcompensationliabilityoccurswhenonepartyviolatestheprecontractualobligationssubjecttobonafideprincipleandthentheotherpartyistobeentitledtothecompensationforthedamagestotherelianceonitsinterestsufferedthereby.ThesystemofthecontractingfaultliabilitywasputforwardbyaGermanjuristandwasfamedanimportantfindofjurisprudence.Reviewingthehistoryofliabilityfornegligenceincontracting,wecanfindsthatcaseandtheoryplayaveryimportantroleinitsdevelopment.IntroductionIntraditionalcontractlaw,contractrightsandobligationsbetweenthepartiesisonlykeptintheestablishmentandperformanceofcontractscompletedperiod.Ifthecontractualrelationshipdidnotexistornotsetup,itimpliesnoresponsibility.Thatis,nocontracts,noresponsibility.Sointhecontract,ifonesidescontractisnotsetup,whichimpliesthefactthattherehavetoprotecttheinterestedpartieswholosssomething.Withthissituation,thefaultliabilitywascomeout.Thisarticlefocusesonit.TheEmergenceanddevelopmentofcontractingfaultliabilityItisgenerallyagreedthattheconceptoffaultliabilityhavealreadycameoutinRomelaw.Thereisafamoussayingcontractisnolongerthesubjectofthepaymentisvoid.Atthispoint,ifthebuyerisingoodfaithandwithoutnegligence,inordertoprotectthesecurityoftransactions,inexceptionalcircumstancesthebuyertherighttoappealbasedonbuyerstogoodfaithlitigation,therequesttothesellerforcompensationforlossessufferedduetoaninvalidcontract.However,beforetheformationoftheancientRomanlaw,thereisnocontractualobligationandCulpacompletesystem.Thecompletetheoreticalandinstitutionalsystematizationofthingswasestablishedinthemoderntimes.ItisproposedbytheGermanjuristGarling.Intheyearof1861,JellingpublishedinVolumeIVofContractingonthefaultContractnullandvoidanddamagesbeforetheestablishmentoftheharmedinhisGarlingdoctrineAnnualReport.Inthearticle,hepointedoutthatGermanytooktoomuchemphasisonthewillofthegeneralcommonlawandthesubjectivewilloftheimportanceofpartydesired,butnotenoughtomeetthebusinessneeds.Forexample,offerorcommitmentisfailedtoconvey,thepersonorthesubjectwillaffecttheeffectivenessofthecontract,ifthecontractduetothefaultofoneofthepartiesandnotestablished,thepartyatfaultshouldtheotherpartybecauseofrelianceontheestablishmentofcontractlossesliabilityGarlingrepliedthepeoplewhoengagedincontractswereconcluded,fromacontractualobligationtotradeoutsidethescopeofthenegativeintoapositiveobligationontheleasearea,whichthusassumetheprimaryobligationliesincontractingtobefulfillingthenecessaryattention.Protectedbylaw,notjustanexistingcontractualrelationship,thecontractualrelationshipistakingplaceshouldbeincludedotherwisetheleasedealwillbeout,andoutofprotection.Thepartiescreatedacontractualobligation,ifsuchaneffectbecauseoflegalobstaclestobeexcludedwhentheobligationwillbetoproducedamages.Therewillbeasocalledcontractisinvalidpersons,refersonlytofulfilleffectdoesnotoccur,nonthathedidnothaveanyeffect.Inabrief,thepartiesmakethecontractsmeaninglessbecauseoftheirownreasonsdonotcontractwhobelieveditscontractualrightfortheeffectiveestablishmentoftherelativeshouldpayforthedamage.1ThisistheGarlingsContractingnegligencetheory,itisknownastheLawonthefindings.SincetheJellingtheoryputforwardthetheoryofcontractingnegligence,itisseriouslyconcernedbytheworld.Andthenitcarriedoutmoreextensiveandindepthandsystematicresearchanditalsoincreasinglybysomecountries,legislationorjudicialpracticetoacceptthem.IntheGermanCivilCodetimes,thescholarsbegintodiscussitonthequestionoffaultontheparties.Mostofthedraftersbelievesthatcontractingnegligencetheoryofliabilityisnoteasytoacceptandprescribedbyageneralprinciple,onlyinexceptionalcircumstancesshouldberecognized.So,in1900theGermanCivilCode,thedraftersofthetreatyonthefaultisnotfullyacceptedthetheory,onlyinthewrongtowithdraw122,therightagent179,fromtheoutsettheobjectivecannot307,etc.islimitedadoptedwithintheframeworkofthisview,butthecontractingnegligencetheoryintheGermanjudicialpracticeanddoctrinehavebeendevelopedrapidlyandgraduallyformedafine,large,complexandwidescopeofapplication,theestablishmentofageneralizedprinciple.InJapan,thejurisprudencehasalsoacknowledgedtheresponsibilityofcontractingnegligencetheory.InJapansCasetofindthebasesofthefaultliabilityfromthetrustandthecityrealcreditprinciple,sothescopeofthisresponsibilityextendedtothefollowingareas1Unabletoperformthecontractfromthebeginningsothatthecontractdoesnotholdorinvalid2Thecontractshallonlyremaininthepreparationstageofnegotiation3Contracteffectiveestablishmentofthesituation.Contractingfaultliabilityisaneffectiveestablishmentofthesituationofenoughtomatterifthetargetswereflawedandcontractorwhobreachofcontract.InGreeceandItaly,contractingfaultliabilitywasconcernedasageneralprinciple.AccordingtoGreekCivilCodeArticle197,itstipulatesthatWhenconsultationsontheoccasionoftheconclusionofcontracts,thepartiesshouldhaveobligationtofollowthetradingpracticesandgoodfaith.TheItalianCivilCodesection1337providesaprenegotiationsandcontractualresponsibility,bothintheprocessofnegotiationandconclusionofcontracts,thepartiesshouldbebasedontheprinciplesofgoodfaith.InFrance,contractingfaultliabilityhasnotbeenincorporatedintotheCivilCode.Whenasimilarsituationoccurs,itwillbehandledinaccordancewiththetortlaw.Butinrecentyears,thejudicialpracticeshowsthatthecontractlawprinciplesofcontractisinvalidordoesnotholdthepartyatfaultwhentheresponsibilitytoprosecutecasesoccurfromtimetotime,suchasthepreparationprotocolprotection.IntheEnglishandAmericanlaws,thereisnocontractingfaultliabilityconceptinhistory.ButafterMansfieldincorporateddutyofgoodfaithintotheirlawswithwidespreadsupportsince1933,thecommonlawadmitscontractingfaultliability.In1933,Fuller,scholarintheUS,comesoutwithamendswhendamagestrustinthecontractlawspublishedintheYaleLawReview.Thepaperwasdiscussedindetailwiththeexpectedbenefits,trustinterestsandtheperformancebenefits.TheUnitedStatesUniformCommercialCode,alsoconfirmedthedutyofgoodfaiththatisloyaltothefact.Intherelaws,thetrustinterestsofthepartiestothecontractisaresultofthetrusteachotherspromisetopaythepriceorcharges.Cannotgobackonthepromiseistheirlawstoprotecttheinterestsofaprincipleoftrust.Theirlawsrequiresthecourtinestablishingtrustintheinterestsofthecompensationpromisedtopeoplewithoutregardtohowthesubjectivemeaning.Onlyconsiderthedefendantasapromise,whetherwecanmakeareasonablepersontobecometrusted.CONCLUSIONWemaydrawaconclusionthatcontractingfaultliabilityhasbecomeaintegratedsystemaccordingtotheregulationsmadeinmanycountriesforitbasedonGarlingsoriginaltheory.ComparedwiththeoriginaltheoryofGarling,thereareafewdevelopments.Thefirstistheexpansionofthescope.Contractingfaultliabilitycannotonlybeusedforthebeginningofcontractingbutalsobeapplicabletothecontractarerecognizedasinvalidandberevokedwheninbreachofitsoffertoavalidofferandshouldbearresponsibilityforthecaseofcontracting.Second,Garlingstheorythinkstheresponsibilityforcontractingnegligenceclaimsbasedoncontractualobligationsandfailstopointoutthestrictdifferencesbetweencontractualliabilityandcontractingliability.Butthemodernjurisprudencegenerallyconsidercontractingresponsibilityisanindependentresponsibilityandhasstrictdifferenceswithcontractualandtortiousresponsibility.Third,mostcountrieshaveacceptedtheresponsibilityofcontractingfaultliabilitytheory,whichthelaworcaselawhasclearlydefinedandreflected.Fourth,contractingfaultliabilitysfaultnotonlyincludesnotpayattentionfault,butalsocontainsonpurpose.
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