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MixingcasesandmodelexperimentsFoodorbiologicalmacromolecules,unlikechemicalpolymer,mostcomponentsincludingcarbohydrates,esters,fiberandwater.Inprinciple,eachtypeoffoodmaterialsisauniqueproductanditsviscosity.Thismeansmixoffoodingredientsfullyisdifficulttodesignitalsomeansthateverysuccessfuldesignisonekindoftailormadeproductsormodels.InexperimentalmethodinthepasttenyearshavesolvedmanyparticlesforT.S.EandS.S.Efoodingredients.Thesespecificinstancesofmixedtellsusthatimprovemixingcancreateabetterandmorehomogeneousproducts.Thisisresearchdiefastmixingelementsimpactonthemodelexperimenttoexplorehowtobetterunderstandtheirabilitytomix.3.1.Caseofsucrosecrystalmeltings.s.e.Traditionalcandyindustrialwateratpresettemperaturedissolvedsucrosecrystalparticles6.Themeltinthemoldcostalotoftimeandenergyinthedehydration.Sugarinthiscasethewaterinthebasediffusionrateisverylow,soveryslowevaporation.Itwillalsoattractwedevelopedanewevaporationmethodtomakethemoisturecontentofrawmaterialsdowntoclosetothefinalproduct,forthisprocesstodesignanewscrewmixingextruder27.InthiscasethemosteconomicalS.S.Eextruderdesignisoutofthefeedingofsucrosecrystalparticlesbeyondthedesignschemeofanyexcesswater.3.1.1.ExperimentalUsedformeltingdrysugarsolidparticlesofdoublescrewextrusionmachinefoundationdesign,thisdesigncancompletemeltingknownoscatteredcrystals.BattenfeldsinglescrewextruderD50103m,L/D12,wallthickness4mm,thescrewcompressionratio3,speed80ofsucrosesolidsspraydrying,amixtureofsucroseandglucoseparticles11todealwithbothcopperandcobaltthermocouplemeasuringtemperaturedistribution,thedistributionisakindofmicrocosmicevaluation,usingdistancemeasuringinputpower,accordingtotheinternationalcamelvaluecomparisonmethodmeasuringthequalityandpercolor。3.1.2.ResultsanddiscussionPhenomenon,thelimitationsofthesucrosecrystalmeltingduringwhichexistsinthetwothirdsofspirallevel,sucrosecrystalshavenotmixedwithotherthingshere,thiskindofphenomenonineachuninterruptedhaveexistedinthesinglescrewextruder,heattransferofcylinderispoorer,therefore,thatmeanstimeconsumingmeltingprocesscannotbemixedelementallocationinmaterialextrusioninthechoice,inthiscasethesocalledextrusiondieheadprovidesasolution.Socalledthemixedfunctionofextrusiondieheadisdistributionofflow,andtheremainingsolidcrystalsscatteredinthethermalboundarylayeronthesurfaceofthecylinderbody,solidcrystalwillslowlymeltinthermalboundarylayer.Nowrealizealotofscatteredmeltisachievable,buttheL/Dratioisincreasedfrom12to16,eveniftheemergenceofthemeltwillpreventextrusionmachinespushinthematerials.S.S.E.throughputisplacedinacarefullycraftedsolidfeedareadecidedto7,thisdesignletfeedonlybythroughtheclearanceofscrewandbarrel.Figure7showsthestepbystepdevelopmentofworkfromstarttoendtotheprocessofmeltingandmelttemperaturedistributionmeasurement.3.2.Caseofbreakfastcerealproductioncounterrotatingt.s.e.Usedintheproductionofbreakfastcereals,rotateT.S.E.isaveryattractiveapieceofequipmentthatworkinsuchamannerduetoitslowshearforcetoensuretheintegrityofthestarchparticle,theyhavegoodwaterabsorptionperformanceafterheattreatment.Soitisnecessarytoexecuteelementratherthanthedistributionofthedispersedelementsofhybrid,thisisreferredtoinsection2.3inT.S.Emixturecanprovokeslottedscrewdesign,whenrotatingT.S.E.slottedscrewproductionbreakfastcereal,theflowoffoodparticlesbetweentheadjacentscrewaboltandforcedmixingandflow.3.2.1.ExperimentalExtruderisusingataperedrotaryextrudingmachinebytheCincinnatiMilacroncreate45typeCMA,breakfastcerealandtheidealheightofcoldpasteviscosityCPVmanufacturedbycoarseflourasasubstitutefortraditionaldrumdryproduct.Fig.7.Startandfinalresultofamultiplesteps.s.e.developmentformeltingofsucroserglucosemixtures.MachineuseaverageL/D15eightholes,moldmaterialis4mmindiameter,onthewatercontentof25feedcapacityis100kg/hofmaterialduringproductionweneedscrewvicespeedof80r/min.GrooveofscrewthreelengthsL1,L2,L3inthepositionofthesecondparagraphstructureintothreescrews.ParagraphslengthL12x55mm,L2,L32x110mm,2x165mm.Productsampleandthedesignofthescrewisusedtodeterminetheviscosityoncoldpasteandhot.HighCPVcanprovidebetterbreakfastcerealsscoopcapacity,namelyhasgoodadhesiveness.Torepresentviscositydatausingthesocalledtemperaturetimedrivenbruntonviscometer,andblahunitofmeasurement.Thelimitingphenomenonduringmeltinginans.s.e.,istheexistenceofastationarylayerat2r3ofthescrewchannelheightŽrelatedtothescrewroot,wheresucrose.crystalsremainpresentwithoutadditionalmixing.Thisisapropertyofeachsinglescrewextruderprovidedwithanoninterruptedscrewchannel.Theheatpenetrationratefromthebarrelislow,duetothisphenomenon,whichmeansthatthetimeconsumingmeltingprocesscannotbeperformedintheavailableresidencetime.Theselectionofadistributivemixingelement,inthiscaseasocalledpineapplehead,gavethesolution.Themixingfunctionofthesocalledpineappleheadistodistributetheflowandtobringtheremainingsolidseedingcrystalstothehotboundarylayerattheinnersurfaceofthebarrel,wheretheywillmelt.3.2.2.Resultsanddiscussion3.2.2.1FlowphenomenonBetweenkneadingpaddleandinversionelementhasanobviousdifferenceinmotion,inallinvestigationthesetpointofstagnationduetoreversecourseelementstobenoticed.Canclearlyseethetracerparticlesbeforefurtheraxialtransporttimeisonirregularmovement.Thisisconductedintheabsenceofkneadingpaddle,mixedinthesettingofstagnationpointthereisnotenough,forthefirstkneadingpaddlefloweffectwegiveadiagramfigure11Inextrusion,mixingofsolidsandmeltshasalwaysbeenproblematic,leadingtodiversemodelsdescribingthemeltingprocess.Itisfoundthatforfoodsbasedoncereals,onlyafewarevalid,duetothesimultaneouspresenceofwaterandhighviscousnonNewtonianmaterial.Mixingtrialsaresummarisedforsingleandtwinscrewextruders,withparticulatesolidsofdifferentparticlesizeslike,maizegrits,wheatflour,sucrosecrystalsandglucosesyrup.Specialmixingheadsforsinglescrewextruderslike,pineappleheads,andslottedflightsectionsforcounterrotatingtwinscrewextrudersareinvestigated.Theeffectsofscrewgeometryonmixinghasbeenmeasuredusingcorotatingtwinscrewextrudermodularelementslikesingleleadelements,mixingpaddlesandreversedpitchelementsinatranslucentmodelextruderbymeansofastudyofflowphenomenaandresidencetimedistributionRTDmeasurements.Mixingeffectsarereportedandtheirinfluencesonviscousdissipation,residencetime,curvespreadandstagnancyareexplained.1999ElsevierScienceS.A.Allrightsreserved.Whenfoodparticlesduringtheirlifetimeinanextruderaresubjectedtoaxialmixing,thiscanbeseenandmeasuredbyachangingRTD.Extremesinthiscaseareplugflow,whereallparticleshavethesameresidencetime,orawideRTDwhichiscausedbyaxialmixing.Someparticleswillstayintheextrudercookerforaprocesstimeshorterthantheaverage,whilstotherswilldwellformuchlongerthantheaveragewhendifferentflowsystemsarecompiledseeFig.2.Fig.3showsthetheoreticalRTDforamaterialwithacoefficientns1inthepowerlawequationforthesheardependencyoftheviscosityinans.s.e.ThisfigurealsoshowstheRTDdata,measuredwhenprocessingcorngritsinaBattenfelds.s.e.attwomoisturey1.contentsvs0.142,0.20kgkgandscrewrevoluwy1wxtionsrangingfromNs1.33,1.66,2.0revs22.TheRTDdataarerepresentedasancumulativeexitageorFfunction,whichshowsthefractionFoftheinflow,wxwhichhaslefttheextruderaftertseconds3,4,16.TheEfunction,thederivativeoftheFfunction,showsthesocalledexitagedistributionoffoodparticles,fedintotheextruderataninfinitesmalltimeandisrelatedtotheFfunctionwithtFtsEtdt1H0TheaverageresidencetimetofthefoodmaterialinthecookingextruderiscalculatedwithtstEtdt.2HWhentheFfunctioninFig.3isobserved,itfollowsthatmostofthecorngritshaveanexitagebetweentandt,0whereast3r4t.Thesemeasurementsshowthatfora0singlescrewextruderthereisastronginfluenceofthemoisturecontentandthenumberofrevolutionsofthescrewontheshapeoftheFfunctionandthebreakthroughwxpoint3.TheoperatingprincipleoftwinscrewextruderscanbedescribedwiththeexistenceoftwoparallelseriesofContinuouslyStirredTankReactorsCSTR,whereeachwxCshapedchamberrepresentssuchaCSTR13.Independentthreadelementandbeforetheviscosityandspeedofmeasurementonthelowpressuresideoftheblade,figure11whenthesituationisonthefirstflowandspiralaroundthebladewiththebladesatthetopoftheline.Nextisonthehighvoltagesideoflowpressuresideofthebladeflowalongthedirectionofthenetflows.Accordingtotheviscosityofthefluidandthespeedoftheextruder,thescrewcanevenscrewinfrontofthematerialflowintothechanneltransmission
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