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附录三外文翻译外文资料原文FromtheworldofradiointheworldtoasinglechipAsthemoderncomputertechnology,industrialrevolutioncoming,theeconomyoftheworldfromthecapitalintotheeconomytoknowledgeeconomy.IntheFieldofelectronicworld,itchangedfromtheeraofradiointhe20thcenturytothecomputertechnologyinthe21stcenturyasthecenteroftheintelligentmoderneraofelectronicsystems.Thebasiccoreofmodernelectronicsystemsareembeddedcomputersystemsreferredtoasembeddedsystems,whilethemicrocontrolleristhemosttypicalandmostextensiveandmostpopularembeddedsystems.First,radiohascreatedgenerationsofexcellenceintheworldFiftiesandsixtiesinthe20thcentury,themostrepresentativeoftheadvancedelectronictechnologyiswirelesstechnology,includingradiobroadcasting,radio,wirelesscommunicationstelegraph,AmateurRadio,radiopositioning,navigationandothertelemetry,remotecontrol,remotetechnology.Earlythattheseelectronictechnologyledmanyyoungpeopleintothewonderfuldigitalworld,radioshowwasawonderfullife,theprospectsforscienceandtechnology.Electronicsbegantoformanewdiscipline.Radioelectronics,wirelesscommunicationsbeganeworldjourney.Radiotechnologyisnotonlyasarepresentativeofadvancedscienceandtechnologyatthattime,butalsofrompopulartoprofessionalfieldsofscience,attractingtheyoungpeopleandenablethemtofindalotoffun.Orefromthebedsidetothesuperheterodyneradioreportissuedfromtheradioamateurradiostationsfromthetelephone,electricbelltotheradiocontrolmodel.Becamepopularyouthradiotechnology,scienceandtechnologyeducationisthemostpopularandmostextensivecontent.Sofar,manyoftheoldergenerationofengineers,experts,Professoroftheyearareradioenthusiasts.Funradiotechnology,radiotechnology,comprehensivetraining,frombasicprinciplesofelectronics,electroniccomponentstotheradiobasedremotecontrol,telemetry,remoteelectronicsystems,hastrainedseveralgenerationsoftechnologicalexcellence.Second,fromthepopularityoftheradioeratotheeraofelectronictechnologyTheearlyradiotechnologypromotesthedevelopmentofelectronictechnology,mostnotablyelectronicvacuumtubetechnologytosemiconductorelectronictechnology.Semiconductortechnologyrealizedtheactivedeviceminiaturizationandlowcost,somorepopularwithradiotechnologyandinnovation,andtogreatlybroadenthenumberofnonradiocontrolareas.Thedevelopmentofsemiconductortechnologyleadstotheproductionofintegratedcircuit,formingthemodernelectronictechnologyleapfromdiscreteelectronicsintotheeraoferaofintegratedcircuits.Electronicdesignengineersnolongerusethediscreteelectroniccomponentsdesignedcircuitmodules,anddirectselectionofintegratedcircuitcomponentsconstituteasinglesystem.Theyfreedthedesignofthecircuitunitdedicatedtosystemdesign,greatlyliberatingtheproductiveforcesofscienceandtechnology,promotethewiderspreadofelectronicsystems.Semiconductorintegratedcircuitsinthebasicdigitallogiccircuitsfirstbreakthrough.Alargenumberofdigitallogiccircuits,suchasgates,counters,timers,shiftregisters,andanalogswitches,comparators,etc.,fortheelectronicdigitalcontrolprovideexcellentconditionsforthetraditionalmechanicalcontroltoelectroniccontrol.Powerelectronicdevicesandsensortechnologytomaketheoriginaltotheradioasthecenterofelectronictechnologyturnedtomechanicalengineeringinthefieldofdigitalcontrolsystems,testinginthefieldofinformationcollection,movementofelectricalmechanicalservodrivecontrolobject.Semiconductorandintegratedcircuittechnologywillbringusauniversalageofelectronictechnology,wirelesstechnologytobeapartofthefieldofelectronictechnologyInthe1970s,largescaleintegratedcircuitappearedtopromotetheconventionalelectroniccircuitunitspecificelectronicsystemsdevelopment.Manyelectronicsystemsunitintoadedicatedintegrateddevicessuchasradios,electronicclocks,calculators,electronicengineersintheseareasfromthecircuit,thesystemdesignedtodebugintothedeviceselection,peripheraldeviceadapterwork.Electronictechnology,andelectronicproductsenriched,electronicengineerstoreducethedifficulty,butatthesametime,radiotechnology,electronictechnologyhasweakenedthecharm.Thedevelopmentofsemiconductorintegratedcircuitsclassicalelectronicsystemsarematuring,remaininthelargescaleintegratedcircuitotherthantheshrinkingofelectronictechnology,electronictechnologyisnottheolddaysofradiofuntimesandcomprehensiveengineeringtraining.Third,fromtheclassiceraofelectronictechnologytomodernelectronictechnologyofthetimesInthe1980s,thecenturyofeconomicchangeisthemostimportantrevolutioninthecomputer.Thecomputerrevolutioninthemostimportantsignisthebirthofthecomputerembeddedapplications.Moderncomputernumericalrequirementsshouldbeborn.Alongperiodoftime,istodevelopthemassivecomputernumericalduty.Butthecomputershowsthelogicoperation,processing,control,attractingexpertsinthefieldofelectroniccontrol,theywantdevelopmenttomeetthecontrolobjectrequirementsofembeddedapplications,computersystems.Ifyoumeetthemassivedataprocessingcomputersystemknownasgeneralpurposecomputersystem,thenthesystemcanbetheembeddedobjectsuchasships,aircraft,motorcycles,etc.inacomputersystemcalledtheembeddedcomputer.Clearly,boththedirectionoftechnologydevelopmentaredifferent.Theformerrequiresmassivedatastorage,handling,processingandanalysisofhighspeeddatatransmissionwhilethelatterrequiresreliableoperationinthetargetenvironment,theexternalphysicalparametersonhighspeedacquisition,analysisandprocessinglogicandtherapidcontrolofexternalobjects.Itwilladdanearlygeneralpurposecomputerdataacquisitionunit,theoutputdrivercircuitreluctancetoformaheattreatmentfurnacetemperaturecontrolsystem.Thisgeneralpurposecomputersystemisnotpossibleformostoftheelectronicsystemused,andtomakegeneralpurposecomputersystemmeetstherequirementsofembeddedapplications,willinevitablyaffectthedevelopmentofhighspeednumericprocessing.Inordertosolvethecontradictionbetweenthedevelopmentofcomputertechnology,inthe20thcentury70s,semiconductorexpertsanotherway,infullaccordancewiththeelectronicsystemembeddedcomputerapplicationrequirements,amicrocomputersbasicsystemonachip,theformationoftheearlySCMSingleChipMicrocomputer.Aftertheadventofsinglechipinthecomputerindustrybegantoappearinthegeneralpurposecomputersystemsandembeddedsystemsthetwobranches.Sincethen,boththeembeddedsystemandgeneralpurposecomputersystemshavebeendevelopedrapidly.Althoughtheearlygeneralpurposecomputerconvertedtheembeddedcomputersystems,andrealembeddedsystembeganintheemergenceofSCM.Becausethemicrocontrollerisdesignedspecificallyforembeddedapplications,theMCUcanonlyachieveembeddedapplications.MCUembeddedapplicationsthatbestmeetenvironmentalrequirements,forexample,chiplevelphysicalspace,largescaleintegratedcircuitslowcost,goodperipheralinterfacebusandoutstandingcontrolofinstruction.Acomputersystemmicrocontrollercore,embeddedelectronicsystems,intelligentelectronicsystemsforthefoundation.Therefore,thecurrentsinglechipelectronicsysteminwidespreadisuseofelectronicsystemstoenablerapidtransitiontotheclassicalmodernintelligentelectronicsystems.Fourth,singlechiptocreatethemoderneraofelectronicsystems1、AmicrocontrollerandembeddedsystemsEmbeddedcomputersystemsfromembeddedapplications,embeddedsystemsforearlygeneralpurposecomputeradaptedtotheobjectsystemembeddedinavarietyofelectronicsystems,suchastheshipsautopilot,enginemonitoringsystems.Embeddedsystemisprimarilyacomputersystem,followedbyitbeingembeddedintotheobjectsystem,objectsintheobjectsystemtoachieverequireddatacollection,processing,statusdisplay,theoutputcontrolfunctions,asembeddedintheobjectsystem,embeddedsystemcomputerdoesnothaveanindependentformandfunctionofthecomputer.SCMisentirelyinaccordancewiththerequirementsofembeddedsystemdesign,soSCMisthemosttypicalembeddedsystems.SCMistheearlyapplicationoftechnicalrequirementsinaccordancewiththedesignofembeddedcomputerchipintegration,hencethenamesinglechip.Subsequently,theMCUembeddedapplicationstomeetthegrowingdemandsofitscontrolfunctionsandperipheralinterfacefunctions,inparticular,highlightthecontrolfunction,sohasinternationalnamethesinglechipmicrocontrollerMCU,MicrocontrollerUnit.2、MCUmodernelectronicsystemsconsistingofelectronicsystemswillbecomemainstreamMCUisadevicelevelcomputersystems,itcanbeembeddedintoanyobjectsystemtoachieveintelligentcontrol.Smalltomicromachinery,suchaswatches,hearingaids.Lowcostintegrateddevicelevel,lowtoafewdollars,tendollars,enoughtospreadtomanycivilianSCMappliances,electronictoystogo.SCMconstitutesamodernelectronicsystemshasindepthtothehouseholds,arechangingourlives,suchashomeaudio,televisions,washingmachines,microwaveovens,telephones,securitysystems,andairconditioners.SCMinnovationtheoriginalelectronicsystems,suchasmicrowaveovensuseSCM,itcaneasilysettheclock,theprogrammemory,powercontrolairconditionerafteruseofSCMisnotonlyconvenientforremote
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