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英文原文InformationSystemDevelopmentandDatabaseDevelopmentInmanyorganizations,databasedevelopmentfromthebeginningofenterprisedatamodeling,datamodelingenterprisesdeterminethescopeofthedatabaseandthegeneralcontent.Thisstepusuallyoccursinanorganizationsinformationsystemplanningprocess,itaimstohelporganizationscreateanoveralldatadescriptionorexplanation,andnotthedesignofaspecificdatabase.Aspecificdatabaseforoneormoreinformationsystemsprovidedataandthecorporatedatamodelwhichmayinvolveanumberofdatabasesdescribedbytheorganizationmaintainingthescopeofthedata.Datamodelingintheenterprise,youreviewofthecurrentsystem,theneedtosupportanalysisofthenatureofthebusinessareas,theneedforfurtherdescriptionoftheabstractdata,andplanningoneormoredatabasedevelopmentproject.Figure1showsPineValleyfurniturecompanysenterprisedatamodelofapart.1.1InformationSystemArchitectureAsshowninfigure1,seniordatamodelisonlygeneralinformationsystemarchitectureISAorapartofanorganizationsinformationsystemblueprint.Intheinformationsystemplanning,youcanbuildanenterprisedatamodelasawholeinformationsystemarchitecturepart.AccordingtoZachman1987,SowaandZachman1992viewsofaninformationsystemarchitectureconsistsofthefollowingsixkeycomponentsDataFigure1shows,butthereareothermethodsthat.Manipulationofdataprocessingofadataflowdiagramcanbeused,withtheobjectmodelmethods,orothersymbolsthat.Networks,whichorganizationsandinorganizationswithitsmaintransmissionofdatabetweenbusinesspartnersitcanconnectthroughthenetworktopologymapandtodemonstrate.Peoplewhodealwiththeimplementationofdataandinformationandisthesourceandreceiverintheprocessmodelforthedatashowsthatthesenderandthereceiver.Implementationoftheeventsandtimepointstheycanusestatetransitiondiagramandothermeans.Thereasonsfortheincidentanddataprocessingrulesoftenintheformoftextdisplay,buttherearealsoanumberofchartsfortheplanningtoolssuchasdecisiontables.1.2InformationEngineeringInformationsystemsplannersinaccordancewiththespecificinformationsystemplanningmethodsdevelopedinformationsystemarchitecture.Informationengineeringisapopularandformalmethods.Informationengineeringisadataorientedcreationandmaintenanceoftheinformationsystem.Informationengineeringisbecausethedataoriented,sowhenyoubegintounderstandhowthedatabaseisdefinedbythelogoandwheninformationengineeringaconciseexplanationisveryhelpful.InformationEngineeringfollowtopdownplanningapproach,inwhichspecificinformationsystemsfromawiderangeofinformationneedsintheunderstandingderivedfromforexample,weneedaboutcustomers,products,suppliers,salesandprocessingofthedatacenter,ratherthanmergingmanydetailedinformationrequestedorderssuchasascreenorinaccordancewiththeimportationofgeographicalsalessummaryreport.Topdownplanningwillenabledeveloperstoplanmorecomprehensiveinformationsystem,considersystemcomponentsprovideanintegratedapproachtoenhancetheinformationsystemandtherelationshipbetweenthebusinessobjectivesoftheunderstanding,deepentheirunderstandingofinformationsystemsthroughouttheorganizationinunderstandingtheimpact.InformationEngineeringincludesfourstepsplanning,analysis,designandimplementation.Theplanningstageofprojectinformationgeneratedinformationsystemarchitecture,includingenterprisedatamodel.1.3InformationSystemPlanningInformationsystemsplanningobjectiveistoenableITorganizationsandthebusinessstrategycloselyintegrated,suchintegrationfortheinformationsystemsandtechnologytomakethemostoftheinvestmentinterestisveryimportant.Asthetableasadescription,informationengineeringapproachtheplanningstageincludethreesteps,weinthefollowupofthreesectionstheydiscussed.1.CriticalfactorsdeterminingtheplanningPlanningisthekeyfactorthatorganizationalobjectives,criticalsuccessfactorsandproblemareas.Thesefactorsdeterminethepurposeoftheestablishmentofplanningandenvironmentplanningandinformationsystemslinkedtostrategicbusinessplanning.Table2showsthePineValleyfurniturecompanyskeyplanninganumberofpossiblefactors,thesefactorscontributetotheinformationsystemsmanagerforthenewinformationsystemsanddatabasesclubstopprioritytodealwiththedemand.Forexample,giventheimprecisesalesforecaststhisproblemareas,informationsystemsmanagersintheorganizationmaybestoredinthedatabaseadditionalhistoricalsalesdata,newmarketresearchdataandnewproducttestdata.2.TheplanningorganizationssettargetsOrganizationsplanningtargetsdefinedscopeofbusiness,andbusinessscopewilllimitthesubsequentanalysisandinformationsystemsmaychangeplaces.Fivekeyplanningtargetsasfollows●organizationalunitsinthevarioussectors.●organizationslocationoftheplaceofbusinessoperations.●functionsofthebusinesssupportorganizationshandlingmissionoftherelevantgroup.Unlikebusinessorganizationsfunctionmodules,infactafunctioncanbeassignedtovariousorganizationsmodulesforexample,productdevelopmentfunctionistheproductionandsaleofthecommonresponsibilityoftheMinistry.●typesofentitiesmanagedbytheorganizationonthepeople,placesandthingsofthemajortypesofdata.●InformationSystemdatasetprocessingsoftwareapplicationsandsupportprocedures.3.TosetupabusinessmodelAcomprehensivebusinessmodelincludingthefunctionsofeachenterprisefunctionaldecompositionmodel,theenterprisedatamodelandthevariousplanningmatrix.Functionaldecompositionisthefunctionoftheorganizationforamoredetaileddecompositionprocess,thefunctionaldecompositionistosimplifytheanalysisoftheissue,distractedandidentifycomponentsandtheuseoftheclassicalapproach.PineValleyfurniturecompanyinordertofunctioninthefunctionaldecompositionexampleinfigure2below.Indealingwithbusinessfunctionsandsupportfunctionsofthefullset,multipledatabases,isessentialtoaspecificdatabasethereforelikelyonlytosupportfunctionsasshowninFigure2provideasubsetofsupport.Inordertoreducedataredundancyandtomakedatamoremeaningful,hasacomplete,highlevelbusinessviewisveryhelpful.Theuseofspecificenterprisedatamodeltodescribethesymbol.Apartfromthegraphicaldescriptionofthistypeofentity,acompleteenterprisedatamodelshouldalsoincludeadescriptionofeachentitytypedescriptionofbusinessoperationsandasummaryofthatbusinessrules.Businessrulesdeterminethevalidityofthedata.Anenterprisedatamodelincludesnotonlythetypesofentities,includingthelinkbetweenthedataentities,aswellasvariousotherobjectsplanninglinks.Showedthatthelinkagebetweenplanningtargetsacommonformofmatrix.Becauseofplanningmatrixneednotbeexplicitmodelingdatabasecanbeclearlydescribedbusinessneeds,planningmatrixisanimportantfunction.Regularplanningmatrixderivedfromtheoperationalrules,itwillhelpsocialdevelopmentactivitiesthattopprioritywillbesortinganddevelopmentactivitiesunderthetopdownviewthroughanenterprisewideapproachforthedevelopmentoftheseactivities.Therearemanytypesofplanningmatrixisavailable,theircommonalitiesare●locationsfeaturesshowbusinessfunctioninwhichtheimplementationofoperationallocations.●unitfunctionswhichshowedthatbusinessfunctionorbusinessunitresponsibleforimplementation.●InformationSystemdataentitiestoexplainhoweachinformationsysteminteractwitheachdataentityforexample,whetherornoteachsystemineachentityhavethedatatocreate,retrieve,updateanddelete.●supportfunctionsdataineachfunctionalentitiesinthedatasetfortheacquisition,use,updateanddelete.●InformationSystemtargetindicationforeachinformationsystemtosupportbusinessobjectives.Figure3illustrateapossiblefunctionsdataentitiesmatrix.Suchamatrixcanbeusedforavarietyofpurposes,includingthefollowingthreeobjectives1identifygapsinthedataentitiestoindicatethetypesofentitiesnotuseanyfunctionorfunctionswhichdonotuseanyentity.2foundthatthelossofeachfunctionalentitiesinvolvedintheinspectionstaffthroughthematrixtoidentifyanypossiblelossoftheentity.3Thedistinctionbetweendevelopmentactivitiesiftheprioritytothetopofasystemdevelopmentfunctionforahighpriorityprobablybecauseitimportantorganizationalobjectivesrelated,thenthisareausedbyentitiesinthedevelopmentofthedatabasehasahighpriority.Hoffer,GeorgeandValacich2002aretheworksofthematrixonhowtousetheplanningandcompletionoftheInformationEngineeringTheplanningsystemmorecompletedescription.2databasedevelopmentprocessBasedoninformationengineeringinformationsystemsplanningdatabaseisasourceofdevelopmentprojects.Thesenewdatabasedevelopmentprojectsisusuallyinordertomeetthestrategicneedsoforganizations,suchasimprovingcustomersupport,improveproductandinventorymanagement,oramoreaccuratesalesforecast.However,manymoredatabasedevelopmentprojectisthebottomupapproachemerging,suchasinformationsystemuserneedsspecificinformationtocompletetheirwork,thusbeginningaprojectrequest,andasotherinformationsystemsexpertsfoundthatorganizationsneedtoimprovedatamanagementandbeginnewprojects.Bottomupeveninthecircumstances,tosetupanenterprisedatamodelisalsonecessarytounderstandtheexistingdatabasecanprovidethenecessarydata,otherwise,thenewdatabase,dataentitiesandattributescanbeaddedtothecurrentdataresourcestotheorganization.Boththestrategicneedsoroperationalinformationneedsofeachdatabasedevelopmentprojectsnormallyconcentratedinadatabase.Someprojectsonlyconcentratedinthedatabasedefinition,designandimplementationofadatabase,asafollowuptothebasisofthedevelopmentofinformationsystems.However,inmostcases,thedatabaseandassociatedinformationprocessingfunctionasacompleteinformationsystemsdevelopmentprojectwaspartofthedevelopment.2.1SystemDevelopmentLifeCycleGuidemanagementinformationsystemdevelopmentprojectsisthetraditionalprocessofsystemdevelopmentlifecycleSDLC.SystemdevelopmentlifecycleisanorganizationofthedatabasedesignersandprogrammersinformationsystemcomposedofthePanelofExpertsdetaileddescription,development,maintenanceandreplacementoftheentireinformationsystemsteps.ThisprocessisbecauseWaterfallthanforeverystepintotheadjacentthenextstep,thatis,theinformationsystemisaspecificationdevelopedbyapieceofland,everypieceoftheoutputisunderaninput.Howevershowninthefigure,thesestepsarenotpurelylinear,eachofthestepsoverlapintimeandthuscanmanageparallelsteps,butwhentheneedtoreconsiderpreviousdecisions,butalsotorollbacksomestepsahead.AndthereforewatercanbeputbackinthewaterfallFigure4onthesystemdevelopmentlifecycleandthepurposeofeachstageoftheproductcanbedeliveredconcisenotes.Thesystemdevelopmentlifecycleincludingeachstageanddatabasedevelopmentrelatedactivities,therefore,thequestionofdatabasemanagementsystemsthroughouttheentiredevelopmentprocess.InFigure5werepeatofthesystemdevelopmentlifecyclestageoftheseven,andoutlinesthecommondatabaseateachstageofdevelopmentactivities.Pleasenotethatthesystemsdevelopmentlifecyclestagesanddatabasedevelopmentsteps一一对应existsbetweentherelationshipbetweentheconceptofmodelingdatainbothsystemsdevelopmentlifecyclestagesbetween.EnterpriseModelingDatabasedevelopmentprocessfromtheenterprisemodelingsystemdevelopmentlifecyclestageoftheprojectfeasibilitystudies,andtochooseapart,Organizationssetthescopeandgeneraldatabasecontent.Enterprisemodelingininformationsystemsplanningandotheractivities,theseactivitiesdeterminewhichpartofinformationsystemsneedtochangeandstrengthentheentireorganizationandoutlinesthescopeofdata.Inthisstep,checkthecurrentdatabaseandinformationsystems,developmentoftheprojectasthemainareasofthenatureofthebusiness,withaverygeneraldescriptionofeachterminthedevelopmentofinformationsystemswhenneededdata.Eachitemonlywhenitachievedtheexpectedgoalsoforganizationscanbewhenthenextstep.ConceptualDataModelingOnehasalreadybegunontheInformationSystemproject,theconceptofdatamodelingphaseoftheinformationsystemsneedsofallthedata.Itisdividedintotwostages.First,itbegantheprojectintheplanningstageandtheestablishmentofaplansimilartoFigure1.Atthesametimeoutliningtheestablishmentofotherdocumentstotheexistingdatabasewithoutconsideringthecircumstancesspecificdevelopmentprojectsinthescopeoftherequireddata.Thiscategoryonlyincludeshighleveldataentities,andmaincontact.TheninthesystemdevelopmentlifecycleanalysisstagemusthaveamanagementinformationsystemsettheentireorganizationDetailsofthedatamodeldefinitionofalldataattributes,listingalldatatypesthatalldatainterentitybusinesslinkages,definingdescriptionofthefulldataintegrityrules.Intheanalysisphase,butalsotheconceptofinspectiondatamodelalsocalledtheconceptbehindthemodelandthegoal
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