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MIXINGCASESANDMODELEXPERIMENTSFOODORBIOLOGICALMACROMOLECULES,UNLIKECHEMICALPOLYMER,MOSTCOMPONENTSINCLUDINGCARBOHYDRATES,ESTERS,FIBERANDWATERINPRINCIPLE,EACHTYPEOFFOODMATERIALSISAUNIQUEPRODUCTANDITSVISCOSITYTHISMEANSMIXOFFOODINGREDIENTSFULLYISDIFFICULTTODESIGNITALSOMEANSTHATEVERYSUCCESSFULDESIGNISONEKINDOFTAILORMADEPRODUCTSORMODELSINEXPERIMENTALMETHODINTHEPASTTENYEARSHAVESOLVEDMANYPARTICLESFORTSEANDSSEFOODINGREDIENTSTHESESPECIFICINSTANCESOFMIXEDTELLSUSTHATIMPROVEMIXINGCANCREATEABETTERANDMOREHOMOGENEOUSPRODUCTSTHISISRESEARCHDIEFASTMIXINGELEMENTSIMPACTONTHEMODELEXPERIMENTTOEXPLOREHOWTOBETTERUNDERSTANDTHEIRABILITYTOMIX31CASEOFSUCROSECRYSTALMELTINGSSETRADITIONALCANDYINDUSTRIALWATERATPRESETTEMPERATUREDISSOLVEDSUCROSECRYSTALPARTICLES6THEMELTINTHEMOLDCOSTALOTOFTIMEANDENERGYINTHEDEHYDRATIONSUGARINTHISCASETHEWATERINTHEBASEDIFFUSIONRATEISVERYLOW,SOVERYSLOWEVAPORATIONITWILLALSOATTRACTWEDEVELOPEDANEWEVAPORATIONMETHODTOMAKETHEMOISTURECONTENTOFRAWMATERIALSDOWNTOCLOSETOTHEFINALPRODUCT,FORTHISPROCESSTODESIGNANEWSCREWMIXINGEXTRUDER27INTHISCASETHEMOSTECONOMICALSSEEXTRUDERDESIGNISOUTOFTHEFEEDINGOFSUCROSECRYSTALPARTICLESBEYONDTHEDESIGNSCHEMEOFANYEXCESSWATER311EXPERIMENTALUSEDFORMELTINGDRYSUGARSOLIDPARTICLESOFDOUBLESCREWEXTRUSIONMACHINEFOUNDATIONDESIGN,THISDESIGNCANCOMPLETEMELTINGKNOWNOSCATTEREDCRYSTALSBATTENFELDSINGLESCREWEXTRUDERD50103M,L/D12,WALLTHICKNESS4MM,THESCREWCOMPRESSIONRATIO3,SPEED80OFSUCROSESOLIDSSPRAYDRYING,AMIXTUREOFSUCROSEANDGLUCOSEPARTICLES11TODEALWITHBOTHCOPPERANDCOBALTTHERMOCOUPLEMEASURINGTEMPERATUREDISTRIBUTION,THEDISTRIBUTIONISAKINDOFMICROCOSMICEVALUATION,USINGDISTANCEMEASURINGINPUTPOWER,ACCORDINGTOTHEINTERNATIONALCAMELVALUECOMPARISONMETHODMEASURINGTHEQUALITYANDPERCOLOR。312RESULTSANDDISCUSSIONPHENOMENON,THELIMITATIONSOFTHESUCROSECRYSTALMELTINGDURINGWHICHEXISTSINTHETWOTHIRDSOFSPIRALLEVEL,SUCROSECRYSTALSHAVENOTMIXEDWITHOTHERTHINGSHERE,THISKINDOFPHENOMENONINEACHUNINTERRUPTEDHAVEEXISTEDINTHESINGLESCREWEXTRUDER,HEATTRANSFEROFCYLINDERISPOORER,THEREFORE,THATMEANSTIMECONSUMINGMELTINGPROCESSCANNOTBEMIXEDELEMENTALLOCATIONINMATERIALEXTRUSIONINTHECHOICE,INTHISCASETHESOCALLEDEXTRUSIONDIEHEADPROVIDESASOLUTIONSOCALLEDTHEMIXEDFUNCTIONOFEXTRUSIONDIEHEADISDISTRIBUTIONOFFLOW,ANDTHEREMAININGSOLIDCRYSTALSSCATTEREDINTHETHERMALBOUNDARYLAYERONTHESURFACEOFTHECYLINDERBODY,SOLIDCRYSTALWILLSLOWLYMELTINTHERMALBOUNDARYLAYERNOWREALIZEALOTOFSCATTEREDMELTISACHIEVABLE,BUTTHEL/DRATIOISINCREASEDFROM12TO16,EVENIFTHEEMERGENCEOFTHEMELTWILLPREVENTEXTRUSIONMACHINESPUSHINTHEMATERIALSSSETHROUGHPUTISPLACEDINACAREFULLYCRAFTEDSOLIDFEEDAREADECIDEDTO7,THISDESIGNLETFEEDONLYBYTHROUGHTHECLEARANCEOFSCREWANDBARRELFIGURE7SHOWSTHESTEPBYSTEPDEVELOPMENTOFWORKFROMSTARTTOENDTOTHEPROCESSOFMELTINGANDMELTTEMPERATUREDISTRIBUTIONMEASUREMENT32CASEOFBREAKFASTCEREALPRODUCTIONCOUNTERROTATINGTSEUSEDINTHEPRODUCTIONOFBREAKFASTCEREALS,ROTATETSEISAVERYATTRACTIVEAPIECEOFEQUIPMENTTHATWORKINSUCHAMANNERDUETOITSLOWSHEARFORCETOENSURETHEINTEGRITYOFTHESTARCHPARTICLE,THEYHAVEGOODWATERABSORPTIONPERFORMANCEAFTERHEATTREATMENTSOITISNECESSARYTOEXECUTEELEMENTRATHERTHANTHEDISTRIBUTIONOFTHEDISPERSEDELEMENTSOFHYBRID,THISISREFERREDTOINSECTION23INTSEMIXTURECANPROVOKESLOTTEDSCREWDESIGN,WHENROTATINGTSESLOTTEDSCREWPRODUCTIONBREAKFASTCEREAL,THEFLOWOFFOODPARTICLESBETWEENTHEADJACENTSCREWABOLTANDFORCEDMIXINGANDFLOW321EXPERIMENTALEXTRUDERISUSINGATAPEREDROTARYEXTRUDINGMACHINEBYTHECINCINNATIMILACRONCREATE45TYPECMA,BREAKFASTCEREALANDTHEIDEALHEIGHTOFCOLDPASTEVISCOSITYCPVMANUFACTUREDBYCOARSEFLOURASASUBSTITUTEFORTRADITIONALDRUMDRYPRODUCTFIG7STARTANDFINALRESULTOFAMULTIPLESTEPSSEDEVELOPMENTFORMELTINGOFSUCROSERGLUCOSEMIXTURESMACHINEUSEAVERAGEL/D15EIGHTHOLES,MOLDMATERIALIS4MMINDIAMETER,ONTHEWATERCONTENTOF25FEEDCAPACITYIS100KG/HOFMATERIALDURINGPRODUCTIONWENEEDSCREWVICESPEEDOF80R/MINGROOVEOFSCREWTHREELENGTHSL1,L2,L3INTHEPOSITIONOFTHESECONDPARAGRAPHSTRUCTUREINTOTHREESCREWSPARAGRAPHSLENGTHL12X55MM,L2,L32X110MM,2X165MMPRODUCTSAMPLEANDTHEDESIGNOFTHESCREWISUSEDTODETERMINETHEVISCOSITYONCOLDPASTEANDHOTHIGHCPVCANPROVIDEBETTERBREAKFASTCEREALSSCOOPCAPACITY,NAMELYHASGOODADHESIVENESSTOREPRESENTVISCOSITYDATAUSINGTHESOCALLEDTEMPERATURETIMEDRIVENBRUNTONVISCOMETER,ANDBLAHUNITOFMEASUREMENTTHELIMITINGPHENOMENONDURINGMELTINGINANSSE,ISTHEEXISTENCEOFASTATIONARYLAYERAT2R3OFTHESCREWCHANNELHEIGHTŽRELATEDTOTHESCREWROOT,WHERESUCROSECRYSTALSREMAINPRESENTWITHOUTADDITIONALMIXINGTHISISAPROPERTYOFEACHSINGLESCREWEXTRUDERPROVIDEDWITHANONINTERRUPTEDSCREWCHANNELTHEHEATPENETRATIONRATEFROMTHEBARRELISLOW,DUETOTHISPHENOMENON,WHICHMEANSTHATTHETIMECONSUMINGMELTINGPROCESSCANNOTBEPERFORMEDINTHEAVAILABLERESIDENCETIMETHESELECTIONOFADISTRIBUTIVEMIXINGELEMENT,INTHISCASEASOCALLEDPINEAPPLEHEAD,GAVETHESOLUTIONTHEMIXINGFUNCTIONOFTHESOCALLEDPINEAPPLEHEADISTODISTRIBUTETHEFLOWANDTOBRINGTHEREMAININGSOLIDSEEDINGCRYSTALSTOTHEHOTBOUNDARYLAYERATTHEINNERSURFACEOFTHEBARREL,WHERETHEYWILLMELT322RESULTSANDDISCUSSION3221FLOWPHENOMENONBETWEENKNEADINGPADDLEANDINVERSIONELEMENTHASANOBVIOUSDIFFERENCEINMOTION,INALLINVESTIGATIONTHESETPOINTOFSTAGNATIONDUETOREVERSECOURSEELEMENTSTOBENOTICEDCANCLEARLYSEETHETRACERPARTICLESBEFOREFURTHERAXIALTRANSPORTTIMEISONIRREGULARMOVEMENTTHISISCONDUCTEDINTHEABSENCEOFKNEADINGPADDLE,MIXEDINTHESETTINGOFSTAGNATIONPOINTTHEREISNOTENOUGH,FORTHEFIRSTKNEADINGPADDLEFLOWEFFECTWEGIVEADIAGRAMFIGURE11INEXTRUSION,MIXINGOFSOLIDSANDMELTSHASALWAYSBEENPROBLEMATIC,LEADINGTODIVERSEMODELSDESCRIBINGTHEMELTINGPROCESSITISFOUNDTHATFORFOODSBASEDONCEREALS,ONLYAFEWAREVALID,DUETOTHESIMULTANEOUSPRESENCEOFWATERANDHIGHVISCOUSNONNEWTONIANMATERIALMIXINGTRIALSARESUMMARISEDFORSINGLEANDTWINSCREWEXTRUDERS,WITHPARTICULATESOLIDSOFDIFFERENTPARTICLESIZESLIKE,MAIZEGRITS,WHEATFLOUR,SUCROSECRYSTALSANDGLUCOSESYRUPSPECIALMIXINGHEADSFORSINGLESCREWEXTRUDERSLIKE,PINEAPPLEHEADS,ANDSLOTTEDFLIGHTSECTIONSFORCOUNTERROTATINGTWINSCREWEXTRUDERSAREINVESTIGATEDTHEEFFECTSOFSCREWGEOMETRYONMIXINGHASBEENMEASUREDUSINGCOROTATINGTWINSCREWEXTRUDERMODULARELEMENTSLIKESINGLELEADELEMENTS,MIXINGPADDLESANDREVERSEDPITCHELEMENTSINATRANSLUCENTMODELEXTRUDERBYMEANSOFASTUDYOFFLOWPHENOMENAANDRESIDENCETIMEDISTRIBUTIONRTDMEASUREMENTSMIXINGEFFECTSAREREPORTEDANDTHEIRINFLUENCESONVISCOUSDISSIPATION,RESIDENCETIME,CURVESPREADANDSTAGNANCYAREEXPLAINED1999ELSEVIERSCIENCESAALLRIGHTSRESERVEDWHENFOODPARTICLESDURINGTHEIRLIFETIMEINANEXTRUDERARESUBJECTEDTOAXIALMIXING,THISCANBESEENANDMEASUREDBYACHANGINGRTDEXTREMESINTHISCASEAREPLUGFLOW,WHEREALLPARTICLESHAVETHESAMERESIDENCETIME,ORAWIDERTDWHICHISCAUSEDBYAXIALMIXINGSOMEPARTICLESWILLSTAYINTHEEXTRUDERCOOKERFORAPROCESSTIMESHORTERTHANTHEAVERAGE,WHILSTOTHERSWILLDWELLFORMUCHLONGERTHANTHEAVERAGEWHENDIFFERENTFLOWSYSTEMSARECOMPILEDSEEFIG2FIG3SHOWSTHETHEORETICALRTDFORAMATERIALWITHACOEFFICIENTNS1INTHEPOWERLAWEQUATIONFORTHESHEARDEPENDENCYOFTHEVISCOSITYINANSSETHISFIGUREALSOSHOWSTHERTDDATA,MEASUREDWHENPROCESSINGCORNGRITSINABATTENFELDSSEATTWOMOISTUREY1CONTENTSVS0142,020KGKGANDSCREWREVOLUWY1WXTIONSRANGINGFROMNS133,166,20REVS22THERTDDATAAREREPRESENTEDASAN‘CUMULATIVEEXITAGE’ORFFUNCTION,WHICHSHOWSTHEFRACTIONFOFTHEINFLOW,WXWHICHHASLEFTTHEEXTRUDERAFTERTSECONDS3,4,16THEEFUNCTION,THEDERIVATIVEOFTHEFFUNCTION,SHOWSTHESOCALLED‘EXITAGE’DISTRIBUTIONOFFOODPARTICLES,FEDINTOTHEEXTRUDERATANINFINITESMALLTIMEANDISRELATEDTOTHEFFUNCTIONWITHTFTSETDT1H0THEAVERAGERESIDENCETIMETOFTHEFOODMATERIALINTHECOOKINGEXTRUDERISCALCULATEDWITHTSTETDT2HWHENTHEFFUNCTIONINFIG3ISOBSERVED,ITFOLLOWSTHATMOSTOFTHECORNGRITSHAVEANEXITAGEBETWEENTANDT,0WHEREAST3R4TTHESEMEASUREMENTSSHOWTHATFORA0SINGLESCREWEXTRUDERTHEREISASTRONGINFLUENCEOFTHEMOISTURECONTENTANDTHENUMBEROFREVOLUTIONSOFTHESCREWONTHESHAPEOFTHEFFUNCTIONANDTHEBREAKTHROUGHWXPOINT3THEOPERATINGPRINCIPLEOFTWINSCREWEXTRUDERSCANBEDESCRIBEDWITHTHEEXISTENCEOFTWOPARALLELSERIESOFCONTINUOUSLYSTIRREDTANKREACTORSCSTR,WHEREEACHWXCSHAPEDCHAMBERREPRESENTSSUCHACSTR13INDEPENDENTTHREADELEMENTANDBEFORETHEVISCOSITYANDSPEEDOFMEASUREMENTONTHELOWPRESSURESIDEOFTHEBLADE,FIGURE11WHENTHESITUATIONISONTHEFIRSTFLOWANDSPIRALAROUNDTHEBLADEWITHTHEBLADESATTHETOPOFTHELINENEXTISONTHEHIGHVOLTAGESIDEOFLOWPRESSURESIDEOFTHEBLADEFLOWALONGTHEDIRECTIONOFTHENETFLOWSACCORDINGTOTHEVISCOSITYOFTHEFLUIDANDTHESPEEDOFTHEEXTRUDER,THESCREWCANEVENSCREWINFRONTOFTHEMATERIALFLOWINTOTHECHANNELTRANSMISSION
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