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毕业设计论文外文资料翻译系别机电信息系专业机械设计制造及其自动化班级姓名学号外文出处ManufacturingEngineeringandTechnologyMachining附件1.原文2.译文2013年03月外文原文RobotmanipulatorsTheindustrialRobotmanipulatorisusedinthemanufacturingenvironmenttoincreaseproductivity.Itcanbeusedtodoroutineandtediousassemblylinejobs,oritcanperformjobsthatmightbehazardoustodoroutineandtediousassemblylinejobs,oritcanperformjobsthatmightbehazardoustothehumanworker.Forexample,oneofthefirstindustrialRobotmanipulatorswasusedtoreplacethenuclearfuelrodsinnuclearpowerplants.Ahumandoingthisjobmightbeexposedtoharmfulamountsofradiation.TheindustrialRobotmanipulatorcanalsooperateontheassemblyline,puttingtogethersmallcomponents,suchasplacingelectroniccomponentsonaprintedcircuitboard.Thus,thehumanworkercanberelievedoftheroutineoperationofthistedioustask.Robotmanipulatorscanalsobeprogrammedtodefusebombs,toservethehandicapped,andtoperformfunctionsinnumerousapplicationsinoursociety.TheRobotmanipulatorcanbethoughtofasamachinethatwillmoveanendofarmtool,sensor,andgrippertoapreprogrammedlocation.WhentheRobotmanipulatorarrivesatthislocation,itwillperformsomesortoftask.Thistaskcouldbewelding,sealing,machineloading,machineunloading,orahostofassemblyjobs.Generally,thisworkcanbeaccomplishedwithouttheinvolvementofahumanbeing,exceptforprogrammingandforturningthesystemonandoff.ThebasicterminologyofRobotmanipulatoricsystemsisintroducedinthefollowing1.ARobotmanipulatorisareprogrammable,multifunctionalmanipulatordesignedtomoveparts,materials,tools,orspecialdevicesthroughvariableprogrammedmotionsfortheperformanceofavarietyofdifferenttask.Thisbasicdefinitionleadstootherdefinitions,presentedinthefollowingparagraphs,thatgiveacompletepictureofaRobotmanipulatoricsystem.2.PreprogrammedlocationsarepathsthattheRobotmanipulatormustfollowtoaccomplishwork.Atsomeoftheselocations,theRobotmanipulatorwillstopandperformsomeoperation,suchasassemblyofparts,spraypainting,orwelding.ThesepreprogrammedlocationsarestoredintheRobotmanipulatorsmemoryandarerecalledlaterforcontinuousoperation.Furthermore,thesepreprogrammedlocations,aswellasotherprogramdata,canbechangedlaterastheworkrequirementschange.Thus,withregardtothisprogrammingfeature,anindustrialRobotmanipulatorisverymuchlikeacomputer,wheredatacanbestoredandlaterrecalledandedited.3.ThemanipulatoristhearmoftheRobotmanipulator.ItallowstheRobotmanipulatortobend,reach,andtwist.Thismovementisprovidedbythemanipulatorsaxes,alsocalledthedegreesoffreedomoftheRobotmanipulator.ARobotmanipulatorcanhavefrom3to16axes.ThetermdegreesoffreedomoffreedomwillalwaysrelatetothenumberofaxesfoundonaRobotmanipulator.4.ThetoolingandgrippersarenotpartoftheRobotmanipulatoricsystemitselfrather,theyareattachmentsthatfitontheendoftheRobotmanipulatorsarm.TheseattachmentsconnectedtotheendoftheRobotmanipulatorsarmallowtheRobotmanipulatortoliftparts,spotweld,paint,arcweld,drill,deburr,anddoavarietyoftasks,dependingonwhatisrequiredoftheRobotmanipulator.5.TheRobotmanipulatoricsystemcanalsocontroltheworkcelloftheoperatingRobotmanipulator.theworkcelloftheRobotmanipulatoristhetotalenvironmentinwhichtheRobotmanipulatormustperformitstask.Includedwithinthiscellmaybethecontroller,theRobotmanipulatormanipulator,aworktable,safetyfeatures,oraconveyor.AlltheequipmentthatisrequiredinorderfortheRobotmanipulatortodoitsjobisincludedintheworkcell.Inaddition,signalsfromoutsidedevicescancommunicatewiththeRobotmanipulatorinordertotelltheRobotmanipulatorwhenitshouldassembleparts,pickupparts,orunloadpartstoaconveyor.TheRobotmanipulatoricsystemhasthreebasiccomponentsthemanipulator,thecontroller,andthepowersource.A.ManipulatorThemanipulator,whichdoesthephysicalworkoftheRobotmanipulatoricsystem,consistsoftwosectionsthemechanicalsectionandtheattachedappendage.Themanipulatoralsohasabasetowhichtheappendagesareattached.Fig.1illustratestheconnectionofthebaseandtheappendageofaRobotmanipulator.Thebaseofthemanipulatorisusuallyfixedtotheflooroftheworkarea.Sometimes,though,thebasemaybemovable.Inthiscase,thebaseisattachedtoeitherarailoratrack,allowingthemanipulatortobemovedfromonelocationtoanother.Asmentionedpreviously,theappendageextendsfromthebaseoftheRobotmanipulator.TheappendageisthearmoftheRobotmanipulator.Itcanbeeitherastraight,movablearmorajointedarm.thejointedarmisalsoknownasanarticulatedarm.TheappendagesoftheRobotmanipulatormanipulatorgivethemanipulatoritsvariousaxesofmotion.Theseaxesareattachedtoafixedbase,which,inturn,issecuredtoamounting.Thismountingensuresthatthemanipulatorwillremaininonelocation。Attheendofthearm,awristisconnected.Thewristismadeupofadditionalaxesandawristflange.ThewristflangeallowstheRobotmanipulatorusertoconnectdifferenttoolingtothewristfordifferentjobs.Themanipulatorsaxesallowittoperformworkwithinacertainarea.ThisareaiscalledtheworkcelloftheRobotmanipulator,anditssizecorrespondstothesizeofthemanipulator.Fig.2illustratestheworkcellofatypicalassemblyRobotmanipulator.AstheRobotmanipulatorsphysicalsizeincreases,thesizeoftheworkcellmustalsoincrease.Themovementofthemanipulatoriscontrolledbyactuators,ordrivesystems.Theactuators,ordrivesystem,allowsthevariousaxestomovewithintheworkcell.Thedrivesystemcanuseelectric,hydraulic,orpneumaticpower.Theenergydevelopedbythedrivesystemisconvertedtomechanicalpowerbyvariousmechanicaldrivesystems.Thedrivesystemsarecoupledthroughmechanicallinkages.Theselinkages,inturn,drivethedifferentaxesoftheRobotmanipulator.Themechanicallinkagesmaybecomposedofchains,gears,andballscrews.B.ControllerThecontrollerintheRobotmanipulatoricsystemistheheartoftheoperation.Thecontrollerstorespreprogrammedinformationforlaterrecall,controlperipheraldevices,andcommunicateswithcomputerswithintheplantforconstantupdatesinproductionThecontrollersisusedtocontroltheRobotmanipulatormanipulatorsmovementsaswellastocontrolperipheralcomponentswithintheworkcell.Theusercanprogramthemovementsofthemanipulatorintothecontrollerthroughtheuseofahandheldteachpendent.Thisinformationisstoredinthememoryofthecontrollerforlaterrecall.ThecontrollerstoresallprogramdataoftheRobotmanipulatoricsystem.Itcanstoreseveraldifferentprograms,andanyoftheseprogramscanbeedited.Thecontrollerisalsorequiredtocommunicatewithperipheralequipmentwithintheworkcell.Forexample,thecontrollerhasaninputlinethatidentifieswhenamachiningoperationiscompleted.Whenthemachinecycleiscompleted,theinputlineturnson,tellingthecontrollertopositionthemanipulatorsothatitcanpickupthefinishedpart.Then,anewpartispickedupbythemanipulatorandplacedintothemachine.Next,thecontrollersignalsthemachinetostartoperation.Thecontrollercanbemadefrommechanicallyoperateddrumsthatstepthroughasequenceofevents.ThistypeofcontrolleroperateswithaverysimpleRobotmanipulatoricsystem.ThecontrollersfoundonthemajorityofRobotmanipulatoricsystemsaremorecomplexdevicesandrepresentstateoftheartelectronics.Thatis,theyaremicroprocessoroperated.Thesemicroprocessorsareeither8bit,16bit,or32bitprocessors.Thispowerallowsthecontrollertobeveryflexibleinitsoperation.Thecontrollercansendelectricsignalsovercommunicationlinesthatallowittotalkwiththevariousaxesofmanipulator.ThistwowaycommunicationbetweentheRobotmanipulatormanipulatorandthecontrollermaintainsaconstantupdateofthelocationandtheoperationofthesystem.ThecontrolleralsocontrolsanytoolingplacedontheendoftheRobotmanipulatorswrist.Thecontrolleralsohasthejobofcommunicatingwiththedifferentplantcomputers.ThecommunicationlinkestablishestheRobotmanipulatoraspartofacomputerassistedmanufacturingCAMsystem.Asthebasicdefinitionstated,theRobotmanipulatorisareprogrammable,multifunctionalmanipulator.Therefore,thecontrollermustcontainsometypeofmemorystorage.Themicroprocessorbasedsystemsoperateinconjunctionwithsolidstatememorydevices.Thesememorydevicesmaybemagneticbubbles,randomaccessmemory,floppydisks,ormagnetictape.Eachmemorystoragedevicestoresprograminformationforlaterrecallorforediting.C.PowersupplyThepowersupplyistheunitthatsuppliespowertothecontrollerandthemanipulator.TwotypesofpoweraredeliveredtotheRobotmanipulatoricsystem.OnetypeofpoweristheACpowerforoperationofthecontroller.Theothertypeofpowerisusedfordrivingthevariousaxesofthemanipulator.Forexample,iftheRobotmanipulatormanipulatoridcontrolledbyhydraulicorpneumaticmanipulatordrives,controlsignalsaresenttothesedevices,causingmotionoftheRobotmanipulator.ForeachRobotmanipulatoricsystem,powerisrequiredtooperatethemanipulator.Thispowercanbedevelopedfromeitherahydraulicpowersource,apneumaticpowersource,oranelectricpowersource,ThesepowersourcesarepartofthetotalcomponentsoftheRobotmanipulatoricworkcell.
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