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附录附录1NCtechnologyandequipment,trendsandcountermeasuresAlexanderLudwigAbstractThispaperdescribesthecurrentworldNCtechnologyandequipmentandthedevelopmenttrendofChinasCNCequipmentandtechnologydevelopmentandindustrializationofthestatusquo,basedonthisdiscussioninChinasWTOaccessionandopeningupfurtherdeepenunderthenewcircumstances,thedevelopmentofChinaNCtechnologyandequipment,andenhancethecountrysinformationindustryandthelevelofinternationalcompetitivenessoftheimportanceofstrategyandtacticsfromthetwodimensionsofthedevelopmentofChinastechnologyandequipmentNCViewpoints.Industrialequipmentofthetechnologicallevelanddegreeofmodernizationofthenationaleconomyasawholeisdeterminedbythelevelanddegreeofmodernization,NCtechnologyandequipmentisthedevelopmentofnewhightechindustriesandcuttingedgeindustriessuchasinformationtechnologyandrelatedindustries,biotechnologyandrelatedindustries,aviation,aerospaceandotherdefenseindustrialenablingtechnologyandthemostbasicequipment.Marxoncesaidthatthedifferencebetweenvariouseconomictimes,whatisnotproduction,andproductionishow,whatlaborproduction.Manufacturingtechnologyandequipment,isthemostbasicofhumanactivitiesintheproductionofcapitalgoods,andnumericalcontroltechnologyistodaysadvancedmanufacturingtechnologyandequipment,thecoretechnology.TheworldtodaymanufacturingCNCtechnologywidelyusedtoenhancemanufacturingcapabilityandthelevelofincreaseonthedynamicabilitytoadapttochangingmarketandcompetitiveability.InadditiontotheworldsindustrializedcountrieswillNCNCtechnologyandequipmentasanationalstrategiccommodities,notonlytotakesignificantmeasurestodevelopitsownCNCtechnologyanditsindustries,butalsointhehightechkeytechnologyandequipmentNCaspectsoftheimplementationofChinaspolicyofclosuresandrestrictions.Inshort,vigorouslydevelopitsNCtechnologyasthecoreofadvancedmanufacturingtechnologyhasbecometheworldsleastdevelopedcountriestoaccelerateeconomicdevelopmentandenhancetheoverallnationalstrengthandanimportantwaytostatehood.NCtechnologyistheuseofdigitalinformationonthemechanicalmovementandtheworkprocesscontroltechnology,NCNCtechnologyequipmentistherepresentativeofnewtechnologiesontraditionalmanufacturingindustriesandnewmanufacturingformationoftheinfiltrationofelectromechanicalintegrationproducts,thesocalledDigitalequipment,anditstechnicalcoveringmanyareas1MachineryManufacturingTechnology2informationprocessing,processing,transmissiontechnology,3automaticcontroltechnology,4servodrivetechnology5sensortechnology6softwaretechnology.1NCtechnologydevelopmenttrendsNCtechnologyapplicationsnotonlytothetraditionalmanufacturingsectorhasbroughtrevolutionarychangesinthemanufacturingindustryasasymbolofindustrialization,andalongwiththeconstantdevelopmentofNCtechnologyandtheexpansionoftheareaofapplication,hecomestosomeimportantsectorsIT,automobiles,lightindustry,healthcare,etc.,playinganincreasinglyimportantroleintheseindustriesbecauseofdigitalequipmentneededisthedevelopmentofthemoderntrend.JudgingfromthecurrentNCTechnologyandtheworldviewofthetrendofthedevelopmentofequipment,anditsmainresearchfocusinthefollowingareas14.1.1highspeed,hightechnologyandequipmentfinishingthenewtrendEfficiency,andqualityisthemainbodyofadvancedmanufacturingtechnology.Highspeed,highfinishingtechnologiescangreatlyimprovetheefficiency,improveproductqualityandgrades,shorteningtheproductioncycleandimprovemarketcompetitiveness.ForthisreasonJapanwilltipitstechnologyresearchasfiveofthemodernmanufacturingtechnology,andinternationalproductionEngineeringSocietyCIRPwillbeidentifiedasthecenterofthe21stcenturyoneoftheresearchdirections.Inthecarindustry,theannualproductionof300,000is40secondsbeats/units,andcarvarietyprocessingequipmentisthekeyproblemsmustbesolvedoneoftheaviationandaerospaceindustry,processingformorethanthinwalledpartsandthethinline,stiffnesspoormaterialforaluminumoraluminumalloy,andonlyinhighcuttingspeedcuttingforcesmallcircumstances,canthesetendons,wallprocessing.Recentlyalargeoverallaluminumalloybilletshollowingoutapproachtomanufacturewings,fuselageandotherpartstoreplacelargenumberofpartsbymanyrivets,screwsandotherfoodstufftoconnecttothecomponentstrength,stiffnessandreliabilityhasbeenupgraded.Alloftheprocessingequipmenttothehighspeed,highprecisionandhighflexibilityrequirements.EMO2001showfromthepointofview,highspeedmachiningcenterstospeedupto80m/min,orevenhigher,airspeedof100m/minorso.Atpresentmanyoftheworldsautomobileplants,includingChinasShanghaiGeneralMotorsCorp.,havealreadybeenusedinhighspeedmachiningcenteroftheproductionlineofalternativecombinationsmachine.CINCINNATItheUnitedStatesHyperMachlargestmachinetooltospeedupto60m/min,andrapid100m/min,theaccelerationof2g,spindlespeedreached60000r/min.Athinwalledprocessingaircraftparts,only30min,andthesamehighspeedmillingmachinepartsinthegeneralprocessingtakes3h,inthegeneralmillingmachineprocessingto8hGermanyDMGsdualspindlelathespindlespeedandaccelerationrespectively12000r/mmand1g.Intheprocessingaccuracy,thepast10years,thegenerallevelofmachiningprecisionCNCmachinehasbeenraisedto10μm5μm,precisionmachiningcenterfrom3to5μm,andincreasedto11.5μm,andultraprecisionmachiningaccuracyhasenterednanotechnology0.01μm.InthereliabilityofforeignNCdeviceMTBFvaluehasreachedmorethan6000h,theservosystemMTBFvaluereachedmorethan30000h,showingveryhighreliability.Inordertoachievehighspeed,highfinishing,ancillarycomponentssuchasthespindle,linearmotorshavebeenrapiddevelopmentofapplicationareasfurtherexpanded.1.25axismachiningandcompositemachiningandrapiddevelopmentOna5axismachining3Dpartscanbethebesttoolforcuttinggeometry,andnotonlyfinishhigh,andalsogreatlyimproveefficiency.Generallybelievedthat,one5axismachinetoolscanbeequivalenttotheefficiencyof23axismachinetools,inparticulartheuseofcubicboronnitrideandothersuperhardmaterialsforhighspeedmillingcutterhardenedsteelcomponents,the5axismachiningcomparable3axisProcessingplayhigherefficiency.Butinthepastbecauseof5axisCNCsystem,hostofcomplexreasons,itspricethanthe3axisCNCmachinetoolisseveraltimeshigher,andthemoredifficultprogrammingtechnology,restrictedthe5axismachinetooldevelopment.Atpresent,duetotheemergenceofelectrospindle,andmaketheattainmentofthe5axismachiningspindleheadcompositestructuresubstantiallysimplifieditsmanufacturingdifficultiesandcostsloweredsignificantly,NCsystemnarrowingthepricegap.Thereforepromotionofthefirsttypeofspindle5axismachinetoolsandmachiningcomplexincluding5sidedmachiningdevelopment.InEMO2001exhibition,thenewJapan5sidedmachiningmachinetoolspindlefirstcompoundcanberealizedfourverticalplaneprocessingandtheprocessingofarbitraryangle,making5sidedmachiningand5axismachiningcanberealizedonthesamemachine,tiltedsurfacecanberealizedandinvertedconeprocessing.GermancompaniesatDMGDMUVoutionSeriesmachiningcenters,inafixtureof5sidedmachiningand5axismachining,CNCsystemcanbecontrolledorCAD/CAMdirectorindirectcontrol.1.3intelligent,open,networkbasedCNCsystem,asoneofthemajortrendsinthedevelopmentof21NCequipmentwillbeisacertainintelligentsystems,intelligentcontentincludedintheNCsysteminallaspectsthepursuitofprocessingefficiencyandthequalityoftheintelligentprocessing,suchastheadaptiveprocesscontrol,processAutomaticGenerationofparametersdrivetoimproveperformanceandtofacilitatetheuseoftheintelligentconnections,suchasfeedforwardcontrol,theelectricalparametersofadaptivecomputing,automaticidentificationloadautomaticallyselectedmodel,selftuning,etc.simplifyprogramming,simplifyingtheoperationIntelligent,suchasintelligentautomaticprogramming,andintelligenthumanmachineinterfacealsointelligentdiagnosis,intelligentmonitoringthecontentsofthesystemtofacilitatethediagnosisandmaintenance.ToaddressthetraditionalsystemofNCNCclosedandtheapplicationsoftwareindustryproductionexistingproblems.ManycountriestoopenCNCsystemsresearch,suchastheUnitedStatesofNGCTheNextGenerationWorkStation/MachineControl,theECOSACAOpenSystemArchitectureforControlwithinAutomationSystems,JapanOSECOpenSystemEnvironmentforController,ChinasONCOpenNumericalControlSystem.CNCsystemhasbecomeopenNCThefutureofthesystem.ThesocalledopenCNCsystemisthedevelopmentofCNCsystemcanberuninaunifiedplatform,andthemachinetoolmanufacturersandendusers,bychanging,addingortailoringofobjectsNCfunction,aserialization,andeasytothecustomersspecificapplicationandtechnicalknowhowtocontrolsystemintegration,rapidrealizationofdifferentvarieties,differentgradesofopenCNCsystemandformadistinctivebrandproducts.NCcurrentopensystemarchitecturenorms,communicationsspecification,thestandardconfiguration,operationplatform,thesystemfunctionsaswellasNCNCsystemsoftwaredevelopmenttools,andisthecoreofthecurrentstudy.NCnetworkequipmentinthelasttwoyearsinternationallyrenownedMachineToolExpositionofanewbrightspot.NCnetworkequipmentwillbegreattomeetproductionlines,manufacturingsystems,manufacturingenterpriseinformationintegrationneedsisanewmanufacturingparadigmasagilemanufacturing,virtualenterprise,thebasisofglobalmanufacturingunit.SomewellknownathomeandabroadCNCmachinetoolsandCNCsystemmanufacturingcompanyinthepasttwoyearsintroducedarelatednewconceptsandprototypes,suchasEMO2001exhibition,JapanYamasakifileMazakexhibitedCyberProductionCenterIntelligentProductionControlCenter,orCPC,JapanOkumaOkumamachinetoolcompaniesexhibitedtheITplazaInformationTechnologySquare,asITPlazaGermanysSiemens
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