外文翻译马铃薯播种机的性能评估英文.pdf外文翻译马铃薯播种机的性能评估英文.pdf

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BIOSYSTEMSENGINEERING2006951,35–41DOI101016/JBIOSYSTEMSENG200606007PMPOWERANDMACHINERYSTRASSEOPENINGFORDROPPINGTHEPOTATOINTOAFURROWINTHESOILPLANTERSAREEQUIPPEDWITHTWOPARALLELROWSOFCUPSPERBELTINSTEADOFONEDOUBLINGTHECUPROWALLOWSARTICLEINPRESSPARAMETERSOFMACHINEPERFORMANCEHIGHACCURACYOFPLANTSPACINGRESULTSINHIGHYIELDANDAUNIFORMSORTINGANDTHUS,AHIGHERCAPACITYATTHESAMEACCURACYISEXPECTEDCAPACITYANDACCURACYOFPLANTSPACINGARETHEMAINDOUBLETHETRAVELSPEEDWITHOUTINCREASINGTHEBELTSPEED15375110/320035R2006IAGREALLRIGHTSRESERVEDTHEFUNCTIONINGOFMOSTPOTATOPLANTERSISBASEDONTRANSPORTANDPLACEMENTOFTHESEEDPOTATOESBYACUPBELTTHECAPACITYOFTHISPROCESSISRATHERLOWWHENPLANTINGACCURACYHASTOSTAYATACCEPTABLELEVELSTHEMAINLIMITATIONSARESETBYTHESPEEDOFTHECUPBELTANDTHENUMBERANDPOSITIONINGOFTHECUPSITWASHYPOTHESISEDTHATTHEINACCURACYINPLANTINGDISTANCE,THATISTHEDEVIATIONFROMUNIFORMPLANTINGDISTANCES,MAINLYISCREATEDBYTHECONSTRUCTIONOFTHECUPBELTPLANTERTODETERMINETHEORIGINOFTHEDEVIATIONSINUNIFORMITYOFPLACEMENTOFTHEPOTATOESATHEORETICALMODELWASBUILTTHEMODELCALCULATESTHETIMEINTERVALBETWEENEACHSUCCESSIVEPOTATOTOUCHINGTHEGROUNDREFERRINGTOTHERESULTSOFTHEMODEL,TWOHYPOTHESESWEREPOSED,ONEWITHRESPECTTOTHEEFFECTOFBELTSPEED,ANDONEWITHRESPECTTOTHEINFLUENCEOFPOTATOSHAPEAPLANTERUNITWASINSTALLEDINALABORATORYTOTESTTHESETWOHYPOTHESESAHIGHSPEEDCAMERAWASUSEDTOMEASURETHETIMEINTERVALBETWEENEACHSUCCESSIVEPOTATOJUSTBEFORETHEYREACHTHESOILSURFACEANDTOVISUALISETHEBEHAVIOUROFTHEPOTATOTHERESULTSSHOWEDTHATATHEHIGHERTHESPEEDOFTHECUPBELT,THEMOREUNIFORMISTHEDEPOSITIONOFTHEPOTATOES;ANDBAMOREREGULARPOTATOSHAPEDIDNOTRESULTINAHIGHERPLANTINGACCURACYMAJORIMPROVEMENTSCANBEACHIEVEDBYREDUCINGTHEOPENINGTIMEATTHEBOTTOMOFTHEDUCTANDBYIMPROVINGTHEDESIGNOFTHECUPSANDITSPOSITIONRELATIVETOTHEDUCTTHISWILLALLOWMOREROOMFORCHANGESINTHECUPBELTSPEEDSWHILEKEEPINGAHIGHPLANTINGACCURACYR2006IAGREALLRIGHTSRESERVEDPUBLISHEDBYELSEVIERLTD1INTRODUCTIONTHECUPBELTPLANTERFIG1ISTHEMOSTCOMMONLYUSEDMACHINETOPLANTPOTATOESTHESEEDPOTATOESARETRANSFERREDFROMAHOPPERTOTHECONVEYORBELTWITHCUPSSIZEDTOHOLDONETUBERTHISBELTMOVESUPWARDSTOLIFTTHEPOTATOESOUTOFTHEHOPPERANDTURNSOVERTHEUPPERSHEAVEATTHISPOINT,THEPOTATOESFALLONTHEBACKOFTHENEXTCUPANDARECONFINEDINASHEETMETALDUCTATTHEBOTTOM,THEBELTTURNSOVERTHEROLLER,CREATINGTHEOFTHETUBERSATHARVESTMCPHEEETAL,1996;PAVEKTHORNTON,2003FIELDMEASUREMENTSUNPUBLISHEDDATAOFPLANTINGDISTANCEINTHENETHERLANDSREVEALEDACOEFFICIENTOFVARIATIONCVOFAROUND20EARLIERSTUDIESINCANADAANDTHEUSASHOWEDEVENHIGHERCVSOFUPTO69MISENER,1982;ENTZLACROIX,1983;SIECZKAETAL,1986,INDICATINGTHATTHEACCURACYISLOWCOMPAREDTOPRECISIONPLANTERSFORBEETORMAIZETRAVELLINGSPEEDANDACCURACYOFPLANTINGSHOWANINVERSECORRELATIONTHEREFORE,THEPRESENTCUPBELTASSESSMENTOFTHEBEHAVIOUROFHBUITENWERF1,2;WBHOOGMOED1FARMTECHNOLOGYGROUP,WAGENINGENUNIVERSITY,POEMAILOFCORRESPONDINGAUTHOR2KRONEGMBH,HEINRICHKRONE3IBLERINK,LAANVANMOERKERKEN85,3271AJ4INSTITUTEOFAGRICULTURALENGINEERING,UNIVERSITYRECEIVED27MAY2005;ACCEPTEDINREVISEDFORMPOTATOESINACUPBELTPLANTER1;PLERINK3;JMULLER1,4BOX17,6700AAWAGENINGEN,THENETHERLANDS;WILLEMHOOGMOEDWURNL10,48480SPELLE,GERMANYMIJNSHEERENLAND,THENETHERLANDSOFHOHENHEIM,D70593STUTTGART,GERMANY20JUNE2006;PUBLISHEDONLINE2AUGUST2006PUBLISHEDBYELSEVIERLTDFORHANDLINGANDTRANSPORTINGMANYSHAPEFEATURES,USUALLYCOMBINEDWITHSIZEMEASUREMENTS,CANBEDISTINGUISHEDDUSUN,2004;TAOETAL,1995;ZODLER,1969INTHENETHERLANDSGRADINGOFPOTATOESISMOSTLYDONEBYUSINGTHESQUAREMESHSIZEKONINGDEETAL,1994,WHICHISDETERMINEDONLYBYTHEWIDTHANDHEIGHTLARGESTANDLEASTBREADTHOFTHEPOTATOFORTHETRANSPORTPROCESSESINSIDETHEPLANTER,THELENGTHOFTHEPOTATOISADECISIVEFACTORASWELLARTICLEINPRESSHBUITENWERFETAL36THEOBJECTIVEOFTHISSTUDYWASTOINVESTIGATETHEREASONSFORTHELOWACCURACYOFCUPBELTPLANTERSANDTOUSETHISKNOWLEDGETODERIVERECOMMENDATIONSFORDESIGNMODIFICATIONS,EGINBELTSPEEDSORSHAPEAND78910FIG1WORKINGCOMPONENTSOFTHECUPBELTPLANTER1POTATOESINHOPPER;2CUPBELT;3CUP;4UPPERSHEAVE;5DUCT;6POTATOONBACKOFCUP;7FURROWER;8ROLLER;9RELEASEOPENING;10GROUNDLEVEL564321NUMBEROFCUPSFORBETTERUNDERSTANDING,AMODELWASDEVELOPED,DESCRIBINGTHEPOTATOMOVEMENTFROMTHEMOMENTTHEPOTATOENTERSTHEDUCTUPTOTHEMOMENTITTOUCHESTHEGROUNDTHUS,THEBEHAVIOUROFTHEPOTATOATTHEBOTTOMOFTHESOILFURROWWASNOTTAKENINTOACCOUNTASPHYSICALPROPERTIESSTRONGLYINFLUENCETHEEFFICIENCYOFAGRICULTURALEQUIPMENTKUTZBACH,1989,THESHAPEOFTHEPOTATOESWASALSOCONSIDEREDINTHEMODELTWONULLHYPOTHESESWEREFORMULATED1THEPLANTINGACCURACYISNOTRELATEDTOTHESPEEDOFTHECUPBELT;AND2THEPLANTINGACCURACYISNOTRELATEDTOTHEDIMENSIONSEXPRESSEDBYASHAPEFACTOROFTHEPOTATOESTHEHYPOTHESESWERETESTEDBOTHTHEORETICALLYWITHTHEMODELANDEMPIRICALLYINTHELABORATORY2MATERIALSANDMETHODS21PLANTMATERIALSEEDPOTATOESOFTHECULTIVARSCVSANTE,ARINDAANDMARFONAHAVEBEENUSEDFORTESTINGTHECUPBELTPLANTER,BECAUSETHEYSHOWDIFFERENTSHAPECHARACTERISTICSTHESHAPEOFTHEPOTATOTUBERISANIMPORTANTCHARACTERISTICTHEFIELDSPEEDANDCUPBELTSPEEDCANBESETTOACHIEVETHEAIMEDPLANTSPACINGTHEFREQUENCYFOFPOTPOTATOESLEAVINGTHEDUCTATTHEBOTTOMISCALCULATEDASFPOTVCXC2WHEREVCISTHECUPBELTSPEEDINMSC01ANDXCISTHEDISTANCEINMBETWEENTHECUPSONTHEBELTTHEANGULARSPEEDOFTHEROLLERORINRADSC01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