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附录1IndustrialRobotsandElectricdrivesystemThereareavarietyofdefinitionsofthetermrobot.Dependingonthedefinitionused,thenumberofrobotinstallationsworldwidevarieswidely.Numeroussinglepurposemachinesareusedinmanufacturingplantsthatmightappeartoberobots.Thesemachinesarehardwiredtoperformasinglefunctionandcannotbereprogrammedtoperformadifferentfunction.Suchsinglepurposemachinesdonotfitthedefinitionforindustrialrobotsthatisbecomingwidelyaccepted.ThisdefinitionwasdevelopedbytheRobotInstituteofAmericaArobotisareprogrammablemultifunctionalmanipulatordesignedtomovematerial,parts,tools,orspecializeddevicesthroughvariableprogrammedmotionsfortheperformanceofavarietyoftasks.Notethatthisdefinitioncontainsthewordsreprogrammableandmultifunctional.Itisthesetwocharacteristicsthatseparatethetrueindustrialrobotfromthevarioussinglepurposemachinesusedinmodernmanufacturingfirms.ThetermreprogrammableimpliestwothingsTherobotoperatesaccommodateavarietyofmanufacturingtasks.Thetermmultifunctionalmeansthattherobotcan,throughreprogrammingandtheuseofdifferentendeffectors,performanumberofdifferentmanufacturingtasks.Definitionswrittenaroundthesetwocriticalcharacteristicsarebecomingtheaccepteddefinitionsamongmanufacturingprofessionals.Thefirstarticulatedarmcameaboutin1951andwasusedbytheU.S.AtomicEnergyCommission.In1954,thefirstprogrammablerobotwasdesignedbyGeorgeDevil.ItwasbasedontwoimportanttechnologiesNumericalcontrolNCtechnology.Remotemanipulatortechnology.Numericalcontroltechnologyprovidedaformofmachinecontrolideallysuitedtorobots.Itallowedforthecontrolofmotionbystoredprograms.Theseprogramscontaindatapointstowhichtherobotsequentiallymoves,timingsignalstoinitiateactionandtostopmovement,andlogicstatementstoallowfordecisionmaking.RemotemanipulatortechnologyallowedamachinetobemorethanjustanotherNCmachine.Itallowedsuchmachinestobecomerobotsthatcanperformavarietyofmanufacturingtasksinbothinaccessibleandunsafeenvironments.Bymergingthesetwotechnologies,Devildevelopedthefirstindustrialrobot,anunsophisticatedprogrammablematerialshandlingmachine.Thefirstcommerciallyproducedrobotwasdevelopedin1959.In1962,thefirstindustrialrobottobeusedonaproductionlinewasinstalledbyGeneralMotorsCorporation.ThisrobotwasproducedbyAnimation.Amajorstepforwardinrobotcontroloccurredin1973withthedevelopmentoftheT3industrialrobotbyCincinnatiMilacron.TheT3robotwasthefirstcommerciallyproducedindustrialrobotcontrolledbyaminicomputer.Numericalcontrolandremotemanipulatortechnologypromptedthewidescaledevelopmentanduseofindustrialroots.Butmajortechnologicaldevelopmentsdonottakeplacesimplybecauseofsuchnewcapabilities.Somethingmustprovidetheimpetusfortakingadvantageofthesecapabilities.Inthecaseofindustrialrobots,theimpetuswaseconomics.Therapidinflationofwagesexperiencedinthe1970stremendouslyincreasedthepersonnelcostsofmanufacturingfirms.Atthesametime,foreigncompetitionbecameaseriousproblemforU.S.manufacturers.Foreignmanufacturerswhohadundertakenautomationonawidescalebasis,suchasthoseinJapan,begantogainanincreasinglylargeshareoftheU.S.andworldmarketformanufacturedgoods,particularlyautomobiles.Throughavarietyofautomationtechniques,includingrobots,Japanesemanufacturers,beginninginthe1970s,wereabletoproducebetterautomobilesmorecheaplythannoautomatedU.S.manufacturers.Consequently,inordertosurvive,U.S.manufacturerswereforcedtoconsideranytechnologicaldevelopmentsthatcouldhelpimproveproductivity.Thoughavarietyofautomationtechniques,includingrobots,Japanesemanufacturers,beginninginthe1970s,wereabletoproducebetterautomobilesmorecheaplythannoautomatedU.S.manufacturers.Consequently,inordertosurvive,U.S.manufacturerswereforcedtoconsideranytechnologicaldevelopmentsthatcouldhelpimproveproductivity.Itbecameimperativetoproducebetterproductsatlowercostsinordertobecompetitivewithforeignmanufacturers.Otherfactorssuchastheneedtofindbetterwaysofperformingdangerousmanufacturingtaskscontributedtothedevelopmentofindustrialrobots.However,theprincipalrationalehasalwaysbeen,andisstill,improvedproductivity.Oneoftheprincipaladvantagesofrobotsisthattheycanbeusedinsettingsthataredangeroustohumans.Weldingandpartingareexamplesofapplicationswhererobotscanbeusedmoresafelythanhumans,Eventhoughrobotsarecloselyassociatedwithsafetyintheworkplace,theycan,inthemselves,bedangerous.Robotsandrobotcellsmustbecarefullydesignedandconfiguredsothattheydonotendangerhumanworkersandothermachines.Robotworkenvelopesshouldbeaccuratelycalculatedandadangerzonesurroundingtheenvelopeclearlymarkedoff.Redflooringstripsandbarrierscanbeusedtokeephumanworkersoutofarobotsworkenvelope.Evenwithsuchprecautionsitisstillagoodideatohaveanautomaticshutdownsysteminsituationswhererobotsareused.Suchasystemshouldhavethecapacitytosensetheneedforanautomaticshutdownofoperations.Faulttolerantcomputersandredundantsystemscanbeinstalledtoensurepropershutdownofroboticssystemstoensureasafeenvironment.Therobotelectricallyoperatedservodrivesystemsdsisusesthemomentofforceandthestrengthwhicheachkindofelectricmotorproduces,directlyorindirectlyactuatestherobotmainbodytoobtaintheroboteachkindofmovementimplementingagency.Theelectricmotoractuateswhichtotheindustryrobotjoint,therequesthasthemaximumworkratequalitycomparedtowiththetorqueinertiacomparedto,risesupthedynamictorque,theislowinertiaandbroaderalsothesmoothvelocitymodulationscope.Speciallyhandfingernailshouldusethevolume,thequalityasfaraspossiblesmallelectricmotorliketherobotterminalexecution,wheninparticularrequeststhefastresponse,theservomotormusthaveahigherreliabilityandthestability,andhasthebiggermomentaryoverloadability.Thisistheservomotorintheindustryrobottheapplicationprecondition.Therobotactuatestheelectricalmachinerytothejointoverridingdemandthegaugenatriumasfollows1rapidity.Theelectricmotorfromobtainsthecommandsignaltocompletetheactivestatustimewhichtheinstructionrequeststobesupposedtobeshort.Responsecommandsignaltimeshorter,theelectricityservosystemsensitivityhigher,thefastresponseperformanceisbetter,generallyisexplainstheservomotorfastresponsebytheservomotormechanicalandelectricaltimeconstantsizetheperformance.2thestartingmomentinertiaisbiggerthan.Inintheactuationloadsituation,requeststherobottheservomotorstartingmomentinabigway,therotationinertiaissmall.3thecontrolcharacteristiccontinuityandthestraightline,alongwiththecontrolsignalchange,theelectricmotorrotationalspeedcancontinuouslychange,sometimesalsoneedstherotationalspeedandthecontrolsignalhasthedirectratioorapproximatelyhasthedirectratio.4modulatesvelocitythescopetobewide.Canuseto11,00010,000velocitymodulationscopes.5thevolumesmall,thequalitysmall,theaxialsizeisshort.6canundergotheharshmovementcondition,maycarryontheextremelyfrequentproandcontoandaddsandsubtractsthefastmovement,andcanwithstandtheoverloadintheshorttime.Industryrobotdirectmotordriveprinciplelikechart1shows.Theindustryrobotelectricallyoperatedservosystemgeneralstructureisthreeclosedloopscontrol,namelyelectriccurrentlink,speedringandsnapring.Atpresenttheoverseasmanyelectricmotorsproducethefactorytodeveloptheactuationproductwhichsuitablymatcheswiththeexchangeservomotor,theuseractaccordingtooneselfneedthefunctionstresstochoosethedifferentservocontrolwaydifferently,intheordinarycircumstances,exchangestheservodriverbelow,passablehascarriedontheartificialhypothesistoitsinternalfunctionparametertorealizethefunction1positioncontrolway2speedcontrolway3torquecontrolmode4position,speedmixedmode5position,torquemixedmode6speed,torquemixedmode7torquelimitation8thepositiondeviationoversizedreportstothepolice9speedPIDparameterestablishment10speedandaccelerationforwardfeedparameterestablishment11zerofloatscompensatestheparameterestablishment12addsandsubtractsthefasttimeestablishmentandsoon1.directcurrentservomotordriverdirectcurrentservomotordrivertousethepulsedurationmodulationPWMtheservodriver,changesthroughthechangepulsewidthaddsinthemotorarmaturebeginningsandendsaveragevoltage,thuschangestheelectricmotortherotationalspeed.ThePWMservodriverhasthevelocitymodulationscopewidth,thelowspeedcharacteristicwell,responds,theefficiencyquicklyhigh,theoverloadcapacityisstrongandsoonthecharacteristic,oftentakesthedirectcurrentservomotordriverintheindustryrobot.2.synchronizedtypesexchangeservomotordriversamedirectcurrentservomotoractuatesthesystemtocompare,thesynchronizedtypeexchangeservomotordriverhasthetorquerotationinertiaelectronicsbrushandcommutationsparkmeritandsoontobehigherthan,nottohave,obtainsthewidespreadapplicationintheindustryrobot.ThesynchronizedtypeexchangeservomotordriverusuallyusestheelectricityflowpatternpulsedurationmodulationPWMtheinversionandhastheelectriccurrentlinkfortheinnerrim,thespeedringfortheouterringmulticlosedloopcontrolsystem,realizestothethreephasepermanentmagnetismsynchronizationservomotorelectriccurrentcontrol.Accordingtoitsprincipleofwork,theactuationcurrentwaveformandthecontrolmodedifference,itmaydivideintotwokindofservosystems1rectangularwaveelectriccurrentactuationpermanentmagnetismA.C.servomechanism.2sinusoidalcurrentactuationpermanentmagnetismA.C.servomechanism.Usestherectangularwaveelectriccurrentactuationthepermanentmagnetismexchangeservomotortobecallednotbrushesthedirectcurrentservomotor,useshesinusoidalcurrentactuationthepermanentmagnetismexchangeservomotortobecallednotbrushestheexchangeservomotor.3.directdrivessocalleddirectdrivesDDthesystem,istheloadconductivecouplingwhichtheelectricmotorifactuatesinthesameplace,middledoesnothaveanyreductiongear.Thesametraditionalelectricmotorservoactuatestocompare,theDDactuationreducedthereductiongear,thusreducedthegapwhichinthesystemtransmissionprocessthereductiongearproducesandbecomeslesscrowded,enormouslyincreasedtherobotprecision,simultaneouslyalsoreducedbecausethereductiongearfrictionandthetransmissiontorquepulsationcreatestherobotcontrolprecisionreduces.ButDDactuationbecausehasabovemerit,thereforemechanicalrigiditygood,maythehighspeedhighaccuracymovement,alsohasthepartfew,thestructuresimple,iseasytoservice,thereliablehighercharacteristic,inthehighaccuracy,inthehighspeedindustryrobotapplicationmoreandmorebringstopeoplesattention.AstheDDactuationtechnologyessentiallinkistheDDelectricmotoranditsthedriver.Belowitshouldhavethecharacteristic1outputsthetorqueinabigwayFortraditiondrivetypeinservomotoroutputtorque50100times.2torquepulsationsmallTheDDelectricmotortorquepulsationmaysuppress
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